Impact of Globalization on School Leadership in the US


Published on - from a Conversation on Global Education video series - for the accompanying video see - is an online community for education leaders around the world

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Welcome to the first presentation in our series. I’m delighted that you could join us today. I will be speaking to you about the impact of globalization on our schools, and at the end of my presentation we will have time for a short question and answer session.
  • [Diane to add script]
  • Storyline: We are at a time of change, and a time of challenge: socially, economically, and globally.
  • We know that globalization is about change. But it need not be change that’s forced upon us or change that we’re helpless to influence. There are two forces that can direct and control the impact of this change: education and the internet. Through education, we can change the way we connect to the larger economy – connect ourselves, our workforce and our communities. We can use the internet to open up new economic and social opportunities that before were impossible. And we can use these two forces together to create new hope for access and equity across the globe.
  • So as a result of these internal and external pressures at a macro level we see the role globalization plays on driving change in the need for improved access, equity, and quality of education. But globalization also has an impact at the community level as we see that it makes trade easier that in turn makes capital more mobile. This mobility results in a shift of economic wealth through the creation and loss of jobs in various economies as capital seeks lower or more productive markets to seek a return on investment. The result is a pressure to increase access and equity of wealth and opportunity in nations; both who are gaining and/or losing jobs. I say and/or because within an economy there is often a shift from lower wage/lower skilled jobs to higher wage/higher skilled jobs as capital moves. This intern increases the demand from business for more productive and skilled workers and increased the demand from citizens for increased access to those skills. In each case the focus is placed on education to meet those access, capacity, skills, and equity issues. Pressure on Schools and systems to: Do more Reach More Achieve More So why does this matter? Simply put: Education systems are at the intersection of the development of financial capital and human capital. As we have seen, education systems are under pressure from citizens to improve access to social and economic opportunities in a global community. It is under pressure to operate with higher quality and efficiency to produce graduates who can meet the needs of a changing economy in which capital is highly mobile. As such, government policy makers, need to look at those factors that impact a nation’s competitiveness to ensure both social inclusion and economic progress. In short, we need to look at the education system itself in order to ensure it is functioning in a way that meets the changing needs of the economy and community.
  • Storyline: Maybe this is not all that surprising. After a decade of school reform, we are still seeing rather tepid results. While systems like Canada, Australia, Japan, Korea and the UK continue to make gains, the US lags behind. While near the middle of the pack in terms of overall achievement, there is a looming concern about how well our system will compete with emerging systems that are employing new technology to help their students leapfrog forward. Will this impact our ability to maintain our competitive advantage as a leading developed nation? The US system is stagnating and is being leapfrogged over. As we look to the US government to make an unprecedented investment in American schools we need to think about how best to apply those investments to ensure they help American students compete and be more productive citizens as we emerge from the recession. We looked at the science scores of OECD nations and paired nations from the 2006 PISA study. At that time we were examining the stratification of education based on Socio-economic status. However the chart shows an additional and interesting trend, namely the ability for those developing and emerging nations represented in blue to leapfrog into the top right quadrant through the use of improved pedagogical, curriculum, and technological skills. In fact a recent study undertaken by the Oxford Said School of Business has developed an index to track this ability to potentially leapfrog in education by looking at broadband access and quality as it pertains to the single biggest innovation the net is providing, the opportunity to use it for video based collaboration and learning. BRIC countries are identified as having potential, but clearly having infrastructure challenges to overcome. Imagine the impact if the technology kept pace with the pedagogical change we see here. Then truly leapfrogging, because of the change in leadership paradigm to 3.0 thinking could occur.
  • Storyline: Interestingly, the US system “overall” is not suffering. Rather it is the significant disparities in the system that cause it to underperform. The sizable difference between states, between rural and urban students, the differences in achievement based on socio-economic and racial issues continue to hold back the true ability of the system to perform. A look at the internal challenges that can cause a nation to lag. An interesting example of the US in which its inefficiency and lack of uniform excellence draws down its overall national rankings.
  • Storyline: In the US election, although sometimes eclipsed by the talk about the economy, there was a strong undercurrent of support for change in the way education was moving. A recognition that American education needed to change to provide American students with a better set of options and outcomes. The US election presented voters with a choice of visions for education that would address these needs. Education, as it is often, was not a vote-determining issue. While given some profile in the campaign, American voters largely made their choices based on the state of the economy, with AP reporting exit polls showing nearly 6 in 10 voters considered this issue as helping determining their vote and choice. That is not to say that there is not broad support for education change.
  • Storyline: Today, after the election there remain differing views about how best to accomplish that, but there is a relatively uniform desire to make change and make sure today’s students are better prepared for tomorrow’s workforce and community demands. That expectation of change is strong, and while the need for change is underscored by the changes to our economy, the ability to deliver that change is tempered by the tight budgets states and districts find themselves dealing with. US education policy is being shaped by two major issues are impacting the US today: the expectation of change for a “better tomorrow” as evidenced by the election and mandate of the new Obama Administration; and, the reality of tighter financial budgets as a result of diminished state revenues and the consequences of the global financial situation. Since 2006, the policy debate in education in the US has shifted from one of shaping and mitigating impacts of existing programs like No Child Left Behind (NCLB) to a broader debate about improving the overall competitiveness of the education system through narrowing of achievement gaps, improved teaching and assessment of core skills and competencies, and a desire to move from one of small scale innovation to larger scale replication of what works
  • That expectation for change is driving by concern that our schools today are not doing a bad job, but not necessarily doing enough to equipping our students with the skills they need to succeed. Certainly people think their local schools are better than those across the nation, but after nearly a decade of target programs to change assessment and accountability systems still barely half of Americans think that the education system is headed in the right direction. Sadly, more Americans have faith in the post office than the public school system as a service provider. In the Spring of 2008, Education Next and the Harvard University based Program on Education Policy and Governance (PEPG) commissioned a poll of 3200 American adults to survey their opinions on current education policy. The polling shows that Americans are generally divided on the overall direction of American schools. While 56% agree they are headed in the right direction, a corresponding 44% disagree. This holds true for ethnic/racial crosstabs. The poll also found general, albeit somewhat tepid, satisfaction with the national school system. Perhaps not surprisingly, people thought more highly of their own local schools than they did of the nation’s schools as a whole. These sort of difference usually provide insight about the general perception of the schools (as indicated nationally) versus the specific practice of education (as indicated locally). From the survey we can see a fairly significant difference between perception and practice at the policy level in that the satisfaction with local schools (those people giving the schools an “A” or “B” grade) is nearly double the satisfaction level for the national system. It is worth noting that while Hispanic and African-American respondents were likely to be more critical of schools both locally and nationally, although the general trends of greater satisfaction with local institutions holds true in all groups. What is more troubling from the polling is the general comparison with how the schools compare with other public services in terms of satisfaction. The poll shows that they fall substantially behind both police and the post-office in terms of satisfaction. This difference is even more dramatic when accounting for ethnic/racial variances as more than twice as many African-Americans would give the police a satisfactory rating than their local schools (24% to 55%). Even school teachers are more inclined to more highly rate the other public services than the schools although by a lower margin (Schools: 61%; Police 74%; and Post Offices 77%).
  • Storyline: That said, they do have hope and believe that we have the ability to make the changes that will level the playing field in education and improve the equity of our schools offerings. A lot of that hope falls to the ability to use technology to improve outcomes and narrow gaps. This is particularly true in rural settings and for advanced course offerings. In fact fully 2/3 of American’s polled last year said that they thought we, as system leaders, needed to do “much more” to incorporate the technology our children use today in the schools today. With the advancement of technology and technological solutions, the role the internet plays in the education system is changing. American’s believe technology can help create change and improve outcomes in education. Interesting liberal minded voters are more likely to espouse these views, while conservative voters are more suspicious of the benefits of these technologies. These preferences or biases however do not necessarily reflect the change paradigms of their respective policy makers as, liberal minded policy makers are more inclined to look for “people oriented” solutions that impact classroom teaching and system reform, while conservative minded policy makers (as evidenced by the republic education platform) tend to look for technology as an enabler to redesign the system and enable their parental choice policies. In this regard it is important to think about how we are positioning Cisco’s solutions and network technology in the discussion. First it is worth noting that there is reasonably strong support/acceptance of internet based education courses being delivered within the formal school system. The Education Next - Harvard University poll conducted in the Spring of 2008 shows nearly 70% of parents would be willing to have their children “go through high school taking some academic courses over the internet.” Only Hispanic parents showed concern with this concept, although even at that 56% agreed. The internet based education courses found strong support in rural areas and for advanced classes. As such, we can interpolate that there is an opportunity to position the network as a medium or vehicle for closing the equity gap. That said there was less enthusiasm for using it to offer courses to drop-out or in home schooling (as is much of the trend around virtual schools). This would point to there being more work to do in positioning the technology as a means of closing the achievement gap. The Zogby polling of 7000 US adults that Cisco undertook in May of 2007 shows similar acceptance of the internet, and support for its usage for similar purposes with 62% believing the network helps level the playing field and increase equity in the system. Fully two-thirds of respondents in that poll indicated that not only was it acceptable to have students take courses over the internet but that it was vital to do “much more” to incorporate information technology into the learning process. While support for technological usage in the classroom and across the systems is growing there remain serious challenges to ensuring the network is well positioned to compete for dollars – especially those seen as discretionary today.
  • Storyline: And so the US education faces a dual dilemma. On the one hand we are seeing a new generation of learners emerging who are more tech savvy and demanding greater access to programs that allow them to take up the challenges of a changing society and economy. While at the same time we are seeing a strengthening demand from employers who are looking to students as potential workers in an ever changing economy to be able to master 21 st century skills and help us emerge from the recession stronger and more competitive than we enter it. There is no doubt that the education world is changing fast… The way learners want to access the system, the quantity of learners seeking access, and the demands of those learners for new skills that allow them to participate fully in their communities and the new economy are growing. At the same time, employers demand new skills from their employees: for survival, for opportunity, for retooling and retrenching. They need new skills that allow for a more mobile, nimble, and responsive workforce that understands the basics of their industry and craft, but also the ability to collaborate, communicate, and conceptualize new approaches quickly. Today, we find the education system is caught in between 20 th century traditions and the need for a bold and drastically new design of the entire system.
  • Storyline: Lets look at what employers are saying: Employers are coping but struggle to build their workforce in an ever competitive global landscape They want people who can innovate, work in teams.
  • Storyline: As system leaders this is a challenge for us. Weakening economics weaken our tax base and threaten the very education programs people are looking to help move the economy forward. While Texas is in a privileged position as one of only a handful of states not facing a budget deficit this year, we know that the reduced commodity prices, the economic slow down, and the softened housing markets are taking their toll here too. The economic and fiscal situation today is exacerbating and magnifying an already increasingly desperate and indeed disparate reality in the US states. States in Deficit The Centre on budget and Policy Priorities reports that 28 US states projecting budget deficits at the start of the fiscal year. As a result the current economic and fiscal situation in the US, there are now 37 states reporting projected current year deficits. While the average deficit is projected to be 9.2%, the cumulative total of the revenue gap is expected to exceed $48 billion per annum. This is expected to grow to encompass 43 states by next year with a budget gap up to $100 billion. At least 16 states are cutting or proposing to cut K-12 and early education; several of them are also reducing access to child care and early education, and at least 21 states have implemented or proposed cuts to public colleges and universities.  According to the National Association of School Business Officials Fiscal Survey of States (2008) 18 states are projected to shrink their budgets in 2009. This is a four-fold increase over 2008. Furthermore, post evidence shows that states are even more likely to constrict their budget deficits during periods of recovery than periods of economic downturn. For example 37 states cut their budgetary expenditures in 2002 and 2003, following the end of the fiscal downturn of the late 1990’s early 2000’s. NASBO reports those cuts equaled $14 billion and $12 billion in each respective year. Still less than a sufficient amount to meet the $48 billion shortfall projected this year.
  • Storyline: There is a bright spot on the horizon in the form of the Recovery and Reinvestment Plan that the new administration has launched. In it, there is an attempt to substantially invest in education infrastructure to not only stimulate the economy but also help position schools to better meet the needs a 21 st century economy and society demand. That program that is currently before Congress is looking to provide $6 billion in support for rural connectivity that can help bridge gaps in achievement, access, and equity entitlement. $14 billion is allocated to help rebuild schools and can be used to invest in modern infrastructure and technology as well as repairs and renovations. School districts themselves will be the prime beneficiaries of this investment and will have the choice to make about how to allocate those funds.
  • Storyline: We believe that there is an opportunity to make a difference, to help our schools move forward with the next generation of learning that we call education 3.0.
  • Storyline: We believe that you are in a position today, or will be shortly to make a decision about how to advance the leadership of our school system, to improve personalized data driven learning options, to build a seamless and modern school infrastructure, and to make our future system more productive and affordable than it is today.
  • Storyline: In short there are a set of key drivers for change at the district level: redesigned curriculum, new forms of assessment both formative and summative, a relentless focus on professional development within a professional learning community, and clearly articulated and accessible accountability loop that involved all stakeholders.
  • Storyline: We think the process is practical and achievable today. By working to change the basic approaches of classroom practice, that shape the student experience and teacher/student interaction we can advance a new teacher focused, student centered learning environment that takes into better account modern pedagogical practice and better manage the blurred line between formal and informal learning. By placing an increased emphasis on competency based learning, complex problem solving, collaboration skills and STEM+ subjects we can make sure the core skills of 21 st century learning are available to students. School reform needs to move from top down to bottom up. We need to encourage the full range of stakeholders and system leaders to participate in looking at how to implement and actualize these new approaches. Finally, we need to use the technology that is readily available to us today. By combining these changes to our school culture, our educational leadership and our learning community, with a truly modern infrastructure. We can make education 3.0 happen and accelerate the outcomes we know the system needs.
  • And speaking of partners, we at Cisco certainly do not believe that we can go it alone or set an agenda for change without your help and the input of education leaders around the world. That’s why we’ve set up a public service web site, GETideas. org, as a place for education leaders to collaborate on a new vision for change. We urge you to visit GETideas, connect with other leaders, and join the dialogue on global education transformation. And please don’t forget to register for other presentations in our series. We value your input and look forward to seeing you on . That concludes my presentation . We will have time now to address a few of your questions . If you have more, please feel free to click on the hand icon and type them in. Also, after the Q&A you will see a link to our very short online survey . We do value your feedback and hope that you’ll take a moment to give us your comments. Here’s the first question…
  • Impact of Globalization on School Leadership in the US

    1. 1. Andrew Thomson Public Sector Consul Cisco Global Education January 29, 2009 The Impact of Globalization on School Leadership in the US This slide deck can be seen with the accompanying video on
    2. 2. Conversations on Global Education Transformation A video series for education leaders on An online community for education leaders
    3. 3. A Time of Change & Challenges
    4. 4. Globalization: Change Drivers <ul><li>Globalization is changing the way we see: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our selves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our opportunities, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The world economy is changing expectations and is changing the way we need to meet demands </li></ul><ul><li>There are two significant change agents in the current global environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Education and the Internet </li></ul>
    5. 5. Globalization: Pressures Makes Trade Easier Capital More Mobile New Jobs/ Lost Jobs Globalization Access and equity pressures Demands for Productivity Demands for Increased Skills Community Response Education System
    6. 6. Taking Stock: Reading
    7. 7. Taking Stock: Science
    8. 8. Taking Stock: Math
    9. 9. Taking Stock: Problem Solving
    10. 10. The Case for Change Leapfrogging? Lagging Leading
    11. 11. The Case for Change Variability in Performance Is the Critical Challenge in the Developed World *Performance = average PISA score; spend = average per student US$PPP, 2001; OECD EducatGlance, 2004; PISA, 2003 US <ul><li>Education 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>System reform </li></ul>14 13 – 15 – 32 DC Minnesota Massachusetts Alabama National Average (278) Between Countries <ul><li>Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul>High Performance/ Low Spend Systems <ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul>Low Performance/ High Spend Systems Within Countries NAEP Scores in Grade 8 Mathematics, US 2005 2000 to 2007: TX improved to 15th best in nation in math but fell to 35th in reading Variability
    12. 12. “ We need to prepare our kids for the 21 st Century economy by bringing our school system into the 21 st Century.” President Barack Obama The Blueprint for Change: Education
    13. 13. The Case for Change <ul><li>US education policy is being shaped by two major issues impacting the US today: </li></ul><ul><li>the expectation of change for a “better tomorrow”; and, </li></ul><ul><li>the reality of tighter budgets as a result of diminished state revenues and the global financial situation. </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Case for Change <ul><li>Americans divided on how schools are performing: 56% say schools headed in the right direction; 44% disagree. </li></ul><ul><li>More satisfied with local schools than the perception of schools in rest of country. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools are seen as performing less satisfactorily as a public service than police and the post office. </li></ul>Source: Education Next-Harvard PEPG Poll Sprig 2008 Grading the Schools  Nationally Locally 
    15. 15. The Case for Change <ul><li>Americans believe technology can help create change and improve outcomes in education. </li></ul><ul><li>70% of parents willing to have children “go through high school taking some academic courses over the internet.” </li></ul><ul><li>62% believing network helps level the playing field & increase equity. </li></ul>Source: Education Next-Harvard PEPG Poll, Spring 08
    16. 16. The Case for Change Facing Large Scale Disruption In Need of a Bold and Urgent Response The Economy Demands New 21st Century Skills Demands Strong Basics The Learner Demands Improved Access Demands Improved Outcomes Education System
    17. 17. The Case for Change Results refer to US 2-year college and technical diploma graduates, but are similar for high school and 4-year college diploma graduates Source: National Council on Economic Education, Tough Choices or Tough Times?—The Report of the New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce , Washington, 2007; Workforce Readiness Project, 2006. “ The best employers the world over will be looking for the most creative, most innovative people on the face of the earth.” Tough Choices for Tough Times, 2007 % Employers Think 21st Century Skills Will Be More Important in Graduates over Next 5 Years* Critical Thinking/ Problem Solving IT Application Teamwork/ Collaboration Creativity/ Innovation Diversity
    18. 18. The Case for Change <ul><li>Current state budgetary gap $48 billion growing to $300 billion in 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools are already feeling the pressures of the slowing economy and the American mortgage foreclosure crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>16 States to cut K-12 budgets; 21 to cut PSE budgets next year. </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Case for Change <ul><li>An unprecedented investment into education infrastructure: </li></ul><ul><li>$6 billion to assist in rural broadband upgrades </li></ul><ul><li>$14 billion to help rebuild schools to meet 21 st Century needs </li></ul><ul><li>$6 billion for Higher Education upgrades </li></ul>
    20. 20. Foundations of Change : Federal Level <ul><li>New education policy direction expected to focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero to five education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reform NCLB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve completion rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career laddering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching with new tools </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Framework for Change <ul><li>To accomplish more our schools must do more. </li></ul><ul><li>This will require a new round of education reform, despite system fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>School and district leaders will need to work to ensure stimulus spending is smart spending that helps change our systems not just our schools. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Framework for Change <ul><li>Demands from policy leaders, parents, employers and students are forcing change: </li></ul><ul><li>System leadership at all levels that enables change in pedagogy & curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Personalized learning that takes into greater account formal and informal structures </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless infrastructure and technology that engenders confidence of users </li></ul><ul><li>Improved and more efficient education systems that use technology to advance educational outcomes </li></ul>
    23. 23. Education 3.0: System Reform <ul><li>Curriculum Redesigned with learning outcomes related to 21C skills </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment New systems designed to measure competence in 21C skills </li></ul><ul><li>Professional development Focused on classroom and system-leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability Outcome based not just management oriented with comparable targets & transparent standards </li></ul>
    24. 24. Education 3.0: M ake it Happen 21C Skills Reform Pedagogy Technology <ul><li>Collaborative accountability & stakeholder involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated curriculum reform </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher & leadership quality focus </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Complex problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>STEM+ </li></ul><ul><li>Digital literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Competency based </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged & student centric </li></ul><ul><li>Immersive, constructivist and collaborative environment </li></ul><ul><li>Digital collaborative practices </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration ready networks (V, V, D) </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous, anywhere, anytime digital learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized reference architecture </li></ul>Holistic System Transformation 21C Learning Vision <ul><li>Dedicated time for rigorous, on-going prof and leadership development </li></ul><ul><li>Evergreening curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical best practice replication </li></ul><ul><li>100% baseline connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Deploy & synchronize installations with professional development </li></ul>Enablers People & Practices Learning Environments
    25. 25. A public service website for education leaders GET Informed , GET Inspired , GET Involved <ul><li>A place to GET connected and GET students ready to succeed in the 21 st century </li></ul><ul><li>Thought leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Webinars </li></ul><ul><li>News </li></ul><ul><li>Videos </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>More </li></ul>Join the Dialogue