Internet Presentation


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What is the Internet for beginners!

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Internet Presentation

  1. 1. Internet Gerard Sylvester Research Informatics, KMS, ICRISAT [email_address]
  2. 2. Talk Flow! <ul><li>Introduction to the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brief history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explaining basic protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naming on the net </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><li>Using search engines </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the Internet? <ul><li>A Network of Computer Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started as early as the 1960s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built to work even if a large part of the network fails </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intranet is not the same as Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized Client – Server model </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by various gateways and high speed backbone connections. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Internet Network Internet Internet Network T3 Backbone T3 Backbone T3 Backbone
  5. 5. World Wide Web? <ul><li>A part of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www1, www2 etc., </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on hypertext and hypertext transfer protocol (HTML & HTTP) </li></ul><ul><li>Supports multiple media - Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive, dynamic HTML </li></ul>
  6. 6. Who owns the Internet? <ul><li>The I nternet C orporation for A ssigned N ames and N umbers ( ICANN ) oversees registrations. </li></ul><ul><li>InterNIC—central service to reserve domain names (lots of issues arising with “cyberquatting…” </li></ul><ul><li>Whois – domain name lookup </li></ul>
  7. 7. Brief History of the Internet <ul><li>1960s - Department of Defense initiative ARPANET </li></ul><ul><li>1973 - ARPA launches the Internetting Project to explore the possibilities of linking networks </li></ul><ul><li>1980 – First Virus halts the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>1984 – DNS Introduced (Names rather than numbers) </li></ul><ul><li>1999 – Internet Banking </li></ul>
  8. 8. Internet Milestones <ul><li>1975 - Robert Kahn & Vinton Cerf – TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>1991 : Hypertext browsing software is proposed by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web. </li></ul><ul><li>1993 : Mosaic, the first navigation browser to make use of graphics and a point-and-click interface, is developed by Marc Andreessen. </li></ul><ul><li>2004 - IPv6 protocol standard </li></ul>
  9. 9. Services through the net <ul><li>Major services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email – Electronic Mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FTP – File Transfer Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gopher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newsgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet – Remote session </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAIS – Wide Area Information System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WWW – World Wide Web </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How to read an URL <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http = the protocol </li></ul><ul><li>www = the host computer or server name </li></ul><ul><li>blast = third level domain </li></ul><ul><li>ncbl = second level domain </li></ul><ul><li>org = top level domain </li></ul><ul><li>sequence = directory name </li></ul><ul><li>virtual = file name </li></ul><ul><li>htm = file type / extension </li></ul>
  11. 11. Getting a Domain Name? <ul><li>Top Domains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>edu – Educational Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>com – Company / Commercial Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>org – Non-profit Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>net – Network, network of sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mil – Military Installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gov – Government sites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sub Domains: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in - India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>jp - Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uk – United Kingdom </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Identifying a PC on the Internet <ul><li>IP Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (Intranet, Local IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To find your IP number on Windows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Execute ipconfig on your command prompt – XP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>winipcgf - 98 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Bandwidth <ul><li>Speed of data transfer through the network </li></ul><ul><li>Access through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>28.8 bps (bits per second) modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>56.6 modem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISDN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T1/T3 – High speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSL </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Hypertext <ul><li>Hypertext, a method of preparing text that allows readers to choose their own pathways through the material, is invented by Ted Nelson. </li></ul><ul><li>The underlined word represents a hyperlink that lets the reader click and jump to a new page. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides interactive browsing </li></ul>
  15. 15. Creating Web Documents <ul><li>Editors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WYSIWYG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frontpage, Dreamweaver or N-Vu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notepad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MS - Word </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Browsers and Specifications <ul><li>Browser software allows us to view, hear, retrieve information created for the web </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Lynx </li></ul><ul><li>For design, you must check pages in both browsers, with different versions </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bioinformatics Resources <ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li> – EMBL/EBI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> -PDB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - Worldwide Protein Data Bank </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genome Browsers </li></ul><ul><ul><li> - NCBI Map Viewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - Apollo Genome Browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - Genome Tracking Database </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Bioinformatics on the Internet <ul><li>Bioinformatics Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li> - Human Brain Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> – Gene Ontology Consortium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> - Tree of Life Project </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Gerard Sylvester <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>