Integrating Tutors And Call In Efl


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Integrating Tutors And Call In Efl

  1. 1. Integrating tutors and CALL in EFL Bob Gettings Hokusei Gakuen University Junior College Sapporo, Japan [email_address]
  2. 2. The Program <ul><li>Since 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Junior college English majors </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Advising & Study Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation tutors in Oral English Classes </li></ul><ul><li>English Lunch Program </li></ul><ul><li>Writing tutors </li></ul><ul><li>How can CALL be used to enhance EFL classes and the tutor program? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Academic Advising & Study Skills <ul><li>Interview each student 2 or 3 times a semester </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on how study meets life & short term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Identify areas where students would like to improve language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Students create an individual study plan </li></ul><ul><li>Re-evaluate the plan and create a new one at the next interview </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  4. 4. Problems ・ Solutions・ CALL <ul><li>Time consuming for staff </li></ul><ul><li>Too much focus on TOEFL, TOEIC & STEP Test? </li></ul><ul><li>Students forget appointments or can’t change times </li></ul><ul><li>Students come unprepared </li></ul><ul><li>Goals are soon forgotten. </li></ul><ul><li>Created Studies Skills “class” </li></ul><ul><li>Tests??? </li></ul><ul><li>Used Moodle’s Schedule module to sign up, check or change appointments </li></ul><ul><li>Used the Assignment or Database Module to have students do a guided reflection about their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Online evaluations of goals between Academic Advising visits. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Moodle’s Schedule Module
  6. 6. Moodle’s Database Module
  7. 7. Tutors in Conversation Classes <ul><li>Emphasis on World Englishes </li></ul><ul><li>Tutors from Europe, Asia & Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Graduate students (or spouses) from a local university </li></ul><ul><li>Some were EFL teachers in their home countries </li></ul><ul><li>4 x 45 minutes a week </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher and 12 – 18 students </li></ul><ul><li>Three conversation tutors one class a week </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  8. 8. Goals for Tutors in the Curriculum <ul><li>Give students immediate feedback individually or during small group and pair work </li></ul><ul><li>Increase affective level of engagement in conversation & writing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-cultural engagement (conversation content, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Many Englishes listening - responding </li></ul><ul><li>Act as EFL learner models </li></ul><ul><li>See Maune, J. (to be published online). International Tutors for Conversation Classes , and Morikoshi, K. Establishing and Managing an English Writing Center in Japan in the JALT2007 Conference Proceedings. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Student Response Conversation Tutors <ul><li>81 – 1 st 106 – 2 nd </li></ul><ul><li>Successful? </li></ul><ul><li>Should be continued? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Student Response Conversation Tutors <ul><li>Interesting? </li></ul><ul><li>When they are in class do you want to talk? </li></ul><ul><li>Does your speaking ability improve? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Student Response Conversation Tutors <ul><li>Successful ? </li></ul><ul><li>Equal chance to talk with them? </li></ul><ul><li>Tutors’ English easy to understand? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Student Response Conversation Tutors <ul><li>What communication strategies do you use when you can’t understand the tutors? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Problems ・ Solutions・ CALL <ul><li>Teachers underutilize tutors (during lecture style explanations, student writing or preparation for activities?) </li></ul><ul><li>Tutors too directive in activities with students </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling and absences of tutors or teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Cut explanations short or put them online. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-paced online guided tasks or projects that require face to face interactions with tutors. </li></ul><ul><li>Program wide: </li></ul><ul><li>Talking with teachers or tutors individually about problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Future: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutor & teacher training </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. English Lunch <ul><li>Voluntary participation? </li></ul><ul><li>One teacher & 3 – 30 students </li></ul><ul><li>One or two tutors </li></ul><ul><li>Bring cafeteria lunches to a room with an all-English rule </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  15. 15. Student Response English Lunch <ul><li>How many times have you participated? </li></ul><ul><li>Has it helped improve your English ability? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the program be continued? </li></ul>
  16. 16. English Lunch Problems ・ Solutions・ CALL <ul><li>Student attendance too low </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher/student ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Required students to come but then attendance was too high </li></ul><ul><li>Added tutors to program </li></ul>
  17. 17. Writing Lab & Writing Tutors <ul><li>Native speakers of English </li></ul><ul><li>Available 9 – 5 weekdays </li></ul><ul><li>Students sign up for 30 minute conferences about a writing task </li></ul><ul><li>Can also use a tutor’s open time for conversation practice </li></ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul>
  18. 18. Student Response Writing Tutors <ul><li>Visited the Lab? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Program successful? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the program be continued? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Student Response Writing Tutors <ul><li>Tutors helped improve your writing skill? </li></ul><ul><li>How many times did you visit? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Problems ・ Solutions・ CALL <ul><li>Most students don’t use the tutors’ services unless they are forced to. </li></ul><ul><li>Paper scheduling & missed appointments </li></ul><ul><li>Tutors don’t know the teacher’s goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes very busy – sometimes no students come </li></ul><ul><li>Include a tutor check as part of the grade for assignments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asked tutors to fill out an online questionnaire for each of my History or Composition students that they see. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Schedule module? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop more paperwork (online) form for teachers to request tutors’ specific guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. First Year English Composition Paragraph Check List <ul><li>1st 2nd 3rd 4th </li></ul><ul><li>Student number_________ class_____ Date checked ____ ____ ____ ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Student name ____________________ Checkers name ____ ____ ____ ____ </li></ul><ul><li>Is your writing in paragraph style? □ □ □ □ </li></ul><ul><li>( 段落はパラグラフの形式をとっていますか ) </li></ul><ul><li>Does the paragraph have a topic sentence? □ □ □ □ </li></ul><ul><li>( その段落にはトピック・センテンスは含まれていますか ) </li></ul><ul><li>Do all the sentences relate to the topic sentence? □ □ □ □ </li></ul><ul><li>( 全ての文章はトピック・センテンスに関連していますか ) </li></ul><ul><li>Is there more than one supporting sentence? □ □ □ □ </li></ul><ul><li>( サポート・センテンスは含まれていますか ) </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a concluding sentence? □ □ □ □ </li></ul><ul><li>( 結論づける文章はありますか ) </li></ul><ul><li>Are there some complex sentences? □ □ □ □ </li></ul><ul><li>Did you check your punctuation, capitals, and plurals? □ □ □ □ </li></ul><ul><li>( 句読点、大文字・小文字、複数形など、間違いがないか確認しましたか ) </li></ul><ul><li>Did you read your composition entirely in one sitting at least once? □ □ □ □ </li></ul><ul><li>( 最初から最後まで少なくとも一度は読みましたか ) </li></ul><ul><li>Comments: </li></ul>
  22. 22. Personal Goals for my Classes & Tutors <ul><li>Affective engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching rather than a teacher fronted classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate student self-reflection & goal setting </li></ul>
  23. 23. CALL & Video Analysis Projects <ul><li>Conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations + Audio (YouTube, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul>
  24. 24. Format: Student Produced Video <ul><li>Ss make a video of an oral production </li></ul><ul><li>Ss open the video online and analyze their strong and weak points </li></ul><ul><li>Work on one or two weak points over several classes </li></ul><ul><li>Make a second video and compare it to the first. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Student produced video <ul><li>During small group work or presentation one student is the cameraperson </li></ul><ul><li>When finished, they give the teacher the SD card. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher uploads the file to the net (Moodle) for analysis </li></ul>
  26. 26. Online Guided Analysis & Goal Setting <ul><li>What was better or worse than in your usual conversation practice? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe one thing. </li></ul><ul><li>List 4 or 5 of your good or bad points. </li></ul><ul><li>List some of your partner’s good & bad points. </li></ul><ul><li>List some things you would like to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Pick one thing and concretely describe how you can practice to change it. (Student Action Plan) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Practice & Evaluation <ul><li>Before each practice tell partners the focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversation – “Giving longer answers to questions” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations – “Eye contact” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcast – “Voice tone” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After practice, evaluate! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal discussion, paper or online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask students to summarize evaluations </li></ul>
  28. 28. Conversation Project <ul><li>Two videos of 5 – 10 minute conversations (w/ student & tutor) </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of strong & weak points </li></ul><ul><li>4 – 6 week practice with many partners before final video </li></ul>Research Project begun in 2005 with Aki Nishihara See Textbooks? No! Blended CALL for EFL Conversation Classes or Web-based video self-analysis of conversation and presentations at
  29. 29. Conversation Problems ・Solutions <ul><li>Students focused on visual rather than audio (language) </li></ul><ul><li>Students don’t have a concrete vision of strategies to improve </li></ul><ul><li>Goals too general </li></ul><ul><li>Use audio recording rather than video. (Emiko Izumi – g007) </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler & more focused guided analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Develop online communication strategies text & videos. </li></ul><ul><li>Blended (hybrid) approach with tutor-student guidance face to face </li></ul>
  30. 30. Simpler guided analysis
  31. 31. Some focus on strategies <ul><li>After each interview question, how many other questions did you ask your partner? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Online description of task & training <ul><li>PowerPoint explanations saved in movie format with voiceover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captivate, iMovie, Windows Movie Maker 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upload to the web for Flash format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short screenshot-based movie explanations of computer based tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captivate, SnapzPro </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Text or graphics based instruction </li></ul>
  33. 33. Presentation Project <ul><li>Individual or group </li></ul><ul><li>Given to 3 – 5 listeners per time and repeated 3 – 7 times </li></ul><ul><li>Before and after videos </li></ul><ul><li>Formal feedback after each presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on research and content </li></ul><ul><li>Writing tutor advice on script </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on interaction with audience and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Can be recycled as podcasts for a wider audience </li></ul>
  34. 35. Presentations Problems ・Solutions <ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to learn technical things not related to oral production goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of one member of group </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination with Computer Literacy class </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations outside of class can be videoed and submitted </li></ul>
  35. 36. Presentations + Audio? <ul><li>Recycle presentations adding voiceovers </li></ul><ul><li>Record with headset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly into PowerPoint on Macintosh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save Ppt as graphics and make a slideshow movie with iMovie or Windows Movie Maker 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record with Audacity or IC recorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Upload to YouTube, voicethread or another online sharing site </li></ul>See Sergio Mazzarelli’s abstract d-020 or http://
  36. 37. Presentations + Audio? <ul><li>Focus on writing tutor reviewing the script </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on teacher or tutor as voice coach </li></ul><ul><li>Practice of clarity and dramatic reading </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with PowerPoint and text for practice with the final product being a recording </li></ul>
  37. 38. Presentations + Audio Expected Problems ・Solutions <ul><li>Learning curve </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution & feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Make project extra-credit </li></ul><ul><li>Design technical instruction as a Computer Literacy class module </li></ul><ul><li>Class, not individual YouTube page </li></ul><ul><li>Link production to class BBS. Students must find 10 or more viewers to evaluate the slideshow </li></ul>
  38. 39. CALL: Student Self-reflection & Goal Setting Especially in Oral Production <ul><li>Online description & training so that students can begin & complete task at own pace </li></ul><ul><li>Upload videos of student conversation practice or presentations for analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Online questionnaires to guide observation & analysis of video. </li></ul><ul><li>Online dialog with teacher that leads to setting goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Upload of final video for self and peer evaluation of practice and improvement. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Practice – Feedback – Practice Loops & Tutors? CALL? <ul><li>Not product but practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Presentations 4 -7 times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition rewrites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video or podcast script writing and editing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self, Peers, Tutors, Teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals setting after feedback and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Practice of new goals until satisfied </li></ul>
  40. 41. Both Tutors & CALL . . . <ul><li>. . .increase the individualized feedback available to each student </li></ul><ul><li>. . . free the teacher from teacher fronting so that more coaching is possible </li></ul><ul><li>. . . provide scaffolding for task completion so that students can learn at own pace. </li></ul><ul><li>. . . can facilitate student self reflection, goal setting and autonomy </li></ul>
  41. 42. My Goals for 2008 - 2009 <ul><li>Develop online training videos for communicative strategies and presentation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Use EFL speakers who are also native speakers of Japanese as tutors </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot the Presentations + Audio and Podcasting Projects </li></ul>
  42. 43. [email_address] <ul><li>Thanks! </li></ul>