Prewar report

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Prewar report

  1. 1. PINOY PRE-WAR CINEMA Filipinizing Cinema and the Rise of the Studios (1919-1941)
  2. 2. Report OutlineHistorical contextFilmmaking during the eraPre-war film aesthetics and themesDistribution and audience reception
  3. 3. 1919-1941: HOW WAS THE COUNTRYDURING THIS TIME PERIOD?
  4. 4. After the Filipinos lost the war to the Americans in 1901, we didnot really stop fighting for their independence.
  5. 5. 1919-1935
  6. 6. Hare-Hawes Cutting Law: 1932 Tydings McDuffie Law: 1935
  7. 7. 1935-1941COMMONWEALTH OF THE PHILIPPINESPRESIDENT MANUEL L. QUEZON
  8. 8. FILMMAKING DURING THE ERA
  9. 9. Film Production1929 - 7 films were made1930 - 9 films were made1931 - 9 films were made1932 - the last year of the silents, 25 films were madePre-war - over fifty Films were produced each year.During the war- more than sixty films were produced a year
  10. 10. Factors Responsible for the Increase in Film ProductionJose Nepomuceno was producing a film almost every two monthsFilipinos who left the country to visit or work in Hollywoodreturned home and established their own film companiesManila’s elite ventured into the film industry knowing it was alucrative investmentSome Americans escaped the great depression in the U.S. byundertaking filmmaking in the Philippines
  11. 11. Pre-war Cinema PioneersJose Nepomuceno established Malayan Pictures in 1917 andmade the first Filipino film, Dalagang Bukid (1919)Vincente Salumbides established Salumbides Film ! ! !Company in 1927, some of his films include Miracles of Love(1926), Fate or Consequence, The Soul Saver, Ibong Adarna(1941)Julian Manansala is known for his nationalist films, pioneeredBanahaw Pictures in 1929, among the films he made were PatriaAmore (1929), Dimasalang (1930)
  12. 12. First FilmmakersOctavio Silos - Tunay na Ina (1939), Pakiusap (1940)Carlos Vander Tolosa - Giliw Ko (1939)Gerardo de Leon - Bahay Kubo (1938), Ang Maestra (1941)Lamberto Avellana - Sakay (1939)Manuel Conde - Sawing Gantimpala (1939)Ramon Estella - Bayan at Pag-ibig (1938),Huling Habilin (1940)Gregorio Fernandez - Azahar at Kabaong (1937),Señorita (1940)Brigida Perez Villanueva - first woman filmmaker
  13. 13. The Studio Systempaved the way for discovery and development of filmmakers andactorsstudios patterned its mode of production after Hollywood the system was departmentalized contract stars were signed up each studio had a distinct quality on its movies
  14. 14. First Philippine Film StudiosFilippine Films, 1933 established by Eddie Tait & George Harris Ang mga Ulila (1933), Mag-inang Mahirap (1934)Parlatone Hispano-Filipino, 1934 Jose Nepomuceno reorganized Malayan Pictures into Parlatone Hispano- Filipino its first film was Diwata ng Karagatan
  15. 15. First Philippine Film StudiosExcelsior Pictures, 1937 founded by Don Ramon Araneta considered the most modern studio at the time Ang Maya was its first filmSampaguita Pictures, 1937 established by Jose O. Vera; his children took positions in the family company including matriarch Dolores Honorado Vera, or famously known as “Mommy Vera” known for having melodramatic movies and films that centered on family values its first film, Bituing Marikit was a huge success 
  16. 16. First Philippine Film StudiosLVN Pictures, 1938 formed by three friends, Doña Narcisa “Sisang” de Leon, Carmen Villongco, and Eleuterio Navoa known for having comedies and musicals its maiden film, Giliw Ko (1939) was a box office hit
  17. 17. First Philippine Film StudiosX’Otic Films, 1941 Jose Nepomuceno, after having been ousted from Parlatone in 1936, resurfaced with X’Otic films in 1939 with co- founders Jesus Cacho and Julian Salgado its first production was Punit na Bandila the company would later be reorganized into Movietec after the warOther studios: Cervantina Filipina Corporation Del Monte Pictures Waling-Waling Pictures Acuña-Zaldarriaga Productions …and many others
  18. 18. Advent of Sound in FilmThe TalkiesNewspaper advertisements heralded the “talking and singing”features which signaled the advent of sound technologyThe first picture with sound reached Manila in 1910, using theChronophone.
  19. 19. Advent of Sound in FilmBy 1930, the talking pictures was already one year old in thecountry with the showing of Syncopation, this was achieved bysynchronizing phonograph records with the film.Jose Domingo’s Collegian Love (1930) was considered the firstFilipino sound productionThe first film made in the Philippines to feature opticallyrecorded sound was George Musser’s Ang Aswang (1933)
  20. 20. Other early films to feature sound was Jose Nepomuceno’s “Ang Punyal na Ginto” and “Makata at Paraluman”
  21. 21. PRE-WAR CINEMA THEMES AND AESTHETICS
  22. 22. Content and ThemesSarswela and KomedyaPhilippine Literature and HistorySocio-political issuesExotic PhilippinesHollywood Genres
  23. 23. Sarswela and Komedyaone act, melodramatic operaspopular, readily marketableready materialsthemes of good vs. badmiddle-class, rural stories
  24. 24. Octavio Silos’ “Tunay na Ina”
  25. 25. Carlos Vander Tolossa’s “Giliw Ko”
  26. 26. Carlos Vander Tolossa’s “Giliw Ko”
  27. 27. Jose Nepomuceno’s “Dalagang Bukid”
  28. 28. Philippine Literature and HistoryJose Rizal’s life and worksauthor’s novels, short stories,poemshistorical events, revolutionLamberto Avellana’s “Sakay”
  29. 29. Jose Nepomuceno’s “Noli Me Tangere”
  30. 30. Vicente Salumbides’ “Ibong Adarna”
  31. 31. Vicente Salumbides’ “Florante at Laura”
  32. 32. Socio-Political Issuesnationalistic themesanti-Spanish, anti-establishmentvery few films, almost censoredJulian Manansala’s “Patria Amore”
  33. 33. Exotic Philippinesnative culture of indigenouspeoplefeatured different customsand traditionsEduardo de Castro’s“Zamboanga”
  34. 34. Ramon Estrella’s “Paraiso”
  35. 35. Consuelo Osorio’s “Perlas na Itim”
  36. 36. Hollywood Genrescategorization of films intoHollywood film genresfirst horror filmsJose Nepomuceno’s“Tiyanak” and “Mang Tano:Nuno ng mga Aswang”
  37. 37. Aesthetics and StylesCinema heavily borrowed from the traditions of drama and theater.
  38. 38. Lacked Film Languageshot selection and shot sizescutting, editing, montagescreen direction, 180-degreerule
  39. 39. Basic Cameraworkcamera movements werepresent, but not fully utilizedstatic camerastraight-on, eye-level angleslong shots and takes
  40. 40. Theatrical Direction and Actingbig movementsexaggerated actingbig facial expressions
  41. 41. Silent-film-like Make upvisible traces ofexpressionist, exaggeratedfacial features
  42. 42. Script and Storytalky narrationpoetic dialoguearbitrary happy endingloose plot
  43. 43. Catholic Imagery in the Mise-en-scenesaintschurchescrucifixaltarspriestsprayers
  44. 44. DISTRIBUTION ANDAUDIENCE RECEPTION
  45. 45. Language
  46. 46. As of December 31 1929,66,000 readers of Spanish newpapers/publications36,000 readers of English newpapers/publications62,000 readers of Tagalog newpapers/publications
  47. 47. ! !Lobo del monte (Mountain Wolf) / Gratitude de un joven (Young Man’s Gratitude)
  48. 48. In 1931,181 films had English titles 34 were in Spanish 1 title was Tagalog
  49. 49. Jose Nepomuceno’s “Punyal na Ginto”
  50. 50. Film Culturenative filmmakers grabbed the opportunity of expressing theiranti-Spanish sentimentsescapist entertainmentfilm fascinated Filipinos and it easily became the most popularmediuminfluenced by culture, politics, business, and development oflanguage
  51. 51. Market Competition
  52. 52. 1933: Star System became more apparent
  53. 53. !Mary Walter
  54. 54. !Gregorio Fernandez
  55. 55. Nick Deocampo. Cine: Spanish Influences on Early Cinema in thePhilippines. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts. 2003Sotto, Agustin L. Pelikula II. Philippine Film 1897-1960. Manila:Cultural Center of the Philippines, 1992.Del Mundo, Clodualdo Jr., 1998. Notes on the Approaches to TeachingFilm. In Humanities: Art & Society. Quezon City: Commission onHigher Education.Flores, Patrick D. 1998. Philippine Cinema and Society. In Humanities:Art & Society. Quezon City: Commission on Higher EducationArsenio "Boots" Bautista, "History of Philippine Cinema"http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?i=115&igm=1. Accessed December 5, 2010.

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