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Bachelor Degree Programme "Innovation and Management in Tourism"
University of Applied Sciences Salzburg
THE EFFECT OF MUS...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles
I. Table of contents
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles
13.2	 Strengths of Using Quantitative Methods............................
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles
II. List of abbreviations
WTO World Trade Organization
UNWTO United Na...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles
III. List of illustrations
Fig. 1: The main characteristics of a festi...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles
IV. List of tables
Tab. 1: The impacts of events.........................
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles
Tab. 29: Most frequently mentioned visit purpose among respondents, wh...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles
V. Abstract
Tourism is an important sector that contributes to the eco...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 1
1. Introduction
A music festival is a sort of art or cultural festiv...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 2
The tourism industry of Budapest is making profit out of national an...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 3
2. Festival tourism
In order to make the further analysis understand...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 4
2.1 Festival Characteristics
This chapter describes the different ch...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 5
outside the normal ones. Authenticity is a crucial factor of each ev...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 6
As stated by the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), Eu...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 7
3. Tourist destination image formation
The previous sections of the ...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 8
tourist destinations (Keller, 1993; Rial et al., 2000; Rial Garcia a...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 9
Events might also inspire people to visit a place more than once, an...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 10
Bauerle (1983) considers brand image as a mental representation, wh...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 11
Music festivals likewise add to the advancement of tourism. Felsens...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 12
effects and advantages. Positive effects are the consequence of pro...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 13
Tab. 1: The impacts of events
Source: Adapted from Allen et al. 201...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 14
APPROACHES GOALS COMMONLY USED MEASURES
Break-Even or
Profit/Loss
-...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 15
4. Music festival tourists’ motivators
In the last decades’ festiva...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 16
the market, but as a consequence of the nature of motives, it is ha...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 17
ternal demand, which incorporates a reference group or different so...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 18
PHYSICAL NEEDS MOTIVATE PEOPLE
TO SEEK:
- Exercise
- Food and bever...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 19
Figure 2 shows three essential classes of requirements, particular ...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 20
5. Festival Attendees and their loyalty
The previous section of the...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 21
Various studies have discovered loyalty among visitors to be a valu...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 22
6. Key stakeholders of festivals
Because of the quick development o...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 23
the festival industry itself, furthermore delineates their function...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 24
programmes has an important role in decreasing the planning procedu...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 25
other words that means 4.7 billion viewers. The social media has ad...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 26
7. The city of Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. Budapes...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 27
8. Sziget
Fig. 4: Sziget logo
Source: Sziget festival (2015)
Sziget...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 28
of world and electronic music, yet audience will likewise discover ...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 29
8.2 Facts about Sziget in 2014
The following survey has been made i...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 30
9. CAFe Budapest Contemporary Arts festival
Fig. 6: CAFe Budapest C...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 31
commodation, travel agency, travel exhibition, etc. 4% by electroni...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 32
10. Conclusion
Taking everything into account, it can be seen from ...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 33
Bachelor Degree Programme "Innovation and Management in Tourism"
Un...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 34
Part II: Bachelor Thesis 2
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 35
11. The Empirical Research
In order for the creator of this researc...
UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 36
Fig. 7: Empirical Procedure
Source: Berger, 2010, p. 106
In view of...
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles
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The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest - Gergö Jeles

  1. 1. Bachelor Degree Programme "Innovation and Management in Tourism" University of Applied Sciences Salzburg THE EFFECT OF MUSIC FESTIVAL TOURISM ON THE IMAGE AND COMMUNITY OF BUDAPEST BACHELOR THESIS 1 SUBMITTED TO THE UOAS SALZBURG IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF "BACHELOR OF ARTS IN BUSINESS" Author: Gergö Jeles Student number: 1210430067 Date: 20.05.2016 Supervisor: Mag. Gerfried Fleckl
  2. 2. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles I. Table of contents The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and Community of Budapest........ 1 Bachelor Thesis 1 submitted to the UoAS Salzburg in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of "Bachelor of Arts in Business"........................ 1 I. Table of contents....................................................................................... I II. List of abbreviations.................................................................................III III. List of illustrations ................................................................................... IV IV. List of tables ............................................................................................ V V. Abstract ................................................................................................ VII 1. Introduction............................................................................................. 1 2. Festival tourism........................................................................................ 3 2.1 Festival Characteristics ...................................................................... 4 2.2 Festival tourism funds in Hungary ....................................................... 5 3. Tourist destination image formation ............................................................ 7 3.1 The impact of events and festivals on the city image ............................. 8 3.2 The positive and negative effects of festivals on a destination ................10 4. Music festival tourists’ motivators ..............................................................15 5. Festival Attendees and their loyalty............................................................20 6. Key stakeholders of festivals .....................................................................22 6.1 The festival host organization ............................................................23 6.2 The host community.........................................................................23 6.3 Sponsors ........................................................................................24 6.4 Media.............................................................................................24 6.5 Co-workers .....................................................................................25 6.6 Participants and audience .................................................................25 7. The city of Budapest ................................................................................26 8. Sziget ....................................................................................................27 8.1 Facts about Sziget in 2015 ................................................................28 8.2 Facts about Sziget in 2014 ................................................................29 9. CAFe Budapest Contemporary Arts festival..................................................30 9.1 Facts about café Budapest Contemporary Arts Festival..........................30 10. Conclusion..............................................................................................32 The Effect of Music Festival Tourism on the Image and the Community of Budapest .33 Bachelor Thesis 2 submitted to the UoAS Salzburg in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of "Bachelor of Arts in Business".......................33 Part II: Bachelor Thesis 2 .................................................................................34 11. The Empirical Research ............................................................................35 12. Starting Position and Objectives ................................................................39 12.1 Hypotheses.....................................................................................39 13. Research Strategy ...................................................................................42 13.1 Quantitative Research ......................................................................42
  3. 3. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 13.2 Strengths of Using Quantitative Methods.............................................44 13.3 Weaknesses of Using Quantitative Methods .........................................44 14. Research methodology .............................................................................46 14.1 Data Collection - Online research .......................................................46 14.1.1 Sample generation from an online community...................................... 47 14.1.2 Choosing the samples ....................................................................... 48 14.2 Validity and Reliability ......................................................................49 15. Questionnaire Design ...............................................................................50 16. Presentation of Findings and Data Analysis..................................................51 16.1 Demographic findings.......................................................................51 16.2 Questions about Budapest.................................................................55 16.3 Questions about Sziget Festival .........................................................58 16.4 Questions about Café Budapest Festival ..............................................65 17. Interpretation of Hypotheses.....................................................................72 17.1 Research question 1.........................................................................72 17.2 Research question 2.........................................................................73 17.3 Research question 3.........................................................................73 17.4 Research question 4.........................................................................74 17.5 Research question 5.........................................................................75 18. Conclusion..............................................................................................77 18.1 Implications of the study...................................................................77 18.2 Limitations and recommendations for further research ..........................78 VI. List of references.....................................................................................80 VII. Appendix ................................................................................................90
  4. 4. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles II. List of abbreviations WTO World Trade Organization UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organization CAFe Budapest Contemporary Arts Festival Sziget Budapest Sziget Festival PR Public Relations HUF Hungarian Forint
  5. 5. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles III. List of illustrations Fig. 1: The main characteristics of a festival............................................................................................................4 Fig. 2: Needs, motives and benefits offered by events ........................................................................................18 Fig. 3: The relationship of stakeholders to events................................................................................................22 Fig. 4: Sziget logo.......................................................................................................................................................27 Fig. 5: Hajogyari Island .............................................................................................................................................27 Fig. 6: CAFe Budapest Contemporary Arts Festival logo...................................................................................30 Fig. 7: Empirical Procedure......................................................................................................................................36 Fig. 8: Types of Hypothesis......................................................................................................................................40
  6. 6. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles IV. List of tables Tab. 1: The impacts of events..................................................................................................................................13 Tab. 2: Approaches to event impact assessment ..................................................................................................14 Tab. 3: Decision making process (manifestation visitors) - PIECE ..................................................................19 Tab. 4: Age of participants .......................................................................................................................................52 Tab. 5: Gender of participants.................................................................................................................................52 Tab. 6: Nationality of the perticipants....................................................................................................................53 Tab. 7: Highest completed level of education of the participants......................................................................53 Tab. 8: Current marital status of the participants .................................................................................................54 Tab. 9: Description of the participants area where they live in ..........................................................................54 Tab. 10: Description of the primarily area of employment of the participants ...............................................55 Tab. 11: Responses regarding visiting Budapest ...................................................................................................56 Tab. 12: Most common information that came to the respondents’ mind ......................................................56 Tab. 13: Respondents´ general perception about Budapest................................................................................57 Tab. 14: Respondents´ main purpose to travel to Budapest...............................................................................57 Tab. 15: Responses regarding visiting Sziget Festival ..........................................................................................58 Tab. 16: The number of visits among the respondents who have been to Sziget Festival ............................59 Tab. 17: The number of respondents who went alone or in company to Sziget Festival..............................59 Tab. 18: Most frequently mentioned visit purpose among respondents, who have visited Sziget Festival.60 Tab. 19: Responses regarding the visitors´ quality of services, hygiene and security satisfaction of Sziget Festival................................................................................................................................................................60 Tab. 20: Positive responses regarding the Sziget Festival´s ability to affect the image of Budapest............61 Tab. 21: Negative responses regarding the Sziget Festival´s ability to affect the image of Budapest ..........62 Tab. 22: Respondents´ general evaluation of Sziget Festival ..............................................................................63 Tab. 23: Responses regarding the Sziget Festival´s ability to boost the image of Budapest..........................64 Tab. 24: Responses regarding the Sziget Festival could best represent the image of Budapest considering other Hungarian festivals.................................................................................................................................65 Tab. 25: Respondents suggestions regarding the Sziget Festival´s improvement to boost the city image of Budapest.............................................................................................................................................................65 Tab. 26: Responses regarding visiting Budapest Cafe Festival ...........................................................................66 Tab. 27: The number of visits among the respondents who have been to Budapest Cafe Festival.............66 Tab. 28: The number of respondents who went alone or in company to Budapest Café Festival...............67
  7. 7. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles Tab. 29: Most frequently mentioned visit purpose among respondents, who have visited Budapest Café Festival................................................................................................................................................................67 Tab. 30: Responses regarding the visitors´ quality of services, hygiene and security satisfaction of Budapest Café Festival.....................................................................................................................................68 Tab. 31: Positive responses regarding the Budapest Cafe Festival´s ability to affect the image of Budapest .............................................................................................................................................................................69 Tab. 32: Respondents´ general evaluation of Budapest Cafe Festival...............................................................69 Tab. 33: Responses regarding the Budapest Cafe Festival´s ability to boost the image of Budapest...........70 Tab. 34: Responses regarding the Budapest Cafe Festival could best represent the image of Budapest considering other Hungarian festivals ...........................................................................................................71 Tab. 35: Respondents suggestions regarding the Budapest Cafe Festival´s improvement to boost the city image of Budapest ............................................................................................................................................71 Tab. 36: Comparison between the average perceptions of those people who visited Sziget Festival, and those who did not.............................................................................................................................................72 Tab. 37: Comparison between the average perceptions of those local Budapest residents who visited Sziget Festival, and those who did not..........................................................................................................73 Tab. 38: Comparison between the average perceptions of those people who visited Budapest Cafe Festival, and those who did not......................................................................................................................74 Tab. 39: Comparison between the average perceptions of those local Budapest residents who visited Budapest Cafe Festival, and those who did not...........................................................................................74 Tab. 40: The main target audience of Budapest with...........................................................................................75
  8. 8. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles V. Abstract Tourism is an important sector that contributes to the economic-growth of Hungary. Though, Hungary has great possibilities in tourism, it is focused only on a couple of places in the country at this time, particularly in the capital, Budapest. Tourism has around 10% share in Hungary´s GDP production, the greater part of it is generated in the capital. Furthermore, few places are truly known by foreign tourists and that is why it is hard to attract tourists to visit other destinations. The aim of the paper is to ana- lyse the Hungarian festival tourism. Additionally, tourism produces social advantages for the host community in a way of small and medium-sized enterprises development, creation of workplaces, improved in- frastructures. This paper concentrates on the festival tourism sector and its effects on the economy, environment, politics and the socio-cultural being of the host community. Moreover, the affecting part of music festival tourism on the destination image for- mation. This thesis proves that festival tourism induces destination image, but it can be in a positive and negative way, as well. In the recent years, the number of cities that are organizing festivals in order to attract visitors is increasing. Some festivals are even fully financed by the government, in order to shape the image of the city. The main ob- jective of the paper is to offer a practical study of the positive and negative impacts of music festivals in terms of political, economical and environmental. To achieve this goal Sziget festival and Budapest Contemporary Arts Festival will be utilized as case studies in the case of Budapest as a destination. The outcomes of the study show the fact that event tourism can be utilized by host groups as a tool for destination improvement and branding, it can likewise convey nega- tive effects to the group if not appropriately planned and organized. A general conclu- sion is that events influence host groups mostly by building a destination image and by community commitment. The research also gives an answer for in what extent does these music festivals affect the general perceptions that the visitors and non-visitors have about Budapest. Keywords: Budapest, Budapest festival tourism, destination image, brand image
  9. 9. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 1 1. Introduction A music festival is a sort of art or cultural festival that frequently has a theme accord- ing to a certain music genre. Generally, as there are different music classifications, there are diverse sorts of music festivals, for example, classical, jazz, opera, pop or folk. Various music festivals are held in different countries, all over the world consist- ently. “Unlike concerts, where individuals are generally drawn to hear and view a live performance of a specific artist, music festivals often involve a myriad of talent and may or may not follow a particular genre” (Bowen, 2005, p. 155). Festivals are consid- ered as tools in marketing and destination image creation. They are vital subject on the base assortment of tourism research. (Gartner and Holecek, 1983; Getz and Fris- by, 1988; Uysal and Gitelson 1994). Ray (2003) showed that, the festivals have serious effect on the advancement of cultural tourism to the host groups. The festival coordi- nators are currently utilizing the historical and cultural themes to build up the yearly occasions, to pull in guests and to make cultural image in the host communities by holding celebrations. Local society has a crucial role with their way of life and person- ality in development of tourism through celebrations. Correspondingly, researchers (Hall, 2001; Raj, 2003; Inkei, 2005) claimed that, events and festivals assume indis- pensable part on social personality of local society, and have a major potential to pro- duce cultural profundity and prosperity when they take into account out-of-region grants, or sponsorships (Getz, 1997). The main objective of the thesis is to offer a comprehensive and practical study of the impacts of music festivals and events upon a city´s image. To achieve this goal, Sziget Festival and the Budapest Cafe Budapest Contemporary Arts Festival have been se- lected as case studies. In 2015, Sziget won the prize of one of the best major festivals in Europe by the European Festival Awards (Sziget, 2015). With the analysis of these festivals, the effects on the image of Budapest will be evaluated. These events will be analysed regarding their efficiency as a tool to attract and pro- mote tourism in the destination, and their effect on inbound tourism of the country by conducting a comprehensive analysis of case studies and personal interviews. Events and festivals have an important role in a city´s life. There were many changes in the last decades of world economy. One of the most important of them is the in- creasing competition (Chikán, 2006). More and more cities organise festivals in every year, which creates an increasing competition between them. There has been a mas- sive improvement in the festival industry, that the literature explains with the in- creasing amount of people who are looking for active holidays, for instance not for re- laxation but for new experiences, mostly cultural experiences (Getz, 2012).
  10. 10. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 2 The tourism industry of Budapest is making profit out of national and international tourists who are visiting the music festivals. International tourists are extremely im- portant because they may return later to explore the other parts of the country as well. However, these music festivals´ target groups differ from each other, therefore presumably they have different consumer behaviour. The research aims at providing an innovative theoretical and practical overview on the relationship between festivals and events on one hand and the city image on the other. The main objective of the research is to find out in which ways the festivals and events influence the city image of Budapest and in particular how music festival tour- ism affects the image of Budapest. This study will provide useful information by add- ing to the existing literature for both academics and practitioners. The thesis intends to highlight the role of music festival tourism in the case of Buda- pest, by providing a case study for two music festivals with different target groups. It will also try to increase the knowledge about these festivals’ different target groups and their visitors’ consumer behaviour. Moreover, it will analyse their perception about the city by shaped by the events they visited. Furthermore, it intends to provide useful information about the tourists´ opinion about the city from the point of view of the Destination Management Organization.
  11. 11. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 3 2. Festival tourism In order to make the further analysis understandable, the terms and the different kinds of festival tourism will be discussed. Financial supports by the government are crucial in the festival business. The following paragraphs will give a short view on these subsidizations that happened in the last years. Hungarian Festival Association (2009) defines festival as: Festival is an event, whose aim is to provide joint entertaining or leisure-time experience of high quality for the audience, focusing on one or more topics, be- ing organized regularly at one or more scenes, with cultural, art, gastronomi- cal, sport or other programs. Similarly, to the international trends, the festivals are getting more prominent in Hungary. The events and festivals that emphasis on one theme are common in Hun- gary, and their success is presented in the increasing number of visitors. The different events like art, gastronomic sport and music festivals are organized on almost each day of the year. Music festival is important at national and international level, as well since numerous young people visit the Sziget Festival every year (Lele, 2008). Today´s festival tourism is deeply influenced by the traditions of festivals visits formed in the last two decades. It is challenging not to be mixed up in the rundown of festivals, since one is following the other, particularly in the summer season. Festivals can be categorized based on different variables. By the term, we can recognize one-day celebrations, celebrations of a few-days, one-week or even a few month celebrations. According to attraction zone, it can be local, regional, national and international can be recognized. Tourism specialists say that the events that can be reached by a travel of minimum 60 kms and at least one-night stay are crucial from touristic perspective. Another key point is the frequency of the festivals. There are two kinds of events, the single and the periodical (Getz, 1991). Periodical events have significant brand- development impacts, and the thesis will concentrate on these type of festivals.
  12. 12. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 4 2.1 Festival Characteristics This chapter describes the different characteristics that a festival has. The following terms need to be clarified in order to have a proper understanding considering the following parts of the thesis. This list is based on a research that Getz constructed in his Festivals, Special Events and Tourism book. Fig. 1: The main characteristics of a festival Source: Getz (1991, p. 326) Getz describes twelve different festival characteristics. The first one is the festival spirit that stands for the different values that the event reflect. Satisfaction of basic needs is also an important factor. These needs can be physical, interpersonal, social and psychological needs. Every festival has to be unique if they want to be sustainably successful. This means that they need to have diverse programs and they ought to have a distinctive image, promotions, location and an appropriate variety of food and beverages. In the end, the visitor should gather an experience from the event that is Festival Characteristics Festival spirit Satisfaction of basic needs Uniqueness Authenticity Tradition Flexibility Hospitality Tangibility Theming Symbolism Affordability Convenience
  13. 13. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 5 outside the normal ones. Authenticity is a crucial factor of each events. In order to make an event authentic, the participation of hosts, staff, performers and suppliers. Traditions are important and it connects to the authenticity, as well. These are closely associated with the community’s habits and traditions. Events needs to be flexible. They are normally organized with minimal infrastructure. In the changing markets, they need to be adaptable, therefore they need to prove an umbrella with different variety of activities. Hospitality stands for the motivation of host community to partic- ipate on an event. The paper will discuss the different effects that a host community has to face with during an event. The tangibility aspect of a festival stands for the experience that a visitor can have during the connection with a festival’s location and host community. Theming makes the festival really unique. It can be physical mani- festation of features such as tradition, authenticity and festival spirit. Symbolism is when the parts of a production can relate to cultural values, political or economic ob- jects. Affordability is another factor that is crucial for both the organizers and the vis- itors. This means that the event can provide affordable leisure activities, social and cultural experiences. Last but not least, the convenience, what is about the access to leisure and social opportunities and activities (Getz, 1991 p.326) The next section will describe the different financial activities that happened in the last years in the festival industry in Hungary. This part of the thesis will highlight the importance of this tourism activity, with the data that is collected about the vari- ous financial funds by the government. 2.2 Festival tourism funds in Hungary Festival tourism got high priority in the Cultural Tourism Strategy of the Ministry of Education and Culture, as well. The strategy concentrates on the vital social occasions (Cultural Capital of Europe, Hungarian Town of Culture and other important exhibi- tions and international seasons), and at the same time numerous festivals were sup- ported by the Ministry of Municipalities in the setting of National Cultural Fund. The affirmation of celebrations is reflected by the way that the ministries concerned sup- ported the occasions with billions of Forints (40 occasions got HUF 300 million in 2007, while 45 occasions got HUF 400 million in 2008 (Mányai, 2009). Additioanally, smaller events had the chance to get HUF 800 million through regional projects in 2008. In 2009, the public project fund was HUF 700 million, from which 63 festivals could get support. HUF 100 million was accessible for gastronomic events with cul- tural goals. Festival tourism is additionally incorporated into the complemented tour- istic investments of the New Hungary Development Plan: the celebration venue in Tokaj got a financial support of more than HUF 2 billion (Mányai, 2009).
  14. 14. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 6 As stated by the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), European na- tions are major ones among the most competitive countries considering the touristic aspects. 139 countries were listed in 2011 on the touristic competitiveness rank. Hun- gary was the 38th in 2011 (Turizmus Panoráma Bulletin, 2011). In 2004 when Hungary joined the European Union, the number of foreign tourists visiting Hungary was expanding gradually. About 34 million individuals went to Hungary in 2004, which increased to nearly 41 million by 2009. The number of indi- viduals going for festivals has expanded significantly. At present, there are 3,000 do- mestic festivals listed. Now, around 33% of the Hungarian population is "festival fan". The most famous ones are the gastronomic and pop music celebrations. A large por- tion of the Hungarian individuals (9 out of 10) know no less than one Hungarian cele- bration. As much as 68.5% of the Hungarians arranged going to celebrations in the Year of Festivals. Aggregate of 65.1% of the Hungarians partook in no less than one celebration between January 2007 and March 2010. This part of the paper highlighted the fact that, festival tourism is an important way to promote the destination in Hungary. The Ministry of Education and Culture, there- fore give funds to these event coordinators, in order to boost the tourism in the area. These events are quite important for the host communities, as well due to job crea- tion. This kind if advantage is discussed in a more accurate and detailed way. The next chapter discusses the image formation that a destination can have.
  15. 15. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 7 3. Tourist destination image formation The previous sections of the paper have already discussed why festival tourism is im- portant in Hungary, and how does it attract the tourists to visit the country. Festival tourism has a crucial role in the destination image formation. The following chapters will discuss how a destination image is created. Moreover, it will highlight the fact that the consumers play an important role in how the image is perceived. In the fol- lowing part, where the impact of events on the destination image will be discussed, the paper will give a more detailed overview of how these events are taking part in the image formation. The perceived image that the tourists have about a certain destination plays a crucial the in their selection process. The image that the tourists have about a tourist desti- nation is ultimately influencing the final choice or behavioural intention (Chen and Tsai, 2007), therefore it needs to be observed and analysed in order to fully under- stand their demands and needs. Lawson and Baud Bovy explains the destination im- age as, the expression of all objective knowledge, impressions, prejudices, imagina- tions, and emotions that an individual or group about a particular location might have. (Lawson and Baud Bovy, 1977). Other writers describe the image as a summary of all beliefs, ideas and impressions that people ally with a destination (Crompton, 1979; Kotler, Haider and Rein, 1994). Valls (1992) created a definition from the consumer´s point of view, defining the coun- try´s image as a sum of consumer perceptions. Bigne, Sanchez and Sanchez (2001) describe destination image as the personal interpretation of reality by the tourist. As a consequence, the image that the tourists have about a particular destination is pre- dominantly subjective, because it is based on perceptions that every tourist have about the destinations where they have been before or heard of (San Martín and Ro- driguez, 2008). In any case, the most recent guidance for Tourism Marketing acknowledged that the improvement of the image of a tourist destination depends on the purchaser's ration- ality and emotionality, and the consequence of the blend of the two primary elements (Moutinho, 1987, Gartner, 1993; Baloglu and Brinberg, 1997; Walmsley and Young, 1998; Baloglu and McCleary, 1999a, 1999b; Dobni and Zinkhan, 1990; Lin, Duarte, Kerstetter and Hou, 2007) The first one is the perceptual and cognitive when there is a priority of the significance and value given to every characteristics of tourist desti- nations. To put it another way, the destination image is assessed by the characteris- tics of its resources and attractions (Stabler, 1995) which inspire tourists to visit that destination (Alhemoud and Armstrong, 1996, Schneider and Sönmez, 1999; Gallarza, Saura and Garcia, 2002; Beerli and Martin, 2004; Govers and Go, 2005). The second is the affective element, which means that, alluding to sentiments and feelings raised by
  16. 16. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 8 tourist destinations (Keller, 1993; Rial et al., 2000; Rial Garcia and Varela, 2008). This emotional part is firmly influenced by the inspirations of tourists (Beerli and Martin, 2004). It is also substantial to mention that the cognitive component of the image considera- bly affects the affective component (Holdbrook, 1978, Russell and Pratt, 1980; Anand, Holbrook and Stephens, 1988, Stern and Krakover, 1993, Lin et al. 2007; Ryan and Cave, 2007). This socio-demographic attributes of tourists likewise largely affect the cognitive and affective assessment of the whole image (Beerli & Martín, 2004). Along these lines, the general image of the destination is a blend of cognitive and af- fective elements (Mazursky and Jacoby, 1986, Stern and Krakover, 1993), though the real experience of having been traveling at a tourist destination significantly affects the destination image from a psychological and sentimental perspective (Beerli and Martín, 2004). 3.1 The impact of events and festivals on the city image Urban communities have long used mega events, for example world fairs, expos, sport occasions as a method to improve their economy, infrastructure and to develop their image (Getz, 1991). Recent studies of city marketing and tourism have showed the growing number of events (Law, 1993; Robertson and Guerrier, 1998; Waitt, 1999, 2003; Schuster, 2001). This trend can be connected to a general growth in competition between cities for the essential stakeholders, like customers, investors and policy makers. As an effect of the raising number of integration of the global economy, more and more places are taking part in this competitive environment. Meanwhile, the in- frastructure and services are becoming more and more similar. Cities, consequently need to discover better approaches to differentiate themselves from their rivals. As Paddison (1993) points out, city marketing is frequently used to support infrastruc- tural developments. For instance, signature buildings are often included in the cities´ strategies in order to build up an image or brand, and also to have a competitive ad- vantage, frequently for a great financial expense. Paddison (1993) also underlines the relative inflexibility of such infrastructure based procedures. The high price to create such landmarks is nevertheless among the most significant reasons why occasions turned into an undeniably important aspect of inter-urban competition in these years. Occasions are adding flexibility to fixed structures, and also adds to the image value of a landmark. Hall´s research also highlights that, festivals and events have an effect on the image “hallmark events may be regarded as the image makers of modern tour- ism” (Hall, 1992, p. 155).
  17. 17. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 9 Events might also inspire people to visit a place more than once, and by organizing distinctive occasions, a city might profile itself in various diverse potential markets. Urban communities, therefore rival fiercely for the honour of facilitating occasions, for instance the Olympic Games, the World Cup Final or a World Expo (Hall, 1992). Ur- ban areas have ended up as stages for a consistent stream of occasions, which lead in the long run to the "festivalisation" of the city and “festival marketplaces” (Harvey, 1991). With the development of the “symbolic economy” (Lash and Urry, 1994; Zukin, 1995) and the “experience economy” (Pine and Gilmore, 1999), society has gotten to be increasingly significant as a method for consuming the city (Ritzer, 1999). In such an atmosphere, cultural occasions in particular have risen as a method for improving the picture of urban areas, adding life to city boulevards and giving the local society a pride in their home city. This improvement of community pride and destination picture following an occasion has been alluded to as the “halo effect” (Hall, 1992), the “showcase effect” (Fredline and Faulkner, 1998) and the ‘feel- good effect’ (Allen et al., 2002). Zukin (1995, p. 268) argues that: Culture is a euphemism for the city’s new representation as a creative force in the emerging service economy ... [and that] ...culture is the sum of a city’s amenities that enable it to compete for investment and jobs, its ‘comparative advantage’ (Zukin, 1995, p. 268). Zukin´s perspective of “culture” as covering every services of a city shows the fact that the concept of “culture has extended to take not just “traditional”, “high” culture at- tractions for instance museums, theatres or concert venues, but also encompasses the elements of “popular” culture, like pop music and fashion (Appadurai, 1990). High culture and popular culture have turned to significant sources for the images which are used to strengthen the “brand image” of cities (Kearns and Philo, 1993). Expanding rivalry between urban areas in a congested field of images is one of the main considerations empowering cities to accept such branding strategies, or even “hard branding” (Evans, 2003; Meurs and Verheijen, 2003) that tries to change fixed cultural capital into competitive advantage through the arranging of cultural occa- sions or the construction of cultural landmarks. As Hannigan (2003) proposes, an ef- fective brand ought to be an immediately recognizable and it should have a point of identification for consumers in a swarmed commercial place. Marketing management requests an attentive analysis of the brand image that is broadcasted in the market. The image will have an effect on the consumer´s choice. Brand management frequently relies on a medium-long term strategy, that bases on the objective of the brand (Moutinho, 1987; García, 2002; Rial, & García Varela, 2008).
  18. 18. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 10 Bauerle (1983) considers brand image as a mental representation, while Costa (1987) characterizes it as a mental representation in the collective memory of a stereotype or an arrangement of properties that can affect and change buyer conduct. Both writers (Bauerle, 1983; Costa, 1987) present the idea of brand image as a mental representa- tion. Keller (1993) characterizes brand image more concisely as an arrangement of observation about a brand, i.e., the associations that the consumers have in their memories about a certain brand. Brand image is characterized by an intense subjective part and is in this manner hard to work with. Along these lines, a standout among the most critical points for brand management is the presence of Public Relations (PR) which, as Avenarius (1993) states, turns into a tool empowering associations to work strategically with brand im- age to build up the coveted corporate image when utilized with consistent and coher- ent communication. In particular, Hunt and Grunig (1994) characterize the system of PR as the procedure of managing communication between an association and its open market. Alluding to the procedure required by PR, Marken (1994) brings up that such connec- tions make it feasible to secure the image and notoriety of associations. In this way image and notoriety get to be basic components for business accomplishment and are not abstract, and reputation is the arrangement of values that stakeholders link to an organization depending on their observation and translation of its brand image. This part of the thesis discussed how an event impacts a destination´s image. Moreo- ver, the importance of brand image and its affect on the consumer´s choice was also mentioned. The next part of the thesis highlights the positive and negative effects of festivals on a destination. 3.2 The positive and negative effects of festivals on a destina- tion A lot of studies relating to art festivals affirm the effect of music festivals, this incor- porates more intense place promotion, city image improvement, tourism improve- ment, and financial development. The cultural effect of events is firmly identified with commercial tourism and is attached to the local economy and venue advancement. (Grodach & Loukaitou-Sideris, 2007; Richard & Wilson, 2004). Arts festivals are connected to the spots they are held in. Edinburgh Festival, Cannes Festival and the Salzburger Festspiele, include the name of the city in the festival name. Prentice and Andersen (2008, p. 22) state that festival tourists may have more sophisticated images of festivals if this involves place. This connection with an area can perfect the image of the city.
  19. 19. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 11 Music festivals likewise add to the advancement of tourism. Felsenstein and Flesicher (2003) contend that festivals are utilized as a way to help tourism escalate across the world (2003, p. 385). As an after effect of a more intense image and more visitors, the host urban communities and groups of festivals appreciate monetary advantages that spread to different sectors, as well. Waterman (1998, p. 262) confirms that “cultural facets of festivals cannot be divorced from commercial interests of tourism, regional and local economy and place promotions”. Festivals have a number of impacts on the host city such as, economic, cultural, social, environmental and so on. These have pos- itive and negative effects on the host cities, as well. The positive stream of revenue into a destination ought not be the main variable considered while deciding the clear accomplishment of an occasion. The negative social effects of an occasion can do in- credible damage to the eventual fate of an event and its host area, and ecological ef- fects might bring the unexpected passing of an inadequately managed event or festi- val. There are numerous other positive effects that might counter negative financial effects. An event that scatter the seasonality of tourism in an area additionally evenly spread the stream of money into a destination, expanding the open doors for full-time employment. The presentation of more full-time occupations into a region creates numerous positive and negative stream on impacts in that area. Hence, these impacts are measured through the utilization of what are termed multipliers. To determine the success of a festival both sides need to be considered, however more effort tend to be put on positive effects. “It is reported that festivals contribute to the local regenera- tion and prosperity of the destination. This is because it generates new employment opportunities” (Prentice and Andersen, 2003; Smith, 2004). It also boosts the im- provement of the infrastructure. Bachleitner and Zins (1992) stated that festival tour- ism contributes to locals learning, increases the community pride, identity, and also raise the opening of small and medium sized family enterprises. Furthermore, cultur- al festivals help to establish multicultural and intercultural communication between the hosts and the guests (Sdrali and Chazapi, 2007). Falassi (1987, p. 2) defines cul- tural festival as: A periodically recurrent, social occasion in which, through a multiplicity of forms and series of coordinated events, participate directly or indirectly and to various degree, all members of a whole community, united by ethnic, lin- guistic, religious, historical bonds, and sharing a world view. Festivals and events are considered now as promoting tools for destinations. They are a strong contributor to the society. They also support, build and affect the city image, generate employment for artists and host community and gain the cultural diversity. The consequence of an event may be ostensible before the occasion begins, during the occasion or after it. The impact may be felt by different sectors like stakeholders counting members, regional business and the local society. An event will influence individuals in diverse ways, therefore there may be prejudice in the distribution of
  20. 20. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 12 effects and advantages. Positive effects are the consequence of prosperous events. It is the obligation of the occasion´s coordinators or supervisors to attempt to keep positive effects and not the negative ones. It is essential to consider whole outcomes to accomplish a positive effect of the occa- sion. The host group ought not overlook that the events are potentially spend money on diverse sectors such as, food and beverages, lodging, transportation and other facil- ities. In any case, the 'triple primary concern' of social, monetary and natural objectives ought not be underrated, because government policies usually recognize them. For example, social and cultural advantages have an indispensable influence in the esti- mation of an event´s general effect. Underneath the table, the main effects of the oc- casions are examined from both positive and negative viewpoints (Allen, O ́Toole, Ha- ris & Mcdonnel 2011, p. 60). IMPACTS OF EVENTS POSITIVE IMPACTS NEGATIVE IMPACTS Social and cultur- al impacts Shared experience Community alienation Revitalization of tradition Manipulation of community Building of community pride Negative community image Validation of community group Bad behaviour Increased community participa- tion Substance abuse Introduction of new and chal- lenging ideas Social dislocation Expansion of cultural perspec- tives Loss of amenities Political International prestige Risk of event failure Improved profile Misallocation of funds Promotion of investment Lack of accountability Social cohesion Propaganda Development of administrative skills Loss of community owner- ship and control Environmental Showcasing the environment Environmental damage
  21. 21. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 13 Tab. 1: The impacts of events Source: Adapted from Allen et al. 2010, p 61. Getz (1994) proposes that there are five distinctive methodologies that can be utilized for Event Impact Assessment. Table 2 demonstrates these different methodologies, their objectives and regularly utilized measures for their evaluation. The way to any of these strategies is to acquire exact information and data whereupon to assess the events monetary effect. Provision of model for best prac- ticing Pollution Increases environmental awareness Destruction of heritage Infrastructural legacy Noise disturbance Improved transport and com- munication Traffic congestion Urban transformation and re- newal Tourism and eco- nomic Destination promotion and in- creased tourist visits Community resistance in tourism Extended length of stay Loss of authenticity Job creation Damage of reputation Business opportunities Exploitation Increased tax revenue Opportunity costs
  22. 22. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 14 APPROACHES GOALS COMMONLY USED MEASURES Break-Even or Profit/Loss - Short term assessment of financial efficiency or solvency - Measure direct costs and revenues to organizers Determine surplus or deficit (profit or loss) Return on Invest- ment - Show the benefits of grants or scholarship - Calculate ROI for pri- vate investors or owners - Determine the relationship be- tween grants/scholarship and lev- els of visitation or economic bene- fits Use standard ROI accounting practices Economic Scale - Determine the economic scale of one or more events from the destina- tion perspective - Measure total attendance and ex- penditure of event consumers, plus organizers’ expenditures Economic Impact - Determine the macroe- conomic benefits to the destination area - Estimate direct and indirect in- come and employment benefits - Often uses multipliers or econo- metric models Costs and Benefits - Evaluate the costs and benefits from the per- spective of the host community and envi- ronment - Determine the net work value of the event - Compare tangible and intangible costs and benefits short and long- term - Assess opportunity costs of in- vestments - Examine the distribution of im- pacts - Judge the net worth and accepta- bility of the event(s) Tab. 2: Approaches to event impact assessment Source: Getz 1994 Numerous event coordinators and provincial and local tourism associations analyse or wish to analyse the economic impact or macroeconomic advantages of their events or festivals upon the destination, through evaluating the direct and secondary ad- vantages of facilitating their festivals at the destination district. This methodology frequently utilizes either business or customer surveys and also multiplier or econo- metric models. After the description of the positive and negative effects that can have a music festi- val, moreover the different approaches that can be utilized by event conductors, the next chapter describes the various motivator factors that can boost the music festival tourists´ intention to visit an event.
  23. 23. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 15 4. Music festival tourists’ motivators In the last decades’ festival and event tourism became one of the quickest developing areas of the world leisure industry (Getz, 1991; Nicholson & Pearce, 2001), therefore more and more researchers analyse these sectors of the tourism. Furthermore, besides the regular topics such as economic impact, marketing strategies of mega-events, and festival management (Getz, 1999; Gnoth & Anwar, 2000; Raltson & Hamilton, 1992; Ritchie, 1984), there are more researches focusing on the motivations of the visitors. It became a fact that, motivations or the “internal factor that arouses, directs, and integrates a person’s behaviour” (Iso-Ahola 1980, cited in Crompton & McKay, 1997, p. 425), leads to better planning and marketing of festivals and events, and better segmentation of participants. Crompton and McKay (1997) were the first who described why the analysis of the mo- tivations for festivals are so crucial. According to them, studying festival and event motivation factors is important for understanding the visitors´ decision making pro- cesses. Moreover, it is a helpful tool in the service creation process. The association between tourists´ socio-psychological necessities and festival participation motivation has given a good starting point for the studies in the topic (Crompton, 2003). Getz (1991, p. 85) connected Maslow's frequently utilized hierarchy of human needs to tourists´ travel motivators, and the benefits that an event or festival can provide them. In this manner, Getz proposed that guests' needs and travel inspirations might be satisfied by taking part in festivals and occasions. In other words, going to festivals and events is a compelling approach to fulfil one's social-psychological requirements. Maslow´s Hierarchy of Needs involves five level of needs in hierarchical order. These needs are physiological, safety and security, social, self-esteem and self-actualization. Maslow said that customers want to fulfil their lower level needs at first, then they seek to satisfy their upper level needs. The model acknowledged that there is some cover between the levels, since there is no need that it is ever completely fulfilled. As one climbs up on the need hierarchy, one moves far from fundamental biogenic needs to more psychogenic needs. In this procedure, the individual develops "psychologically and comes to develop more wants and to seek a greater variety of ways to satisfy par- ticular motives” (Loudon and Della Bitta 1993, p. 334). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs gives a helpful system to observe the motivations in general, despite the fact that it has had restricted achievement in foreseeing particular behaviour (Loudon and Della Bitta 1993). From the tourism point of view, for instance, in spite of the fact that an individual might be working at an upper level in Maslow's Hierarchy, travel choices have regu- larly been observed to be controlled by safety necessities which mirror the significance of a lower level need. This model additionally gives a helpful means for segmenting
  24. 24. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 16 the market, but as a consequence of the nature of motives, it is hard to test this model empirically. Once an extraordinary event coordinator has a comprehension of what motivates a group of customers to visit events and festivals, or actually what blocks others from going to, it is feasible for the coordinator to alter the events´ special offers and to guarantee the maximum fulfilment of the target segments´ demands. However, it is infrequent that organizers consider the thought motives of non-buyers or non- participants but doing as such can upgrade the comprehension of buyer or participant intentions (Ross 1994). Another way clarify travel motivation is the harmony between "push" and "pull" fac- tors (Crompton 1979). Push factors, for example, relaxation, escape, want for sociali- zation, and respect, are inside of people and provoke them to travel. Pull factors, are those that are controlled or impacted by the destination itself. Inspiration to travel can be seen as a blend of both push and pull factors. Understanding the motivation of the visitors in connection with events and festivals is crucial in order to incredibly improve the uniqueness of the events and to create better services for the target audi- ence. A large part of the visitors during the destination scanning process attempt to charac- terize important criteria on which to base their choices. Such criteria incorporate the way of the event itself, the venue, different attractions in the range, ticket cost, and so on. Moreover, to what degree the occasions will address their necessities. Both the internal and external pull factors are taking an important role in the decision making process. Bowdin et al. (2006, p.194) lists the external social factors as the influence of family and home, the reference groups, the authors of an opinion or leaders in giving opinion, the culture and the external demand. The influence of family and home takes a role in the decision making process in a way that, there is a need for family togetherness. It is claimed as a strong motivator. Those groups that have an effect on the behaviour of the individuals are the so-called reference groups. These can be the family, colleagues or neighbours. These are the primary reference group. The so-called secondary refer- ence group, are those who only rarely get into contact with the individuals who are intended to go for an event. The third main external factor are the authors of an opin- ion or those who are leaders in giving an opinion. These individuals inside of any groups, whose perspectives with respect to the experience of occasions or relaxation exercises are looked for and generally acknowledged. These pioneers in giving opin- ions are frequently the celebrities of the media, theatre or the sport games. Culture incorporates information, convictions, art, ethics, laws, traditions and differ- ent capabilities and habits that one individual from the general public receives. Ex-
  25. 25. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 17 ternal demand, which incorporates a reference group or different sources might be the reason of a prolonged decision making process. An entire scope of inward impacts additionally influences buyers' choices about at- tending the occasions. These impacts incorporate observations about how to choose and handle data, learning and memory, thought processes, identity attributes and states of mind of customers. An empirical study on the motivation processes in going to events arisen in the 1990's. Three theories have been summarized by the authors of Awelsen and Arcodia, Bowdin et al. (2006, p.195). First is the hierarchy of satisfying needs what was mentioned al- ready in the previous sections before. This theory is based upon Maslow’s hierarchy of needs starting from psychological to self-realization needs. These need to be fulfilled. The push and pull motives, where the push factor stands for the attractive aspects of an event, while the pull factor pulls away the individual from a certain event. Last but not least the internal motives for leisure activities. This happens when the person is looking for change in everyday life. Bowdin et al. (2006, p.196) differentiates two specific values that correspond in the decision making process. On one hand, the functional values, for example, impression of the price–quality ratio of a specific occasion, and the difficulty of access, can rule the decision making process. On the other hand, the emotional values can be powerful (plausible impacts of the celebration experience on the state of mind. Other values that suit the essence of future visitors of an event might be the suitable transporta- tion, the music quality or the accommodation. Visitors start to contrast what they anticipated from occasions with what they en- countered after the participation on an event. This is their post-going assessment of the experience (Bowdin et al. 2006, p.197). Customer desires emerge from a combina- tion of marketing communications, which is arranged by coordinators of the occasion, telling friends and family members, contrasting related knowledge with comparative occasion, and the image of the festival trademark. Information of the proportion be- tween the satisfaction of festival attendees, their view about the quality of services are extremely important for showcasing experts who wish to assemble a market for loyal visitors. There are mainly three reasons why it is important to put some effort in understand- ing the festival visitors’ motives. Primarily, it is vital to plan visitor-targeted offers that relates to the advertising announcement that says that individuals do not pur- chase items or services, however purchase the advantages that benefits their needs. Following the components of the occasion program must be intended to fulfil diverse necessities, it is imperative to recognize the requirements of various sort of guests. Recognizable proof of their needs is an essential for effective improvement of the pro-
  26. 26. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 18 PHYSICAL NEEDS MOTIVATE PEOPLE TO SEEK: - Exercise - Food and beverage - Relaxation and escape - Safety and comfort - Earning and living - Sexual gratification - Sport and recreation for fitness - Relaxing with entertainment - Escape within a special atmosphere - Conducting business - Eating and drinking in a safe, pleasant envi- ronment - Some events are sexually oriented - Learning through exhibitions, interpretation, conferences - Appreciation of the arts - Discovery of the unfamiliar (foods, crafts, costumes, traditions) - Opportunities to participate in unusual expe- riences (highly targeted events catering to special interests) THE NEED FOR UNDERSTANDING AESTHETIC APPRECIATION GROWTH AND SELF-FULFILMENT Motivates people to seek: - New experiences and learning - Appreciation of beauty - Fantasy - Fulfilling experiences (what are your dreams and ambitions? BELONGING, LOVE, THE ESTEEM OF OTHERS Motivates people to seek: - Togetherness with family and/or friends - Links to cultural, ethnic or racial roots - Expressions of group identity - Opportunities for achievement and recognition, - Status and prestige - Quality time for family and friends - Places to mix and meet people - Tangible access to traditions and other cul- tures - Celebration of community and group identi- ty, symbolism, rituals - Competitions and rewards - Being part of a prestigious event (as VIP or volunteer) gramming components, services, and marketing. When these necessities are not com- prehended, different components of the outcome are prone to be introduced in a non- ideal manner. Another purpose behind wanting a superior comprehension of guests thought processes lies in the close relationship between motives and fulfilment rating, while a third reason is to facilitate effective advertising activities (Crompton and McKay 1997, p.426). Fig. 2: Needs, motives and benefits offered by events Source: Adapted from Getz (2005, p.331)
  27. 27. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 19 Figure 2 shows three essential classes of requirements, particular motivational pro- cesses emerging from each of the necessities that can create visits to manifestations, and the appropriate advantages given by the cultural manifestations. Mixes of these essential advantages will pull in guests to any sort of occasion in any environment. Visitors of a festival or an event are intending to meet one of them, or all of the needs related to their visits in the event. Along these lines, motivational study identified that the event must incorporate the reasons why individuals contribute in the occa- sion and the essential benefits that the guest will gain at the occasion. A choice to go to an occasion is motivated by a craving for escape and the yearning for the journey of new encounters identified with interpersonal needs, and individual needs of the per- son. Motives can be gathered into two classifications, to be specific: inner inspirations emerging from individual needs, including search and escape, and outside intentions that emerge from the impact of others. These two classes together give clarifications why numerous individuals go to occasions without a communicated enthusiasm for the subject or program of the appearance or the occasion. The third classification comprises of motifs profoundly identified with the occasion, which is converted into the idea of target-benefit advertising. There are numerous barriers to interest; some individual has time, cash and social impact barriers. Others identified with the occasion itself such as area, access and cost. Regardless of the possibility that a consumer goes to an occasion, there might be legitimate reasons why that experience never happens. Understanding the consumer decision-making process for occasions and celebrations is supported by the accompa- nying PIECE acronym: Problem recognition Difference between someone’s existing state and their de- sired state relative to leisure consumption Information search Internal or external search; limited or extensive search processes of leisure (including event) solutions Evaluation and selection Evaluation and selection of leisure alternatives Choosing Choosing whether to attend an event and which optional purchases to make at the event of a festival Evaluate experience Evaluation of the post-event experience Tab. 3: Decision making process (manifestation visitors) - PIECE Source: Adapted from Bowdin et al. 2006 p193.
  28. 28. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 20 5. Festival Attendees and their loyalty The previous section of the thesis discussed the different motivators that can effect the visitors´ consumer behaviour. The importance of Maslow´s Hierarchy of Needs was also mentioned, that is a key element in the case of motivation description. This chapter will highlight the difference between first-time visitors and repeat visitors´ consumer behaviour, travel motivation, perceived value and their destination percep- tion. Furthermore, it will clarify the significance of loyalty towards the festivals from the visitors. Resident festivals are progressively used to advance tourism and further improve the local economy (Felsenstein and Fleischer, 2003). Since, there are diverse sorts of visi- tors who go to festivals, past studies highlighted the distinction and significance of local community and guests who do not live locally because of their different behav- iour (Bagelym and Mokhtarian, 2002; Felsenstein and Fleischer, 2003; Formica and Uysal, 1996; Liang, Illum, and Cole, 2008). For instance, visitors who are local inhab- itants are found to have distinctive spending behavior contrasted with non-local peo- ple (Felsenstein and Fleischer, 2003). In addition, studies showed distance as a com- pelling element for traveling inspiration, behavioural intention, and the sort of activi- ties individuals join in (Lentnek, Harwitz, and Narula, 1981; Liang, Illum, and Cole, 2008). festival visitors can be gathered into two classes: first-time visitors and repeat visitors (Lau and McKercher, 2004; McKercher and Wong, 2004). First-time visitors are those participants who have found the event and are encountering it for the first time, while repeat visitors have already gained commonality and fulfilment with the experience (Lau and McKercher, 2004). Both first-time and repeat visitors have an essential part in the success and sustainability of the event. It has been found that these two groups contrast significantly socio-demographics, behavioural attributes, destination percep- tion, perceived value, and travel motivations. While first-time visitors have been found to spend a major amount of money during the festival, repeat-visitors have been found to stay longer and spend more – a demonstration of their reliability. Subse- quently, this segment of repeat-visitors embodies an appealing and financially im- portant market segment for events (Kruger, Saayman, and Ellis, 2010). Loyalty, just like in other sectors, is important in the festival tourism, as well. Hospi- tality marketing managers have focused their concentration on customer loyalty and applied strategies to the tourism setting in light of the fact that loyal customers are known as less price-sensitive, require less promotions, and pull in new clients through positive word-of-mouth storytelling (Jacoby and Chestnut, 1978; Oliver, 1999; Opper- man, 2000; Petrick, 2004).
  29. 29. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 21 Various studies have discovered loyalty among visitors to be a valuable marker for getting to general tourism experience, and that tourism loyalty is illustrative of future traveller behavioural; the majority of this is affected by tourism experiences, and can offer administrators some assistance with developing proper promoting techniques (Lee and Hsu, 2013; Lee, Yoon, and Lee, 2007; Um, Chon, and Ro, 2006). Chen and Chen (2010) claims that experience quality can be made by expanding a tourist´s in- terest and involvement, along these lines prompting a view of worth and fulfilment; the majority of this adds to visitors´ loyalty. A late study by Son and Lee (2011) dis- tinguished three festival quality variables: general features, comfort amenities, and socialization. While each of the three festival quality variables were found to have an immediate and positive effect on future aims of suggestion and revisit, the general features factor was found to have the best effect on re-visit goal, and incorporated the accompanying festival quality characteristics: assorted qualities of activities, entertainment sound system, promotion and information, festival environment, entertainment stages, ac- cessibility, wellbeing and security, and food and beverages. This discovery is alike to that of a past study by Cole and Illum (2006), which likewise proposed direct relationship between festival quality and revisit to behaviour inten- tion. Loyalty is a multifaceted substance and has been seen as a three dimensional idea including behavioural, attitudinal, and composite (Backman and Crompton, 1991; Bowen and Chen, 2001). The behavioural viewpoint measures loyalty as the static result of a dynamic procedure. It concentrates fundamentally on behavioural results and can be surveyed through repeat buying intentions, purchasing behaviour, (for example, frequency, intensity, proportion), and verbal suggestions (Baloglu, 2002; Opperman, 2000). The attitudinal methodology conceptualizes loyalty as attitudes that are considered as an element of a mental procedure (Jacoby and Chestnut, 1978). The attitudinal point of view measures loyalty as an affection toward a brand through markers, for example, trust, enthusiastic connection, and responsibility (Baloglu, 2002; Bowen and Shoemaker, 2003; Morgan and Hunt, 1994). Composite loyalty suggests that neither the behavioural nor the attitudinal dedication approach alone portrays loyalty completely. Rather it recommends that loyalty ought to be all the while considered from a behavioural and an attitudinal point of view. In particular, a genuine loyal client must both buy the brand and have an inspirational attitude towards the brand in the meantime (Backman and Crompton, 1991; Bowen and Chen, 2001; Dick and Basu, 1994; Petrick, 2004). Along these lines, this study measured loyalty from a coordinated point of view by including both the behavioural and the attitudinal angles.
  30. 30. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 22 6. Key stakeholders of festivals Because of the quick development of the festival business, distinctive stakeholders have gotten to be interested and pulled in, and therefore included themselves by demonstrating their support for the industry. Government and corporate sector are presently taking part of this profoundly professionalized industry. It is not enough anymore, if the needs of the audience are satisfied, but it is also important to meet other criteria, for example government goals and regulations, sponsor demands, local community expectations and media requisites. Some key stakeholders in the festival industry are the host organization, local community, sponsors, media, participants and colleagues. Fig. 3: The relationship of stakeholders to events Source: Adapted from Allen et al. 2011 p.127 The diagram above shows the relationship between these different stakeholders and Event Festival host organization Host community, residents Sponsors Media Co-workers, Volunteers Performers, SuppliersLocal government Regional NGOs University, schools Local business Community champions State/Federal agencies Visitors Participation/support
  31. 31. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 23 the festival industry itself, furthermore delineates their functions and benefits. The festival industry unites these stakeholders and without these partners, the event in- dustry could not be set up neither would it be able to work. The following subchapters describes all of these stakeholders and their roles in an event organizing procedure. 6.1 The festival host organization These are associations whose obligations incorporate arranging or facilitating events for different reasons. While the vast majority of the celebrations are organized by gov- ernmental and non-profit, community-based associations, other expanding types of events being composed by revenue driven associations, financial improvement and tourism agencies, and destination and facility managers. Governmental agencies and volunteers predominantly create events, like sport and leisure events that are based on services and their objectives are cultural, economical and environmental. These occasions are generally a community developmental instrument, free or affordable but targeted at the most extensive conceivable people and in some cases at particular market segments. Regardless of generating income and attracting guests are being the main focus of these occasions, the local community´s demands and effects are likewise essential (Getz 1997, p.42). These sectors regularly attempt to work with the public event sector that gives oppor- tunity for cooperate sponsorships and facilitating. There are additionally entrepre- neurs included in the corporate sector whose goal is organizing or selling the events. They can cover wide assortment of occasions, for instance sports, concerts, confer- ences, exhibitions etc. for the audience, and in most cases the media work with these entrepreneurs or teams in forming these events (Allen et al. 2011, p.127). 6.2 The host community Residents or tourism destinations inclined to brand themselves by giving some type of main tourism product for which they will be recognized. Therefore, they organize some specific type of event, which has been labelled as impermanent attractions (Cooper, Fletcher, Fyall, Gilbert and Wanhill 2008, p.313) Climate change is one significant issue that is presently influencing the facilitation of events and hence, there the protection of the environment and the importance of sus- tainability is increasing. Another issue is globalization. This factor has made it prob- lematic to for local societies to keep up their uniqueness and characteristic. For ex- ample, local festivals and events now consider the international goods and stream- lined television production as major rivals because of the increased desires that it caused among the audience. Another issue is technology, which has affected much on how the audience informed about events, and also on the development and presenta- tion of events. During the time spent arranging the occasions nowadays, software
  32. 32. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 24 programmes has an important role in decreasing the planning procedure, furthermore event managers are able to work on various events simultaneously (Allen et al 2011, p.129). Considering these factors, and how they affect the organization or the host communi- ty, the event manager has to pay attention on benefits of the local community. Pro- gramming ought to be extensive and the event should give back something tangible to the group (Getz 1997, p.47). 6.3 Sponsors Sponsors in the festival industry can be individuals or companies who offer support financially or in terms of services to events and organizers in order to have specified benefits. They could likewise be considered as people or organizations giving financial supports to events unless there are no responsibilities tied to the support. Most of the time, sponsorships are for short-term but they establish a long term partnership, which his important for both the sponsor and organizer, as well. These partnerships tend to be created when both sides work to have benefits that separately could not be achieved. Long-term partnerships are important in order to know each other´s goals and interests (Getz 1997, p.44). In recent times, the number of sponsors that are interested in events is increasing. Formerly, numerous business people or extensive organizations have seen sponsoring an event as a PR tool, but in recent times it is viewed as a promotional tool in the marketing mix, a method for expanding brand awareness and to increase sales. Event managers, in order to secure the sponsorship for any events, they must offer remark- able and tangible benefits to sponsors. They also need to know what the sponsors want from the event, and what can the events offer them. Sometimes the sponsors needs can differ from the event organizers´ goals. For instance, it can happen that the media coverage has a higher priority for the sponsors than the number of audience. Event managers need to consider that sponsors´ goal is to increase sales, moreover to establish a better customer relationship. In order to reach these objects, sponsors of- ten use events. For this reason, event management ought to consider sponsors as business partners in the project (Allen et al. 2011, p. 132). 6.4 Media There has been a significant development in the media sector in the recent years, con- sidering the Internet, as an improved distribution system. Due to this fact, the con- sumption for media products is increasing. The worldwide networking of media organ- izations and the immediate transmission of data have made reality from the global village concept. For example, the Beijing Olympics amusement pulled in the biggest worldwide audience ever which added up to 70 percent of the world´s population, in
  33. 33. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 25 other words that means 4.7 billion viewers. The social media has additionally added to the advancements of events. The organizers are now able to communicate with the audience through these platforms. They also use it on their websites in order to in- form the people, enable them to leave feedbacks, express their opinion, and even in- volve them into the programming procedure. For instance, they can vote for specific band for a music festival. Social media sites, like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Flickr and LinkedIn changed the communication between the organizers and the audience, and made the whole procedure more interactive (Allen et al. 2011, 133.). 6.5 Co-workers Co-workers are also key elements of the event industry, which includes managers, marketers, consultants, stage managers, crew, etc. Anybody that is participating in the group that is hosting an is called co-workers. All team members need to work to- gether in order to make the event successful since each of them is in charge of the event´s success or failure. Goldblatt (1997, p.129) defined the role and obligation of the occasion manager along these lines: The most effective event managers are not merely managers; rather they are dynamic leaders whose ability to motivate, inspire others and achieve their goals are admired by their followers. The difference between management and leadership is perhaps best characterized by this simple but effective defi- nition: managers control problems, whereas leaders motivate others to find ways to achieve goals Experiences among the individuals while attending an event can differ from each oth- er. There are numerous possibilities to correct these failures, but an excellent team- work and management is always indispensable for a great event (Allen et al. 2011, p.134). 6.6 Participants and audience At last, these are the stakeholders that the whole event is organized for. The event´s success or failure, mainly depend on them. Managers need to study the spectators´ demands, or what are their comfort, and safety needs. The occasion ought to be a life- time experience for the visitors. To achieve this goal, it has to be uniquely organized. Hammerling (1997) represents the criteria by which audience evaluate an occasion consequently. Their primary attention is on the content, area, and set-up of the occa- sion itself. The programme content, food and beverages, comfort, the ways to get in and out of the event the keys to their satisfaction. An appropriate analysis of the characteristics of the spectators, can help the managers in the organizing procedure to make it suitable for the audience (Allen et al. 2011, 135.).
  34. 34. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 26 7. The city of Budapest Budapest is the capital of Hungary. Budapest is an attractive tourist destination with its UNESCO world heritage sites, such as Heroe´s Square and the Buda Castle. The museums and the national galleries exhibits contemporary and classical arts. The historical baths, such as the Szechenyi bath and the modern spas are all empowers the body. In these years Budapest formed a more hedonistic image, as well that made the city as a destination for many urban travellers. Many of them associates the city with the ruin pubs in deserted buildings, managed by young creative entrepreneurs. Szimpla became an important spot on every tourists travelling schedule. As an effect of the ruin pub phenomenon, a new trend has emerged, the bistro revolution that re- defines the concept of eating out. Wine bars also give a wide variety of wines from all over the country (Cultural Budapest, 2015) Summer is top celebration season and a huge number of tourists come for the exten- sive variety of music celebrations that are on offer in Hungary. Sziget is one of the biggest and most well-known music celebrations in Europe and the uniqueness of the event is in its location, since it is situated on an island on the river of Danube. It al- lows the visitors not only to enjoy the festival but to explore the attractions of the city, as well. Budapest Spring Festival and the Jewish Summer Festival bring the best of global classical and jazz music to Budapest. Festivals are not only for music however; they speak to every one of the faculties (Cultural Budapest, 2015) The next two chapters will describe those two music festivals the so-called Sziget and the Budapest Contemporary Arts festival that are located in Budapest. These two will be utilized as case studies, in order to analyse the economic advantages of these events. The study mainly considers the financial expenses, nationality and transpor- tation that the visitors used in order to get to the events. The following chapters moreover, give a description about the festivals location, average price, main program variety and the different music genres that the festivals offer.
  35. 35. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 27 8. Sziget Fig. 4: Sziget logo Source: Sziget festival (2015) Sziget Festival is one of the greatest multicultural occasions of Europe, beginning in 1993 when a group of students, after the collapse of communism formed the festival. Right now it is the 23rd release. The name of the festival originates from the word island, what is called sziget in Hungarian. The festival takes place on the Obuda- sziget. The former name of it is called Hajogyari sziget. In the past, a shipyard was operating there. Fig. 5: Hajogyari Island Source: http://szigetfestival.com/explore/best_photos_of_2015 From 1996 till 2001 the festival was sponsored by Pepsi, therefore the name of it was Pepsi Sziget. The current name is used since 2002, and the celebration pulls in right around 400 000 fans from more than 70 nations to an excellent island in the heart of Budapest, giving a complete celebration occasion involvement with constant gather- ing, extraordinary live shows, a broadly global group and all the touristic highlights the city brings to the table. Sziget is the Island of Freedom that could likewise be viewed as an autonomous state. It's numerous celebrations in one, a week long relent- less occasion with approx. 50 program venues and around 200 projects every day. Per- forming groups range from the greatest names of the global pop/shake scene to stars
  36. 36. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 28 of world and electronic music, yet audience will likewise discover metal, classical, jazz, soul, elective and even traditional tunes. Sziget is not just about music, as it of- fers a few other social projects, similar to theatre, bazaar, or presentations. It likewise has a shoreline area where fans can really appreciate the advantages of Danube. The weekly capacity is 415000. The festival passes are available from 189 EUR. The or- ganizer of the event is the Sziget Cultural Management. (Sziget Festival, 2015) 8.1 Facts about Sziget in 2015 During the festival 330 people have been surveyed. 279 is foreigner and 51 people were local. The average age in the case of international visitors is 26, and 30 among the national ones. In both groups the number of people who has higher education level is above 50%. 73% among the internationals and 53% among Hungarians. The survey has been filled out by French, Dutch, English, German and Italian visitors. For the question that what kind of positive experience/ imagination they had about Budapest, when they decided to visit the city, most people highlighted the spas, pano- rama and low prices. Among the Hungarian visitors, the mostly answered was the panorama of Budapest, moreover the spas and the gastronomy. 82% of the of the international guests are interested in the attractions of Budapest and not only in the festival. The same is true for more than half of the Hungarian vis- itors, too. Most of the internationals came by car, and budget airlines to Budapest, and they spend around 7 days at the location. Most of the Hungarians came by car, and they spent 5 nights on average. 37% of the locals are from Budapest. 20% of the people had Budapest card, but those who had not. They even have not heard about it. 10% of the visitors owned the card in the Hungarian group, but 60% had heard about it. Most of the foreigners and locals know the city and a great amount have heard about it by friends, family members and from the Internet. Both group have spent 400-500 Euros on average during their stay, that is according to them is not beyond the amount that they wanted to spend. Both the national and international have spent most of it on for and entertainment. More than 90% were satisfied with their decision that they visited Budapest. For around 70% of the people expectations were exceeded about the Destination of Buda- pest. 85% would recommend the city to their friends and colleagues, and they would visit the city again (Sziget Kulturalis Menedzser Iroda Kft., 2015)
  37. 37. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 29 8.2 Facts about Sziget in 2014 The following survey has been made in 2015. Due to time limitation the facts about the festival in 2015 are not that profound, therefore the research will analyse the 2014 festival´s data, as well. The average Sziget visitor is 24 years old, on the festival in terms of age groups the 20-22 years old are in majority. The number of male visitors are in a higher rate among the international guests. In the case of the national ones, it is the other way around. The average ago of men is higher in both cases. Dutch and French people are the youngest and Belgian and German people are the oldest on average. 53% of the international visitors are studying, 27% have active income. In case of Hungarians, 61% percent are students, in some cases beside working and 35% have full-time job. 85% of the foreigners and 72% of the national guests have money that they manage independently. The internationals have 1130€ and the nationals have 354€ per month on average. The internationals on a common night spend around 45€. On the Sziget the average daily spending is 49€. The Hungarian participants spend around 20€ per night. The average expense on the festival is 16€ on a daily basis. The highest parts in the expenditures are the food and drinks. This is 60% of the whole expenses. The greater proportion of both the national and international visitors prefer Rock music, that follows the different Electronic music styles. Divided for age groups, the older generations (23-24 and 26-30 years old) listen to rock music and in the case of Hun- garians, the youngest group listen to Rock music on a higher average. This group has a great portion among the Electronic music fan base, too (Sziget Kulturalis Menedzser Iroda Kft., 2014)
  38. 38. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 30 9. CAFe Budapest Contemporary Arts festival Fig. 6: CAFe Budapest Contemporary Arts Festival logo Source: http://cafebudapestfest.hu Between 2–18 October, the CAFe Budapest Contemporary Arts Festival offers excep- tional, not-to-be-missed types of stimulation. With very nearly 110 occasions at 40 venues, the brilliant project incorporates creations in traditional and popular music, jazz and world music, musical drama, theatre and contemporary bazaar, alongside nights of writing and visual craftsmanship shows. Beside the best Hungarian enter- tainers, this exceptional celebration additionally includes universal stars, co- preparations and debuts. Composed on the 24th event, Hungary's most critical cele- bration of the contemporary expressions is acknowledged in a collaboration between Müpa Budapest, the Budapest Festival and Tourism Center, and Hungarian Tourism Inc. The rundown of normal venues such as, Müpa Budapest, Liszt Academy, Buda- pest Music Center, Trafó, Millenáris, and Bálna Budapest are supplemented by the Castle Garden Bazaar, and there will likewise be visual craftsmanship exhibitions and small scale shows at endless outdoors areas. It adds to the colourfulness of the system that Art Market Budapest, the contemporary workmanship reasonable, will again be a related occasion, and is held amid the season of café (CAFe Budapest Fes- tival, 2015). 9.1 Facts about café Budapest Contemporary Arts Festival During the festivals, 70 surveys were filled out in different locations. 28% of them were attracted by the night life of Budapest. 24 % by the touristic sights of Budapest, 22% of the spas, only 16% of the programs of Café Budapest Festival and 2 % were on a business trip. 48% have chosen the other reason option. For the question of who do they travel with 34% claimed that with friends, 30% alone, 12% with family, 6% with their partner and 8% chose the other option. In the case of transportation 34% came by airline, 16% by bus, 6% by train, 4% by car, 2% by boat and 32% chose the other. For the question of where did they learn about the festival was mainly the answer was by friends or from the Internet. 44% from friends and acquaintance, 30% from the Internet, 24% from outdoor ads such as, poster, city light etc. 14% from press, like newspapers and magazines. 6% by personal information at Budapestinfo Point, ac-
  39. 39. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 31 commodation, travel agency, travel exhibition, etc. 4% by electronic media like radio and television. 10% chose the other option. In the case of accommodation, there were 7 options. 46% chose stay for free at a friend, relatives or in a second home. 20% the other paid accommodation like student hostel and Airbnb. 10% of the 4-5 star hotels. 4% of the 1-3 star hotels and 4% the hostels. Nobody chose the boarding houses or the camping sites. More than half of the people are from Budapest and 30% are international guests. The average age is 32. The youngest one is 19 and the oldest is 65 years old. 60% of the people are women. Most of the visitors 75% visited the festival for the first time. For the questions that, how satisfied they were about the organization of the festival on a 1 to 5 scale, were the 5 means fully satisfied, and 1 means they were not satisfied. 34% choose 4, 38% choose 5. Nobody chose 1 or 2. Only 4% of the surveyed people owned Budapest Card, therefore only 6 people answered the question, whether they are satisfied with the services of the card or not. 2 of them were not satisfied. 48% of the people claimed that they visited Budapest because of other reason, where was noted that they are inhabitants of the city (BFTK Café, 2015)
  40. 40. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 32 10. Conclusion Taking everything into account, it can be seen from the study that festival tourism is a segment that has many possibilities in building up a tourism destination. The thesis has given a theoretical knowledge into the subject of music festival tourism consider- ing the positive and negative effects of the phenomenon. It has additionally demon- strated that the facilitating of events can affect on the host group socio-socially, natu- rally, monetarily and politically. This kind of tourism is utilized several times by des- tinations in order to increase their awareness nationally and internationally. The events that are being organized in a place can affect the viewpoint of the tourists about a certain place. Guests may take travel choices in view of their impression of the destination. Though, it is essential to note that keeping in mind the end goal to improve decision in music festival tourism, the advance of a destination must be caught on. It can likewise be seen from the research that event facilitating has had an enormous accomplishment by various coordinators in spite of the fact that the eventual outcome effects are not always as imagined by the organizers because of numerous compo- nents. Besides, there must be more collaboration among the coordinators, associations and interest groups included in the facilitating of events in the host community so that there could be more duty, commitment and concentration towards the objectives, targets of these festivals and the goals of the general population for which the occa- sions are planned. The main objective of the second part of the thesis will be to offer comprehensive and practical study of the impacts of these music festivals upon the city´s image of Buda- pest. To achieve this goal, Sziget Festival and the Budapest Cafe Budapest Contem- porary Arts Festival will be utilized case studies, that were already mentioned in the last chapters of the first thesis. With the analysis of these festivals, the effects on the image of Budapest will be evaluated, moreover effect on inbound tourism of the coun- try by conducting a comprehensive analysis of these case studies and personal inter- views.
  41. 41. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 33 Bachelor Degree Programme "Innovation and Management in Tourism" University of Applied Sciences Salzburg THE EFFECT OF MUSIC FESTIVAL TOURISM ON THE IMAGE AND THE COMMUNITY OF BUDAPEST BACHELOR THESIS 2 SUBMITTED TO THE UOAS SALZBURG IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF "BACHELOR OF ARTS IN BUSINESS" Author: Gergö Jeles Student number: 1210430067 Date: 20.05.2016 Supervisor: Mag. Gerfried Fleckl
  42. 42. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 34 Part II: Bachelor Thesis 2
  43. 43. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 35 11. The Empirical Research In order for the creator of this research study to convey the goals expressed in Bache- lor thesis part 1 (BA1), empirical research is important in order to create crossing be- tween theory and practical aspects of the study. This part includes genuine discover- ies from the predefined study area of how does music festival tourism effect the image of Budapest. Section one of this study included theoretical study (secondary research), which cov- ered data about acknowledgment of music festival tourism in Budapest, considering the Sziget and Budapest Café festivals. Along these lines, this empirical research is based upon the primary part (BA1), which serves as a foundation of the second part, which is the empirical research. In the first part of the author´s research, an extensive literature review on the tourist destination image formation was conducted, considering the impact of events and fes- tivals on the city image and the positive and negative effects of festivals on the desti- nation of Budapest. After that, that the author provided a detailed insight of the mu- sic festival tourists motivators, moreover the key stakeholders of the festivals such as, the festival host organization, the host community, sponsors, media, co-workers, and the target group, in other words the audience and participants. Furthermore, the the- sis provided key facts about the Sziget festival from 2015 and 2014. The author exten- sively detailed a clear background on the festival characteristics and the the different festival tourism funds in Hungary, that also highlights the importance of these events for the destination. Kasi (2009, pp32-33) wrote that research is an approach to examine and gather in- formation focused on current facts, or interpreting accessible information in order to discover or do an amendment to details, arguments and pertinences. At this point of the data processing, the information accumulated from the broad lit- erature review might accordingly be utilized as the establishment for this empirical study. Accordingly, the earlier literature review will be contrasted with the discover- ies from the empirical part to reach a reasonable determination. To give a fine and clear view of this study, the conclusion will be founded on the genuine discoveries and the theoretical work. To give an outline of the substance of the empirical research, the exact technique, which this study will take after, is demonstrated in Fig. 7.
  44. 44. UoAS Salzburg, Bachelor Programme IMT | Gergö Jeles 36 Fig. 7: Empirical Procedure Source: Berger, 2010, p. 106 In view of the theoretical discoveries of the primary part of the study, the writer is going to characterize hypotheses in order to find answers for the research question. In light of these hypotheses the research methodology, which incorporates the research design and the research strategy, will be recognized. Therefore, it must be chosen which information accumulation strategy should be utilized, followed by the meaning of content analysis, which is vital for the presentation of the outcomes. With every- thing taken into account the entire procedure is planning to find out what are the per- ceived image of the local and international tourists about Budapest and how their perceived image if affected by the music festival tourism of Budapest. As Gratton and Jones (2004, p8) claim, there are two distinctive sorts of research: Primary and Secondary. In which, primary research alludes to the study that has been brought out through gathering of preliminary data indicated to a specific zone as per study being completed by utilization of instruments like questionnaires or inter- views. In addition, the creators noticed that secondary research includes a study in which no initial data compilation was performed however the study utilizes the in- formation accessible for instance census data. The writers further separated theoreti- cal and empirical studies taking note of that: Theoretical research makes utilization of promptly accessible discoveries to produce new thoughts by investigation of availa- ble written belief and clarifications. Empirical study affirms growing new ideas by collecting information, whereby empirical alludes to something built up where one perceives or measures instead of reasoning through theories. In order to clarify the intention of the empirical study section, it is important for the writer of this study to draw a system expounding the entire research step-by-step. Accordingly, as of right now, it is critical to give a clarification of the structure that is embraced to fulfil the principle targets of this study. This empirical study is isolated into seven diverse parts and their individual to convey the fundamental objectives. Starting position and objectives Research methodology Data collection and evaluation Presentation of results
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