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Crow The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in theirown Siouan language, or variantsincluding Absaroka, are NativeAmericans, who in historical times lived inthe Yellowstone River valley, whichextends from present-dayWyoming, through Montana and intoNorth Dakota, where it joins the MissouriRiver. Today, they are enrolled in thefederally recognized Crow Tribe ofMontana.
Clothing The Crow wore clothing distinguished by gender.Women wore simple clothes - dresses made of deer andbuffalo skins, decorated with elk teeth. They coveredtheir legs with leggings during winter and their feet withmoccasins. Crow women wore their hair in twobraids, unlike the men. Male clothing usually consistedof a shirt, trimmed leggings with a belt, a robe, andmoccasins. Their hair was long, in some cases reachingor dragging the ground, and often part was styled intoa pompadour.
Enemies and allies From about 1740, the Plains tribes rapidly adopted the horse, which allowedthem to move out on to the Plains and hunt buffalo more actively.However, the severe winters in the North kept their herds smaller than those ofPlains tribes in the South. The Crow, Hidatsa, Eastern Shoshone and NorthernShoshone soon became noted as horse breeders and dealers, anddeveloped relatively large horse herds. At the time, other eastern andnorthern tribes were also moving on to the Plains, in search of game for the furtrade, bison, and more horses. The Crow were subject to raids and horse theftsby horse-poor tribes including the powerful Blackfoot Confederacy, GrosVentre, Assiniboine, Pawnee, and Ute. Later they had to face theLakota and their allies, the Arapaho and Cheyenne, who also stole horsesfrom their enemies. Their greatest enemies became the tribes of the BlackfootConfederacy and the Lakota-Cheyenne-Arapaho alliance. The Crow were generally friendly with the northern Plains tribes of the Flathead(although sometimes they had conflicts); NezPerce, Kutenai, Shoshone, Kiowa and Kiowa Apache. The mighty IronConfederacy (Nehiyaw-Pwat) developed as enemies to the Crow. The IronConfederacy was Nehiyaw in Plains Cree, Pwat-sak in Assiniboine. It wasnamed after the dominating Plains Cree and Assiniboine peoples, with thelatter including the Stoney, Saulteaux, Ojibwe, and Métis as the mostpowerful.
Language Crow (native name: Apsáalookěi ˈpsáˈɾòˈgè]) is aMissouri Valley Siouan language spoken primarily by theCrow Nation in present-day southeastern Montana. It is oneof the larger populations of American Indian languageswith 4,280 speakers according to the 1990 US Census. It is closely related to Hidatsa spoken by the Hidatsa tribe ofthe Dakotas; the two languages are the only members ofthe Missouri Valley Siouan family. The ancestor of Crow-Hidatsa may have constituted the initial split from Proto-Siouan. Crow and Hidatsa are not mutuallyintelligible, however the two languages share manyphonological features, cognates and have similarmorphologies and syntax. The split between Crow andHidatsa may have occurred between 300 and 800 yearsago.
Subsistence Where Buffaloes are Driven Over Cliffs at Long Ridge" was a favoritespot for meat procurement by the Crow Indians for over acentury, from 1700 to around 1870 when modern weapons wereintroduced. The Crow used this place annually in the autumn, aplace of multiple cliffs along a ridge that eventually sloped to thecreek. Early in the morning the day of the jump a medicine manwould stand on the edge of the upper cliff, facing up the ridge. Hewould take a pair of bison hindquarters and pointing the feet alongthe lines of stones he would sing his sacred songs and call upon theGreat Spirit to make the operation a success. After this invocationthe medicine man would give the two head drivers a pouch ofincense. As the two head drivers and their helpers headed up theridge and the long line of stones they would stop and burn incenseon the ground repeating this process four times. The ritual wasintended to make the animals come to the line where the incensewas burned, then bolt back to the ridge area.