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Introduction to transport engg (3)


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Introduction to transport engg (3)

  1. 1. HIGHWAYS AND RAILWAYS ENGINEERING (09CE209) Credits: 4:0:0
  2. 2. SYLLABUS • Unit – I: Highway Planning and Alignment Role of transportation in National Development – Objectives and achievements of organizations such as IRC and CRRI - Factors controlling selection of Highway alignments Modern methods of conducting Engineering surveys.-Rural & Urban Road classification in India.-Cross-sectional elements of road – Definition and Significance. Unit – II: Highway Geometric Design Design of horizontal alignment Sight distance – PIEV theory – Problems in S.S.D.-Super elevation – Theory & Problems - Highway widening on horizontal curves – Theory & Problems.-Transition curves - Theory & Problems. Design of Vertical Alignment: Terrain classification - Categories of Gradient – Grade compensation – Types of vertical curves - Theory and problems.
  3. 3. • Unit – III: Pavement Design Objects and requirements of pavements, types of pavement structure and functions of pavement components, factors to be considered in Design of pavements, Design of Flexible pavement using CBR method- (based on IRC: 37 – 2001), Design of Rigid pavement using Westergaard’s modulus of subgrade Reaction and Westergaard’s stress equation for wheel loads( Interior, Edge and Corner loading) - (Based on IRC: 58 – 2002), Comparison between Rigid & Flexible pavements. • Unit – IV: Railway Engineering Basics Comparison of Highway & Railway transportation Railway track (permanent way) Cross-sections of railway tracks – Coning of wheels-Gauges: Classification, Selection & Uniformity -Rails: Functions, Types of rail sections, Length of rails, Rail Joints, Welding of rails & Creep of rails.-Sleepers: Functions, Requirements, Classification & Sleeper density.-Ballast: Functions, Requirements, Types & Quantity of ballast
  4. 4. • Unit – V: Advanced Railway Engineering: Factors in selection of Good Alignment – Gradients – Grade compensation – Speed of trains - Necessity of Points and Crossings – Turnouts. -Railway Stations: Requirements, Classifications.-Station Yards: Types - Signalling: Objects, Engineering principles and Types.- Control Systems: Control of train movement – Track Circuiting - Interlocking of signals and points: Necessity and Methods. Text Books: 1. Khanna, S.K., and Justo C.E.G., Highway Engineering, Nem Chand and Bros. 2005. 2. S.C.Saxena & S.P.Arora, A Text book of Railway Engineering, Dhanpat Rai Publishers 2001 Reference Books: 1. Vazirani and Chandola, S.P., Transportation Engineering Vol. 1 Khanna Publishers, 2005. 2. K.P.Subramaniam, Transportation Engineering – I, SCITECH Publishers 2003
  6. 6. Role of Transportation in society • Transportation contributes to the economic ,industrial, social and cultural development of any country. It plays a vital role for the economic development of any region since every commodity produced ( food, clothing , industrial products or medicine) needs to be transported at all stages from production to distribution. • Transportation is required from the production centres and later to the retailers and then to the consumers. • Inadequate transportation facilities retard the process of socio-economic development of the country.
  7. 7. Economic effects of transportation • Economic effects means of which the products are utilized to satisfy human needs. • Two important factors which influence the economic effects are: i. Production (supply) ii. Consumption (demand) Thus its clear that increased productivity and its efficient transportation can lower the cost of products. Transportation cost is an influential factor on price of commodities.
  8. 8. Social effects of transportation • Population have always settled along the river shores, road sides etc. With the help of effective transportation systems, we were able to decentralize the population centres. • Good transportation networks bring prosperity to urban area. • Transportation facilities are required for rushing help to areas affected by emergency. To maintain law and order In our land, to guard the borders of our country, it is required to have an efficient system of transport network.
  9. 9. Advantages of transportation (summary) • Transportation is helpful for the advancement of the community. • It is essential for the economic prosperity and general development of the country. • It is essential for the strategic movements in emergency for the defence of the country and to maintain better law and order.
  10. 10. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND CHARACTERISTICS Transportation systems • Three basic modes of transport are by land, water and air. • Apart from these major modes, other mode includes elevators, belt conveyors, aerial ropes ways and mono rails etc. • Four major modes of transportation are: i. Road ways or high ways. ii. Railways iii. Water ways iv. Air ways
  11. 11. Its Characteristics • Airways: Transportation by air is the fastest among all the other modes. It provides comfort apart from saving transportation time. • Water ways: Transportation by water is the slowest among the four other modes, but it needs minimum energy to transport unit load through unit distance. • Railways: It is very advantageous since both passengers and goods can be transported to large distance. By using railways transportation is possible to interior parts of the country. Main advantage is bulk goods can be transported at a time.
  12. 12. • Road ways: Transportation by road is the only mode which could give maximum service to all. It is possible to provide door to door service by road transport only. • Road transport requires a relatively small investment for government. • It offers a complete freedom to road users to transfer the vehicle from one lane to another and from one road to another according to the need and convenience. • In short distance travel, road transport saves time.