HIGHWAYS AND RAILWAYS
• Unit – I: Highway Planning and Alignment
Role of transportation in National Development – Objectives and achievements of
organizations such as IRC and CRRI - Factors controlling selection of Highway alignments
Modern methods of conducting Engineering surveys.-Rural & Urban Road classification in
India.-Cross-sectional elements of road – Definition and Significance.
Unit – II: Highway Geometric Design
Design of horizontal alignment
Sight distance – PIEV theory – Problems in S.S.D.-Super elevation – Theory & Problems -
Highway widening on horizontal curves – Theory & Problems.-Transition curves - Theory &
Design of Vertical Alignment:
Terrain classification - Categories of Gradient – Grade compensation – Types of vertical
Theory and problems.
• Unit – III: Pavement Design
Objects and requirements of pavements, types of pavement structure and functions of
pavement components, factors to be considered in Design of pavements, Design of Flexible
pavement using CBR method- (based on IRC: 37 – 2001), Design of Rigid pavement using
Westergaard’s modulus of subgrade Reaction and Westergaard’s stress equation for wheel
loads( Interior, Edge and Corner loading) - (Based on IRC: 58 – 2002), Comparison between
Rigid & Flexible pavements.
• Unit – IV: Railway Engineering Basics
Comparison of Highway & Railway transportation Railway track (permanent way)
Cross-sections of railway tracks – Coning of wheels-Gauges: Classification, Selection &
Uniformity -Rails: Functions, Types of rail sections, Length of rails, Rail Joints, Welding of
rails & Creep of rails.-Sleepers: Functions, Requirements, Classification & Sleeper
density.-Ballast: Functions, Requirements, Types & Quantity of ballast
• Unit – V: Advanced Railway Engineering:
Factors in selection of Good Alignment – Gradients – Grade compensation – Speed of trains -
Necessity of Points and Crossings – Turnouts. -Railway Stations: Requirements,
Classifications.-Station Yards: Types - Signalling: Objects, Engineering principles and Types.-
Control Systems: Control of train movement – Track Circuiting - Interlocking of signals and
points: Necessity and Methods.
1. Khanna, S.K., and Justo C.E.G., Highway Engineering, Nem Chand and Bros. 2005.
2. S.C.Saxena & S.P.Arora, A Text book of Railway Engineering, Dhanpat Rai Publishers
1. Vazirani and Chandola, S.P., Transportation Engineering Vol. 1 Khanna Publishers,
2. K.P.Subramaniam, Transportation Engineering – I, SCITECH Publishers 2003
Role of Transportation in society
• Transportation contributes to the economic ,industrial, social and cultural
development of any country. It plays a vital role for the economic
development of any region since every commodity produced ( food,
clothing , industrial products or medicine) needs to be transported at all
stages from production to distribution.
• Transportation is required from the production centres and later to the
retailers and then to the consumers.
• Inadequate transportation facilities retard the process of socio-economic
development of the country.
Economic effects of transportation
• Economic effects means of which the products are utilized to satisfy
• Two important factors which influence the economic effects are:
i. Production (supply)
ii. Consumption (demand)
Thus its clear that increased productivity and its efficient transportation
can lower the cost of products. Transportation cost is an influential
factor on price of commodities.
Social effects of transportation
• Population have always settled along the river shores, road sides etc.
With the help of effective transportation systems, we were able to
decentralize the population centres.
• Good transportation networks bring prosperity to urban area.
• Transportation facilities are required for rushing help to areas affected
by emergency. To maintain law and order In our land, to guard the
borders of our country, it is required to have an efficient system of
Advantages of transportation (summary)
• Transportation is helpful for the advancement of the community.
• It is essential for the economic prosperity and general development
of the country.
• It is essential for the strategic movements in emergency for the
defence of the country and to maintain better law and order.
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND CHARACTERISTICS
• Three basic modes of transport are by land, water and air.
• Apart from these major modes, other mode includes elevators, belt
conveyors, aerial ropes ways and mono rails etc.
• Four major modes of transportation are:
i. Road ways or high ways.
iii. Water ways
iv. Air ways
• Airways: Transportation by air is the fastest among all the other
modes. It provides comfort apart from saving transportation time.
• Water ways: Transportation by water is the slowest among the four
other modes, but it needs minimum energy to transport unit load
through unit distance.
• Railways: It is very advantageous since both passengers and goods
can be transported to large distance. By using railways transportation
is possible to interior parts of the country. Main advantage is bulk
goods can be transported at a time.
• Road ways: Transportation by road is the only mode which could give
maximum service to all. It is possible to provide door to door service
by road transport only.
• Road transport requires a relatively small investment for government.
• It offers a complete freedom to road users to transfer the vehicle
from one lane to another and from one road to another according to
the need and convenience.
• In short distance travel, road transport saves time.