Miad Food Web Presentation


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Presentation given to students taking a food course taught by Professor Jeff Filipiak

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Miad Food Web Presentation

  1. 1. Utilizing ArcGIS, Microsoft Excel and Google Maps DIGESTING MILWAUKEE’S FOOD SYSTEM Created by Mark Caldwell
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Personal experience with the Food Web : Chef, Urban Farmer and Social Researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical and Theoretical Questions about Food Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Sociological Concepts and GIS </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of food systems : </li></ul><ul><li>Shipped and Processed : Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Fast Food Restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Local, Sustainable, and Produce Driven : Community Supported Agriculture, SHARE and Farmer’s Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Current Research Projects : </li></ul><ul><li>West Side Food Tour : what defines a “grocery store”? </li></ul><ul><li>Doubling the Green Investment : Market Match at the Fondy Food Center </li></ul><ul><li>Master’s Thesis : Defining the spatial geography of food deserts </li></ul>
  3. 3. For the Love of Food
  4. 4. The Position of the Observer
  5. 5. Social Capital Networks : The main function of such a network would be to prevent the actions of social movements from becoming fragments and dispersed—being absorbed by the particularism of local initiatives—and to enable them to overcome the sporadic character of their action or an alternation between moments of intense mobilization and periods of latency Bringing Fish to Market: Sweet Water Organics
  6. 6. <ul><li>Backyard to Market Youth Program Coordinator </li></ul><ul><li>Compost Collection Establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer’s Market Collaborator </li></ul><ul><li>Part of larger Lindsay Heights Quality of Life Development Plan </li></ul>Walnut Way Conservation Corp.
  7. 7. <ul><li>How does race, income and education affect the location of : </li></ul><ul><li>1. CSA Drop-Sites </li></ul><ul><li>2. Supermarkets </li></ul><ul><li>3. Convenience Stores </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fast Food Restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>How can these results be utilized to inform future research projects and policy decisions about food systems? </li></ul><ul><li>What does a “local” food system look like? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you define “sustainable” in terms of access and availability? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a community or neighborhood’s role in this system? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you define these “communities” through spatial analysis? </li></ul>Research Interests and General Questions
  8. 8. Sociological Theories <ul><li>Community Food Security envisions food systems that are decentralized, supportive of equitable food access and created by consumer based decision-making (Anderson and Cook, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility to food stores and supermarkets decreases rates of diabetes and obesity. “Neighborhood effects” of this kind have long-term consequences for the health of that community (Cummins and Macintyre, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>A multivariate analysis conducted on the availability of food store outlets in the US in association with neighborhood characteristics on race, ethnicity and SES status. Lower income and minority neighborhoods have less availability to supermarkets (Powell et. al, 2007) (Larson et. al, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Inequality Hypothesis : Neighborhoods with higher percentage of minority and low income residents positively associates with increased environmental hazards ( in this case lack of nutritional resources, which is detrimental to health in the short and long term). </li></ul><ul><li>Main Claim : Without the availability to fresh foods or access to stores that provide them, the spatial nutritional landscape is a hazardous for residents’ dietary health </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is GIS? GIS is a software package that unites spatial data, such as location of food stores, with data about features that makeup the spatial database, such as number of people living on less than $10,000 in a given census tract.
  11. 11. Supermarkets: Spatial Results
  12. 12. Supermarkets: Spatial Results cont. <ul><li>Maps show lack of supermarket clustering in predominately Black and lower education tracts </li></ul><ul><li>Aldi’s and Lena’s account for two-thirds of supermarkets in these areas </li></ul><ul><li>Additional 43 “grocer’s” not catalogued due to lack of information about food provisions </li></ul>
  13. 13. Convenience Stores: Filling the Food Void
  14. 14. Convenience Stores: Filling the Food Void <ul><li>157 locations, not including those “grocers” who also fit into this category </li></ul><ul><li>High clustering in predominantly low-income and minority tract areas </li></ul><ul><li>In densest areas, convenience stores outnumber supermarkets 10 to 1 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fast Food Restaurants: Burgers and Fries
  16. 16. Fast Food Restaurants: Sandwiches
  17. 17. Fast Food Restaurants: Chicken or Pizza?
  18. 18. <ul><li>All types of fast food restaurants, excluding chicken vendors, have greater proportions of locations in predominantly white, higher income and higher educated tract areas </li></ul><ul><li>Low income and high minority tracts in central to northwest quadrant of the city lack access to a variety of fast food outlets </li></ul><ul><li>Displayed is an area considered a “food desert” due to a lack of adequate nutritional options </li></ul>Fast Food Restaurants: Results
  19. 19. LOCAL, SUSTAINABLE, AND PRODUCE DRIVEN : COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE, SHARE AND FARMER’S MARKETS <ul><li>A Source for Alternate Ideas and Ways of Conceptualizing Food Systems </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is a CSA? Why is it important as a component of community health? <ul><li>CSA stands for Community Supported Agriculture, where farmer's offer shares of their farm and yield to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, these shares or memberships are a set fee for a allotted growing season. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer’s markets act as CSA hubs, since there is a direct exchange between grower and customer </li></ul><ul><li>CSA shares and farmer’s markets serves as means for providing nutritional, affordable and accessible food to disadvantaged communities </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Obtained from 8 th Annual Local Food and Farmer Open House </li></ul><ul><li>Jamie Ferschinger, Community Program Coordinator, generated data from interviews with farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Created Excel Spreadsheet from information provided </li></ul><ul><li>Served as Index for creation of database table in GIS </li></ul>Information Gathering Farmd ID 1 Business Name Backyard Bounty Farms Contact Info Laura Comerford Address W 4873 County Rd. Plymouth, WI Phone Number 920-892-4319 Email [email_address] Website www.backyardbounty.space.live.com Produce Vegetable, Eggs, Poultry CSA Yes Number of Years 12 Payment Cash, Check, Payment Plan Worker Share Food Distribution Maryland and Menlo Ave, Milwaukee, WI Prospect and Locust. Milwaukee, WI Chase near Oklahoma 66th and Loyola
  22. 22. Data Coding and Digital Creation of Drop-Off Sites in GIS <ul><li>Spreadsheet from Excel used to create </li></ul><ul><li>fields for drop-off points </li></ul><ul><li>Business Name used as select field for </li></ul><ul><li>display </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes displayed: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Milwaukee County boundary in Green </li></ul><ul><li>2.Milwaukee Neighborhoods in Tan </li></ul><ul><li>3. Milwaukee Streets (not displayed) </li></ul><ul><li>used determine location of points </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty distribution points divided amongst thirteen farms </li></ul><ul><li>Pinehold Gardens and Rare Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Farms have the most drop-off points with </li></ul><ul><li>five each </li></ul>
  23. 23. Map Output: Race
  24. 24. Map Output: Education <ul><li>Research utilizes 2000 Census information in tract form based on number of people per tract </li></ul><ul><li>Previous slide shows disparity between drop-off locations in Black and White tracts </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor’s degree being used as standard for education, shows site clustering in tracts with high proportion of degrees </li></ul><ul><li>CSA sites still operate as niche food market for those with more economic and cultural capital in the form of farming connections and “locavore” dietary values. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Map Output: Income as Annual Salary <ul><li>Map shows a concentration of poorer income neighborhoods having fewer drop-off sites </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Eastside has high proportion of college students, who are typically poor, which skews the display </li></ul><ul><li>Harambee neighborhood has 20% infant mortality* and significant rates of diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Growing Power displayed as additional market basket pick-up point for low income tracts </li></ul><ul><li>Potential sites for outreach already established: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Outpost Natural Foods, 100 W. Capitol Dr. </li></ul><ul><li>2. 2107 E. Capitol Dr. </li></ul><ul><li>*www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/healthybirths/pdf/trens200802.pdf </li></ul>
  26. 26. Share: Mobile Food Markets cont. <ul><li>Operates out of predominately churches or other community organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Serving Black, Latino and low-income areas of the city for over 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>May act as mobile venue for the establishment of weekly CSA baskets, which contain produce from UEC’s farms </li></ul>
  27. 27. Share: Mobile Food Markets
  28. 28. Geoportal: Google Map for Public Use <ul><li>http:// maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie = UTF&msa =0&msid=112046710346463252010.00048398d9588b42e96a9 </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Currently conducting surveys to assess the economic viability of the market according to customer responses </li></ul><ul><li>Also interested in what ways market can be improved or made more efficient for customers within the community </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in variety of vendors, buying incentives, and accessible information about market projects </li></ul>Fondy’s Farmers Market: Direct Community Support
  30. 30. CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS <ul><li>Food Tours, Fondy Farmers Market, and Walking Produce </li></ul>
  31. 31. West Side Food Tour: Marquette Public Health Field Trip <ul><li>40 Food Stores divided by three categories: grocery store, food mart and convenience stores </li></ul><ul><li>Marquette pre-med students will go to locations and conduct a nutritional self-survey by answering yes/no for availability of these products: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vegetables 2. Fruit 3. Bread </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cheese 5. Milk 6. Eggs </li></ul><ul><li>7. Frozen Produce 8. Fresh Meat </li></ul><ul><li>9. Canned Produce </li></ul><ul><li>10. “Would you shop here?” </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to define what is nutritionally available in this geographic area, as well as what differentiates these food store categories. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Fondy: Doubling the Produce Power <ul><li>Fondy was one of the first </li></ul><ul><li>markets in the city to accept </li></ul><ul><li>WIC vouchers. </li></ul><ul><li>Funded through the </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers Market Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Program (FNMP), a state- </li></ul><ul><li>Administered program of the </li></ul><ul><li>USDA </li></ul><ul><li>In 2010 season, initiated </li></ul><ul><li>Market Match, which matches </li></ul><ul><li>all WIC vouchers dollar for </li></ul><ul><li>dollar </li></ul><ul><li>Show through GIS spatial analysis WIC users zip codes and WIC agencies correspond to proximity of the market </li></ul>
  33. 33. “ How far is to far to go for good food?” The spatial boundaries of food deserts <ul><li>231 businesses listed as </li></ul><ul><li>“ Grocers-Retail,” yet 157 of these are actually convenience stores. </li></ul><ul><li>Using Moran’s I , a GIS spatial density tool that shows high and low clustering of points, convenience stores and supermarkets will be compared in set distance grids </li></ul><ul><li>The hypothesis will show that in given areas residents will encounter a far greater number of stores that provide little nutritional value before they arrive at a fresh produce market. </li></ul>
  34. 34. QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION What types of action should be taken? Contact: [email_address]
  35. 35. References <ul><li>Anderson, Molly D., and John T. Cook. &quot;Community Food Security: Practice in Need of Theory?&quot; Agriculture and Human Values 16.2 (1999): 141. Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Apparicio, Phillipe, Marie-Soleil Cloutier, and Richard Shearmur. &quot;The Case of Montreal's Missing Food Deserts: Evaluation of Accessibility to Food Supermarkets.&quot; International Journal of Health Geographics 6.4 (2007). Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Cummins, Steven, and Sally Macintyre. &quot;Food Environments and Obesity--Neighbourhood or Nation?&quot; International Journal of Epidemiology 35 (2006): 100-04. Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Larsen, Kristian, and Jason Gilliland. &quot;Mapping the Evolution of 'food Deserts' in a Canadian City: Supermarket Accessibility in London, Ontario, 1961-2005.&quot; International Journal of Health Geographics 7.16 (2008). Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Larson, Nicole, Mary Story, and Melissa Nelson. &quot;Neighborhood Environments: Disparities in Access to Healthy Foods in the US.&quot; American Journal of Preventative Medicine 36.1 (2009). Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Powell, Lisa M., Frank J. Chaloupka, and Yanjun Bao. &quot;The Availability of Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurants in the United States.&quot; American Journal of Preventative Medicine 33.4s (2007). Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Powell, Lisa M., Sandy Slater, Donka Mirtcheva, Yanjun Bao, and Frank J. Chaloupka. &quot;Food Store Availability and Neighborhood Characteristics in the United States.&quot; Preventative Medicine 44 (2007): 189-95. Web. </li></ul><ul><li>“ 8 th Annual Local Food and Farmer Open House: Know your Farmer, Know Your Food”. Report assembled by Jamie Ferschinger, Community Development Director at the Urban Ecology Center, 1500 E. Park Place, Milwaukee, WI 53211 </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>