ABB Life Expectancy Analysis Program Diagnostics

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LEAP is a unique Maintenance Tool for the
Stator Winding Insulation of Electric
Machines.
LEAP provides information on Machine
winding and expected life, and will optimize
the Machine Maintenance Plans

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ABB Life Expectancy Analysis Program Diagnostics

  1. 1. Cajetan Pinto, Global R&D Manager Machines Service, March 4, 2009 Life Expectancy Analysis Program for Electrical Machine Insulation© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 1
  2. 2. Presentation overview Life Cycle Management Approach Reliability and failure statistics Planning your Strategy LEAP Methodology & Use LEAP Standard Case Studies Benefits© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 2
  3. 3. Life Cycle Concept Value to Optimized Maintenance Line customer Continuous through Upgrading/ maintenance Replacement Maintenance Overhaul Aging Repair Warranty Period Upgrade and Replacement & Recycle Period Time Modernization Period Maintenance Period Customer Project Lifecycle© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 3
  4. 4. Total cost of operation (TCO)* TCO includes: • Purchase price • Specifications 74 % • Transportation • Storage • Installation • QA • Reliability • Electricity • Repairs • Administration • Inventory • etc 17.4 % 4.9 % 1% 2.7 % Installation Purchase Cost of repair Reliability Electricity * Information provided by MachineMonitor based on survey of 6000 machines© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 4
  5. 5. Basis of Analysis: Stress & Strength v/s Time Strength Premature Failure Stress, strength Failure Transients Stress Residual Life Time© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 5
  6. 6. Life Expectancy Analysis: Benefits Strength Condition assessment and taking suitable actions at this point. Adv. 1: No Premature Failure Transients Failure Stress Residual Life Adv. 2: Increase in Life© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 6
  7. 7. Reliability & Failure Statistics© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 7
  8. 8. Failure statistics: IEEE Survey 1985-1987 Bearing Winding 11% 5% 3% 37% Rotor 6% Shaft/coupling 5% Brushes/slipring 33% External devices Detection during Normal operation Not specified© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 8
  9. 9. Failure statistics : IEEE Survey 1985-1987 Bearing 10% Winding 4% 7% Rotor Shaft/coupling 8% 2% Brushes/slipring 8% 61% External devices Not specified Detection during maintenance or test© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 9
  10. 10. Failure Statistics: HV Motors Petrochemical Industry1999 Distribution of Failures for motors below 2000KW Bearing Stator Windings 1.20% 14.60% Rotor- Bars/rings 2.80% 57.40% Shaft or coupling 5.60% External device 18.40% Not Specified Distribution of Failures for motors equal and above 2000KW 7.89 5.26 7.89 0.00 For Machines less than 2000 kW IEEE anti-friction bearings are commonly 18.42 transactions on used which are more likely to fail industry applications . vol. 35. no. 4. july/august 1999 For Machines above 2000 kW sleeve bearings are often used 60.53 which are less likely to fail© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 10
  11. 11. Factors affecting Failure rate Total Failure Rate Vs Age %wdg Failure Rate 7 3.5 6 3 5 2.5 4 2 % % 3 1.5 2 1 1 0.5 0 0 3000-5000 6000 6600-10500 11000- 0-5 5.1-10 10.1-15 15.1-20 20.1-25 25.1- 13800 Age (Years) Voltage(Volts) %wdg. Failure Rate Wdg Failure Rate 1.4 1.2 2.5 1 2 0.8 1.5 % 0.6 % Series1 1 Series1 0.4 0.2 0.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 1 or less More than 1 Pole Number No of Starts/day© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 11
  12. 12. Stator winding failures Persistent Overloading Other 7% High Ambient 14% Temperature 8% Normal deterioration with age Abnormal Moisture 18% 18% Abnormal Voltage Poor Ventilation/ 5% Cooling Abnormal 8% Frequency 1% Aggressive Poor Lubrication High Vibration chemicals 5% 9% 7% FAILURE CONTRIBUTORS© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 12
  13. 13. Planning your maintenance STRATEGY Condition Life-time Protection Monitoring Estimation • on-line, but not • on-line + off-line • continuous, on-line, action taken in real time necessarily continuous • analysis and action • analysis and action is subsequent to data • to limit the damage or subsequent to data collection prevent operation under abnormal conditions collection • detects life limiting • prevents failure by taking defects at the incipient steps with short term stage, useful in both long planning for maintenance term planning and short term planning for maintenance MST, ARGUS, DLI, PD, LEAP Telemetry, etc© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 13
  14. 14. LEAP …… not just a step ahead What is LEAP? Lifetime Expectancy Analysis Program or LEAP is a unique Maintenance Tool for the Stator Winding Insulation of Electric Machines. LEAP provides information on Machine winding and expected life, and will optimize the Machine Maintenance Plans LEAP developed by ABB Machines Service, India, is in use for over 12 years, with a database of measurements and analysis in excess of 4000 machines worldwide Measurements are performed by Local or Global ABB Service centers and data analyzed at the LEAP Center of Excellence LEAP is not just a package of inspections; it is a systematic approach to managing Machine Maintenance© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 14
  15. 15. Level Based Inspections Opportunities for Inspection Schedule Inspections Basic When the machine is Every 5% of the estimated lifetime operating Standard When the machine is Every 10% of the estimated lifetime stopped but assembled Advanced When the machine is Every 25% of the estimated lifetime stopped and partially dismantled Premium When the machine is Every 50% of the estimated lifetime stopped and rotor removed 90 75 Confidence Level 60 45 30 15 0 Basic Standard Advanced Premium© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 15
  16. 16. Level Based Inspections Solution Packages Deliverables Levels Basic Data collection (on site or remote): Life Expectancy Analysis 65% Confidence Level Operational hours, voltage, current, power, slip, Condition Based Inspection and Maintenance Starts/Stops, Temperature (Winding, Coolant and Ambient), Plan Duty cycle & loading pattern, Failure and Maintenance history, Information on power supply, breaker-cable configuration, etc Standard Basic Data Collection Condition Assessment of Stator Windings for Polarization Depolarization Current Analysis PDCA Contamination, ageing, looseness, Tan Delta & capacitance Analysis delamination, stress grading system Life Expectancy Analysis 80% Confidence Non-Linear Insulation Behaviour Analysis Level Partial Discharge Analysis Condition Based Inspection and Maintenance Plan Advanced Standard Data Collection Condition Assessment of Stator Windings with Standard Visual Inspection on end windings Package + End-winding assessment Life Expectancy Analysis 85% Confidence Partial Discharge Probe measurements & Dynamic Level Mechanical Response of Windings Condition Based Inspection and Maintenance Stress analysis of End-windings Plan Premium Advanced Data Collection Condition Assessment of Stator Windings with Wedge Tightness Map & Coupling resistance measurements Advanced Package + slot region assessment Life Expectancy Analysis 90% Confidence Visual inspection, including slot areas Level Stress analysis of Windings Condition Based Inspection and Maintenance Plan© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 16
  17. 17. LEAP Methodology & Use of LEAP© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 17
  18. 18. LEAP methodology Collection of Data Operating data, test measurements and machine information Analysis of Data ABB has developed UNIQUE analytical tools aimed at life assessment Calculation of Stresses Life Expectancy Analysis is performed and factors and conditions that affect lifetime are identified Estimating Life & Condition Based Maintenance Lifetime is estimated with different Confidence levels depending on the LEAP package Possible further inspections, maintenance, replacements or even upgrades are drawn up© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 18
  19. 19. LEAP Standard© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 19
  20. 20. LEAP Standard package 100 P o la r iz a tio n -D e p o la r iz a tio n C u r r e n ts U PHASE DC Measurements Pol-Depol Currents (microAmp) 10 Polarization De-Polarization 1 Current Analysis 0 .1 1 10 100 1000 T im e (s e c ) C h a r g in g D is c h a r g in g TAN DELTA MEASUREMENTS AC Measurements 4.00 3.50 3.00 Non Linear Behavior Analysis Tan Delta (%) Tan δ and Capacitance Analysis 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 Partial Discharge Analysis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Voltage (kV) U Phase V Phase W Phase UVW Phase Remark: DC tests are sensitive to the surface condition, and AC tests give more information on the insulation volume© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 20
  21. 21. DC measurements Polarization-Depolarization Currents UVW PHASE Parameters 100 Derived Time constants Pol-D epol C urrents (m icroA m p) Q1, Q2 10 T1, T2, T3 Charge storage 1 : Q1, Q2, Q3 Q3 Ageing Factor 0.1 Dispersion Ratio (1+Q1+Q2+Q3) 0.01 1 10 100 1000 Volume Time (sec) Resistivity Charging DischargingRemark: Polarization - De-polarization Current AnalysisConventional IR& PI Besides leakage and absorption current, PDCA test gives an idea ofMeasurementsmay have quantity and location of charge storage within the machinesatisfactoryvalues even Identifies contamination even when IR, PI values are “acceptable”.with highlycontaminated Determines state of the winding insulation, ageing, looseness, etc.windings© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 21
  22. 22. AC measurements INSTANTANEOUS CAPACITANCE VARIATIONS @ 5.8 kV CAPACITANCE (Arbitrary Units) 110 65 20 -25 -70 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 TIME (msecs) U - PHASE V - PHASE W - PHASE UVW - PHASE Non Linear Behavior Analysis, Tan δ and Capacitance Analysis, Partial Discharge Analysis Confirm the results from DC Measurements Assess the condition of Corona protection shield Determine the extent of de-lamination or void content in terms of a Remarks: percentage of discharging Air Volume to Insulation Volume Conventional measurement Assess condition of the Stress Grading system at slot ends interpretation is generally Trend Ageing effects based on trends© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 22
  23. 23. LEAP from the Case Book© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 23
  24. 24. Contamination indicated by LEAP IR >>1000 MΩ PI >> 2© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 24
  25. 25. Contamination indicated by LEAP© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 25
  26. 26. Slot discharge / wear detected by LEAP© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 26
  27. 27. Surface discharge detected by LEAP© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 27
  28. 28. Case study 1: LEAP – Maintenance Planning 11MW 11kV 1500 RPM, Synchronous Motor (Air Separation problem) Purpose of Testing: The motor was in operation for 69,000 hours with no outage. LEAP Standard carried out to determine the need for L3 or L4 Maintenance. On-line pd alarm had appeared. Results - PDCA Test IR- 2310 Meg ohm PI- 2.02 Q1(%) – 9.63 Q2 (%) – 11.30 Key Findings: Q3 (%) – 44.54 LEAP Standard indicated presence of oil/carbonized contaminants DR – 1.65 AgF – 60.12 predominantly on the overhangs Vol Res – 1013.78 Ohm-m Recommendation: Open the end covers and clean end windings (L3). No immediate need of overhaul with rotor removal (L4) Benefits: Optimized Maintenance Planning© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 28
  29. 29. Case Study 3: LEAP Maintenance Verification 6034 HP, 6 kV, 502A, 1481rpm RESULTS - PDCA TEST Before Overhauling IR - 2205 Mohm PI - 4.79 Q1 – 78.68 % Q1, Q2 Q2 – 65.49 % Q3 – 128.56 % Q3 After Overhauling DR – 3.73 IR - 32464 Mohm PI – 5.63 Q1 – 7.84 % Q2 – 8.84 % Q3 – 8.86 % DR – 1.25© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 32
  30. 30. LEAP – Usage LEAP for Maintenance Planning LEAP for L1, L2, L3, L4 inspection LEAP for Run/Replace/Retrofit Decisions Measurements and Analysis are to be done at a single occasion (L4) with additional assessment of other components besides the stator windings LEAP for Life Extension/ Upgrade Decisions© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 33
  31. 31. Life Improvement Strength Stress/Strength Developed Stress Years Improvement in life by restoring strength droop Improvement in life by upgrading machine© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 34
  32. 32. Life Improvement Strength Stress/Strength Developed Stress Years Improvement in life by restoring original stress Improvement in life by developed reducing stress through redesign LEAP for ‘Life Extension’© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 35
  33. 33. LEAP – How is it different? Methodology is not dependent on old records of measurements performed. Single occasion of measurements will suffice for making decisions. Parameters are derived from measurements to quantify problems such as contamination, ageing and looseness. 65-72% of failures are related to Thermal and Ambient reasons which may not be detected by measurements that rely only on partial discharges. ABB’s measurements and analysis focuses also on detection non-partial discharge related problems. Analysis software is UNIQUE and parameters derived from analysis can be utilized in Life Expectancy Calculations Sophisticated FEM analysis can be deployed during L3 and L4 maintenance. Can be related to time and integrated into a Maintenance Plan© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 36
  34. 34. Towards a New Dimension We change the units ! Machinery status is typically expressed in vague units (green, yellow, red) We change that into a measurable dimension: time that can be easily interpreted by other computerized systems and related to scheduling actions© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 37
  35. 35. LEAP - Value for the Customer Optimizes Maintenance Planning of Electrical Machines by moving from Scheduled Maintenance to Condition Based Maintenance Life Extension of machines would lead to increased earnings capability and thereby greater return on investment. Facilitate decision making (short and long term maintenance planning) Focus mainly on essential maintenance, and machines that are vulnerable, thereby reducing downtime at lower risk levels Provides important “lifetime ” inputs for more realistic estimates of Life Cycle Costing© ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 38
  36. 36. © ABB GroupOctober 29, 2009 | Slide 39

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