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Hacking a Bird in the SkyThe Revenge of Angry BirdsJim Geovedi, Raditya Iryandi, Raoul Chiesa
Satellite CommunicationWhen terrestrial communication FAIL, we PREVAIL!                                                   ...
Broadcast Video to  Cable Headends                                                                       Local ISPsDirect ...
average distance to moon:                                                                         384,400 km Medium Earth ...
Propulsion System                             Telemetry, Attitude Control,         Solar Arrays        Commanding, Fuel, B...
Telkom-1 Footprint / 108.0º East (C Band)    C Band  38   40   42
Frequency Band Designations
Example of Frequency and Polarisation Distribution                                                                        ...
VSAT / Very Small Aperture Terminal‣    Two-way satellite communication‣    Use small dish antennas     (diameter: 75cm-2,...
VSAT / Services‣   One-way multicast‣   One-way with terrestrial return‣   Two-way satellite access
VSAT Network Topologies / Simplex Transmission Hub Equipment                Hub Equipment       Hub Equipment    Hub Equip...
VSAT Network Topologies / Point-to-Point Duplex Transmission   Public Network                                 Public Netwo...
VSAT Network Topologies / Point-to-Multipoint Transmission      CPE                           CPE                 CPE Netw...
VSAT Network Topologies / Mobile Antenna Service                 Public Network Hub Equipment   Private Network           ...
VSAT Network Topologies / Star Network Hub Equipment                Hub Equipment     Hub Equipment     Hub Equipment  Pub...
VSAT Network Topologies / Mesh Network     Hub Equipment       Hub Equipment       Hub Equipment   Networks or Sites   Net...
Access Methods / FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)         f1    f2   f3                                       Tra...
Access Methods / TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)             f1                                        Transponder   ...
Access Methods / CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)        ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++        xxxxxxxxxxx...
Satellite VulnerabilitiesCurrent systems are vulnerable to a variety of attacks, andfuture systems promise little improvem...
Unless you have millions of dollars and a teamof engineers, you have no hope of taking overcommercial or governmental sate...
hackers will eventually find a way to hack
employees                            management      vendors                              customers           spieS       ...
It is worth noting that the most likely cause of damageto or loss of service from a satellite is the actual operator.Dan V...
Dan Veeneman   Low Earth Orbit Satellites             Dan Veeneman             Future & Existing Satellite Systems        ...
Veeneman’s Satellite Hypothetical AttacksDenial of Service   Orbital Positioning   Takeover Spare Satellite               ...
Satellite TT&C Ground Networks                                              Frequency    Network Gateway   Receivers/Modem...
Land Earth Station Attacks
Satellite-based Attacks AgainstATMs and Bank NetworksIts not a big truck. Its a series of tubes.
TRADE FINANCE                          TREASURYDATA WAREHOUSING                              ANTI MONEY LAUNDERING    REMI...
VSAT / Automated Teller Machine Networks                     ATM               ATM             ATM           ATM          ...
VSAT / Automated Teller Machine Networks
Automated Teller Machine
Automated Teller Machine
OMFGWTFKTHXBYE
The Usual Culprits People Problems         System Problems      Weak Passwords          Outdated Systems     Lack of Aware...
MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS
Distributed Satellite ScanningFrameworkIdentify potential problems at an early stage.
Framework Goals‣   Dead or Alive status / checking if the bird is still alive‣   Protocols / understand which protocols th...
Distributed IP C&C
Satellite Carrier Monitoring System‣   Spectrum Analyser and Digital Spectrum Processor    analysis‣   Reference trace and...
Shared Data
What’s Next?No, the journey doesnt end here.
http://www.dunnspace.com/leo_on_the_cheap.htm
Fin.Jim Geovedi <jim@geovedi.com>, @geovediRaoul Chiesa <raoul.chiesa@mediaservice.net>
Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds
Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds
Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds
Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds
Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds
Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds
Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds
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Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds

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Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds

  1. 1. Hacking a Bird in the SkyThe Revenge of Angry BirdsJim Geovedi, Raditya Iryandi, Raoul Chiesa
  2. 2. Satellite CommunicationWhen terrestrial communication FAIL, we PREVAIL! Arthur C. Clarke 1917-2008
  3. 3. Broadcast Video to Cable Headends Local ISPsDirect Broadcast TV VideoLast-mile Broadband ContributionCorporate Data Networks Teleport PSTN (Interactive & Multicast) End Users Teleport Internet End Users
  4. 4. average distance to moon: 384,400 km Medium Earth Orbit Altitude: 8,000-20,000 km Low Earth OrbitEARTH Altitude: 500-2,000 km Geostationary Orbit Altitude: 35,786 km Highly Elliptical Orbit Altitude: >35,786 km
  5. 5. Propulsion System Telemetry, Attitude Control, Solar Arrays Commanding, Fuel, Batteries, Solar Arrays Power/Thermal Systems Transponder Down-converter, High Power, Transponder Receiver Pre-amplifier, Amplifier, Transmitter Section Filter Filter SectionRX Antenna TX Antenna Jakarta Jayapura Uplink Downlink Earth Stations / Antennas
  6. 6. Telkom-1 Footprint / 108.0º East (C Band) C Band 38 40 42
  7. 7. Frequency Band Designations
  8. 8. Example of Frequency and Polarisation Distribution Transmit 3720 3760 3800 3840 3880 3920 3960 4000 4040 4080 4120 4160 4199 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 T/M Polarisation Horizontal 3701 3740 3780 3820 3860 3900 3940 3980 4020 4060 4100 4140 4180 T/M 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Polarisation Vertical Frequency MHz 3700 4200 Receive 5945 5985 6025 6065 6105 6145 6185 6225 6265 6305 6345 6385 6424 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 CMD Polarisation Vertical 5965 6005 6045 6085 6125 6165 6205 6245 6285 6325 6365 6405 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Polarisation Horizontal Frequency MHz 5925 6245 Channel spacing = 40 MHz — Usable bandwidth = 36 MHz
  9. 9. VSAT / Very Small Aperture Terminal‣ Two-way satellite communication‣ Use small dish antennas (diameter: 75cm-2,4m)‣ Managed by the HUB (master earth station)
  10. 10. VSAT / Services‣ One-way multicast‣ One-way with terrestrial return‣ Two-way satellite access
  11. 11. VSAT Network Topologies / Simplex Transmission Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Hub Equipment TV Station / HQ Network Affiliated TV Stations
  12. 12. VSAT Network Topologies / Point-to-Point Duplex Transmission Public Network Public Network Private Network CPE CPE Private Network Customer Site Customer Site
  13. 13. VSAT Network Topologies / Point-to-Multipoint Transmission CPE CPE CPE Network or Sites Network or Sites Network or Sites
  14. 14. VSAT Network Topologies / Mobile Antenna Service Public Network Hub Equipment Private Network Customer Site
  15. 15. VSAT Network Topologies / Star Network Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Public/Private Networks Networks or Sites
  16. 16. VSAT Network Topologies / Mesh Network Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Networks or Sites Networks or Sites Networks or Sites
  17. 17. Access Methods / FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) f1 f2 f3 Transponder f1 f2 f3
  18. 18. Access Methods / TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) f1 Transponder f1 f1 f1 f1
  19. 19. Access Methods / CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo ------------------------------------------ Transponder f1 f1 f1 f1
  20. 20. Satellite VulnerabilitiesCurrent systems are vulnerable to a variety of attacks, andfuture systems promise little improvement.
  21. 21. Unless you have millions of dollars and a teamof engineers, you have no hope of taking overcommercial or governmental satellites.If someone did put together the power to trysuch a stunt, they would be more likely todamage a satellite than take it over.How to Break into Satellites: Not!Carolyn Meinel’s GUIDE TO (mostly) HARMLESS HACKING Gobbles!
  22. 22. hackers will eventually find a way to hack
  23. 23. employees management vendors customers spieS governmentnetwork of trust
  24. 24. It is worth noting that the most likely cause of damageto or loss of service from a satellite is the actual operator.Dan Veeneman
  25. 25. Dan Veeneman Low Earth Orbit Satellites Dan Veeneman Future & Existing Satellite Systems Warezzman DVB Satellite Hacking Jim Geovedi, Raditya Iryandi, Hacking a Bird in the Sky: Hijacking VSAT Connection Jim Geovedi, Raditya Iryandi, Anthony Zboralski Hacking a Bird in the Sky: Exploiting Satellite Trust Relationship Adam Laurie $atellite Hacking for Fun & Pr0fit! Leonardo Nve Egea, Christian Martorella Playing in a Satellite Environment 1.2 Jim Geovedi, Raditya Iryandi Hacking Satellite: A New Universe to Discover Jim Geovedi, Raditya Iryandi, Raoul Chiesa Hacking a Bird in the Sky: The Revenge of Angry Birds1996 1998 2004 2006 2008 2009 2011
  26. 26. Veeneman’s Satellite Hypothetical AttacksDenial of Service Orbital Positioning Takeover Spare Satellite Raging Transponder Spoofing ? Jam Uplink Direct CommandingOverpower Uplink Command Replay Jam Downlink Insertion
  27. 27. Satellite TT&C Ground Networks Frequency Network Gateway Receivers/Modems Conversion Ground Geolocation Antenna Digital/Analog Spectrum Record and Replay Monitoring IP Network Gateway COMSEC Front-end Processor Command and Control
  28. 28. Land Earth Station Attacks
  29. 29. Satellite-based Attacks AgainstATMs and Bank NetworksIts not a big truck. Its a series of tubes.
  30. 30. TRADE FINANCE TREASURYDATA WAREHOUSING ANTI MONEY LAUNDERING REMITTANCE CORE CRM ATM SWITCH COLLECTION SYSTEM MOBILE BANKING INTERNET BANKING ISLAMIC (SHARIA) BANKING CARD MANAGEMENT
  31. 31. VSAT / Automated Teller Machine Networks ATM ATM ATM ATM Standard Network Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Hub Equipment Equipment Core Banking Networks Automated Teller Machines
  32. 32. VSAT / Automated Teller Machine Networks
  33. 33. Automated Teller Machine
  34. 34. Automated Teller Machine
  35. 35. OMFGWTFKTHXBYE
  36. 36. The Usual Culprits People Problems System Problems Weak Passwords Outdated Systems Lack of Awareness Insecure Configurations Lack of Skills Insecure Protocols
  37. 37. MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS
  38. 38. Distributed Satellite ScanningFrameworkIdentify potential problems at an early stage.
  39. 39. Framework Goals‣ Dead or Alive status / checking if the bird is still alive‣ Protocols / understand which protocols the target is running‣ Service type / knowing which service we can (ab)use‣ Distributed IP C&C / widening the coverage
  40. 40. Distributed IP C&C
  41. 41. Satellite Carrier Monitoring System‣ Spectrum Analyser and Digital Spectrum Processor analysis‣ Reference trace and measurement‣ Automatic alerts for abnormal and missing carriers
  42. 42. Shared Data
  43. 43. What’s Next?No, the journey doesnt end here.
  44. 44. http://www.dunnspace.com/leo_on_the_cheap.htm
  45. 45. Fin.Jim Geovedi <jim@geovedi.com>, @geovediRaoul Chiesa <raoul.chiesa@mediaservice.net>

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