introduction to
operating systems
POS/355

University of Phoenix
Instructor: Professor Georgette Jones, MBA
COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course provides an introduction to operating
systems. Topics covered include operating system
conc...
AGENDA
• Please sign the class roll
• Introductions
• Participation
• Review Syllabus
• Instructor Policies
• Create Learn...
INSTRUCTOR
INTRODUCTION
Academic Background
• B.S. in Management Info. Systems from University of South
Carolina
•MBA from...
STUDENT
Introductions

Please Introduce yourself and let us know the following:
• Name
• Major
• Current Job
• IT Experien...
PARTICIPATION
You will be challenged to think critically!
SYLLABUS REVIEW
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Course Overview
Program Handbook
Course Materials
Week One: Computer Systems
Week Two: Op...
Syllabus review
(cont.)

Read, Think, Write and Speak!
Learning teams
BREAK
7:00 – 7:10
Week 1 - Lecture
Learning objectives
1.1 Identify and define components of
a computer system.
Interesting fact
Technology has caused the
World to be Flat, we are all
connected!
• In 2005 if you looked in the index
• ...
What makes up a computer system??
Hardware component
• Hardware – provides basic computing resources
• CPU, memory, I/O Devices
HARDWARE

• CPU does the
fundamental
computing within
the system. It
controls all the other
components either
directly or ...
CACHE MEMORY
• Cache Memory is a section of
a compute’s memory which
temporarily retains recently
accessed data in order t...
Hardware (cont.)
Main memory:
•closely connected to the processor.
•stored data are quickly and easily changed.
•holds the...
Hardware (cont.)
Imagine that you are using a computer to writing a paper
called fundamentals of operating systems using M...
Hardware (cont.)
You just purchased a game called Bejeweled Blitz and install
it on your computer.
• The game consist of a...
Hardware
COMPONENTS (cont.)
• Moves data into the
computer systems.
HARDWARE
COMPONENTS
• Output devices moves data out of the computer system
Input/output devices
• Input/Output Devices
• How computer programs communicate to computer hardware
HARDWARE
COMPONENT
APPLICATION SOFTWARE

• Application Programs
• Define the ways in which
the system resources are
used to solve the computi...
What is an operating
system (OS)?
• A software program that
acts as an intermediary
between a user of a
computer, applicat...
What an os does for
a living
loop forever {
run the process for a while.
stop process and save its state.
load state of an...
QUESTION
What are the different types of
operating systems you have
used?
Types of operating
system
Windows Operating System (XP, 7, Vista, etc.
Types of operating
system
MAC OS X
GOALS OF THE OS


Let users run programs:


Correctness




Memory boundaries, priorities, steady state

Convenience
...
GOALS OF THE OS


Let users run programs:


Efficiency




Resource Utilization, resource Sharing,
Multitasking

Fairn...
Types of operating
systems
Single-user, Multi-tasking
This is the type of operating system most
desktops and laptops use t...
Types of operating
systems
Multi-user, Multi-tasking
Allows two or more users to run programs at
the same time. Some opera...
ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY THE OS
STATIC VIEW OF SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
question
• You just turned on your computer but
have not opened up any applications
such has email, word, etc.
• Are there...
In class exercise
• List all of the operating systems that
you know of, highlighting those that
you have used.
OS MANAGES APPLICATIONS
• OS provides the necessary
software platform on top of
which other “ application”
programs can ru...
Os and applications
• The user asks to run an application.
• This is done by clicking on an icon, making a menu choice, or...
The os AND APPLICATION
SOFTWARE
• In the most basic form,
the OS manages the
communication between
the application softwar...
STRUCTURE OF THE OS
APPLICATION PROGRAMS
SYSTEM PROGRAMS
SOFTWARE (Operating Systems)
Hardware
STRUCTURE OF OS


The structure of OS consists of 4 layers:
1. Hardware
Hardware consists of CPU, Main memory, I/O
Device...
STRUCTURE OF OS
3.

System programs
This layer consists of compilers, Assemblers,
linker etc.

4.

Application programs
Th...
Operating system
humor
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Operating systems 101

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  • You will have 3 Individual written assignments and one group written assignment along with a final presentation.
    You will be required to use scholarly academic resources such as the University online library.
    You must remember to read, think, write and speak n that order
  • Main Memory
    A processor chip has relatively little memory. It has only enough memory to hold a few instructions of a program and the data they process. Complete programs and data sets are held in memory external to the processor. This memory is of two fundamental types: main memory, and secondary memory.
    When people say that a computer has "512 megabytes of RAM" they are talking about how big its main memory is. One megabyte of memory is enough to hold approximately one million (106) characters of a word processing document. (There will be more about bytes and megabytes later on in these notes.)
    Nothing permanent is kept in main memory. Sometimes data are placed in main memory for just a few seconds, only as long as they are needed.
    Secondary memory is where programs and data are kept on a long-term basis. Common secondary storage devices are the hard disk and optical disks.
    The hard disk has enormous storage capacity compared to main memory.
    The hard disk is usually contained inside the case of a computer.
    The hard disk is used for long-term storage of programs and data.
    Data and programs on the hard disk are organized into files.
    A file is a section of the disk that has a name.
  • Where is the program you are running?
    In main memory.
    Running programs are always located in main memory.
    A permanent copy will also be in secondary memory on the hard disk.
    Where are the characters you have typed?
    In main memory.
    When you "save" your document, the characters are copied to a file on the hard disk.
  • They are both stored on the hard disk
    When you play the game, its various parts are copied from the hard disk into main memory as needed.hey are both stored on the hard disk
  • You must have a way to put information into a computer and get information out of a computer otherwise the hardware would be useless
  • Input/output devices are usually called I/O devices. They are directly connected to an electronic module attached to the motherboard called a device controller. For example, the speakers of a multimedia computer system are directly connected to a device controller called an audio card, which in turn is plugged into a bus on the motherboard.
  • Applications need an operating system to run and interpret commands that are input in the computer from the user
    Can someone tell me some common applications that you use for school work, at your work location?
  • The operating hides the complexity of the hardware from the user who is only interested in the end result
    Without the operating system, the computer is useless
    Goals of the operating system
    Execute user programs (can we think of some programs that we execute on a computer?)
    Make the computer system convenient to use through user-friendly interface such as icons, file menus, etc.
    Efficiently use the computer hardware in an efficient manner
  • Main goals is to protect applications from each other, while sharing physical resources
    Shares CPU (in time) and provides each application with a virtual processpr
  • Without the operating system, the computer is useless
    Goals of the operating system
    Execute user programs ( can we think of some programs that we execute on a computer?)
    Make the computer system convenient to use through user-friendly interface such as icons, file menus, ets.
    Efficiently use the computer hardware in an efficient manner
  • Yes—the operating system is running. Mostly it is managing the user interface, waiting for some input to tell it what to do.
    The hard disk. The hard disk is used for long-term storage of all software, including the operating system.
  • So your choice of operating system determine what application software you can run and vice versa.
  • How many of you have seen the blue screen of death? If the operating system fails, you will not be able to use your pc
  • Operating systems 101

    1. 1. introduction to operating systems POS/355 University of Phoenix Instructor: Professor Georgette Jones, MBA
    2. 2. COURSE DESCRIPTION This course provides an introduction to operating systems. Topics covered include operating system concepts, program execution, and operating system internals such as memory, processor, device, and file management. A variety of operating systems are compared and contrasted.
    3. 3. AGENDA • Please sign the class roll • Introductions • Participation • Review Syllabus • Instructor Policies • Create Learning Teams • Week 1 Topic - Identify and define components of an operating system (OS) • Group Activity • Questions and Answers
    4. 4. INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTION Academic Background • B.S. in Management Info. Systems from University of South Carolina •MBA from Keller Graduate School of Management •Currently working on PhD in IT at Capella University Professional Experience •19 Years of Enterprise IT Experience •AT&T, Proctor & Gamble, UPS, Georgia-Pacific, and Hewlett Packard Interest, Hobbies and/or Other Interesting Facts Teaching Philosophy
    5. 5. STUDENT Introductions Please Introduce yourself and let us know the following: • Name • Major • Current Job • IT Experience • Career Goals • Something interesting and unique about yourself • What do you hope to get out of this course? • Apprehensions, challenges and/or concerns
    6. 6. PARTICIPATION You will be challenged to think critically!
    7. 7. SYLLABUS REVIEW • • • • • • • • Course Overview Program Handbook Course Materials Week One: Computer Systems Week Two: Operating Systems Week Three: Operating Systems Week Four: Windows Server Week Five: UNIX
    8. 8. Syllabus review (cont.) Read, Think, Write and Speak!
    9. 9. Learning teams
    10. 10. BREAK 7:00 – 7:10
    11. 11. Week 1 - Lecture
    12. 12. Learning objectives 1.1 Identify and define components of a computer system.
    13. 13. Interesting fact Technology has caused the World to be Flat, we are all connected! • In 2005 if you looked in the index • Under F, there was no Facebook • 4G was a Parking space • LinkedIn was a prison • Twitter was a sound • Application was what you sent to college • Most people thought Skype was a typo - Thomas L. Friedman, Author, The World is Flat
    14. 14. What makes up a computer system??
    15. 15. Hardware component • Hardware – provides basic computing resources • CPU, memory, I/O Devices
    16. 16. HARDWARE • CPU does the fundamental computing within the system. It controls all the other components either directly or indirectly.
    17. 17. CACHE MEMORY • Cache Memory is a section of a compute’s memory which temporarily retains recently accessed data in order to speed up repeated access to the same data. • It provides rapid access without having to wait for systems to load.
    18. 18. Hardware (cont.) Main memory: •closely connected to the processor. •stored data are quickly and easily changed. •holds the programs and data that the processor is actively working with. •needs constant electric power to keep its information. Secondary memory: •stored data are easily changed, but changes are slow compared to main memory. •used for long-term storage of programs and data. •before data and programs can be used, they must be copied from secondary memory into main memory. •does not need electric power to keep its information.
    19. 19. Hardware (cont.) Imagine that you are using a computer to writing a paper called fundamentals of operating systems using Microsoft Word. •Where is the word processor program that you are running located? •Where are the characters you have typed?
    20. 20. Hardware (cont.) You just purchased a game called Bejeweled Blitz and install it on your computer. • The game consist of a Program (controls the gameplay and Data (Gamer Profile). •Where is the Program stored? •Where is the Data stored
    21. 21. Hardware COMPONENTS (cont.) • Moves data into the computer systems.
    22. 22. HARDWARE COMPONENTS • Output devices moves data out of the computer system
    23. 23. Input/output devices • Input/Output Devices • How computer programs communicate to computer hardware
    24. 24. HARDWARE COMPONENT
    25. 25. APPLICATION SOFTWARE • Application Programs • Define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users. • Word processors, web browsers, database systems, video games
    26. 26. What is an operating system (OS)? • A software program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer, application software, and the computer hardware. • Operating System goals: • Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier in a user-friendly environment • Make the computer system convenient to use
    27. 27. What an os does for a living loop forever { run the process for a while. stop process and save its state. load state of another process. }
    28. 28. QUESTION What are the different types of operating systems you have used?
    29. 29. Types of operating system Windows Operating System (XP, 7, Vista, etc.
    30. 30. Types of operating system MAC OS X
    31. 31. GOALS OF THE OS  Let users run programs:  Correctness   Memory boundaries, priorities, steady state Convenience  User should not handle the tiny details (encapsulate/abstract), provide synchronization primitives, system calls, file system, tools
    32. 32. GOALS OF THE OS  Let users run programs:  Efficiency   Resource Utilization, resource Sharing, Multitasking Fairness (in resource allocation)   Among: users, tasks, resources The tradeoff between efficiency and fairness
    33. 33. Types of operating systems Single-user, Multi-tasking This is the type of operating system most desktops and laptops use today. Microsoft’s Windows and Apple’s MacOS are both examples of operating systems that will let a single user have several programs in operation at a time.
    34. 34. Types of operating systems Multi-user, Multi-tasking Allows two or more users to run programs at the same time. Some operating systems permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users.
    35. 35. ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY THE OS
    36. 36. STATIC VIEW OF SYSTEM COMPONENTS
    37. 37. question • You just turned on your computer but have not opened up any applications such has email, word, etc. • Are there any software programs running? • What component of a computer system hold the operating system when the computer is not running?
    38. 38. In class exercise • List all of the operating systems that you know of, highlighting those that you have used.
    39. 39. OS MANAGES APPLICATIONS • OS provides the necessary software platform on top of which other “ application” programs can run. • Applications must be written to run on a particular operating system.
    40. 40. Os and applications • The user asks to run an application. • This is done by clicking on an icon, making a menu choice, or by other means. • The OS determines the name of the application. • The OS finds the files on the hard disk where the application and its data are stored. • The OS finds an unused section of main memory that is large enough for the application. • The OS makes a copy of the application and its data in that section of main memory. • The software on the hard disk is unchanged; main memory holds a copy of what is on disk. • The OS sets up resources for the application. • Finally, the OS starts the application running.
    41. 41. The os AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE • In the most basic form, the OS manages the communication between the application software, the user and the computer.
    42. 42. STRUCTURE OF THE OS APPLICATION PROGRAMS SYSTEM PROGRAMS SOFTWARE (Operating Systems) Hardware
    43. 43. STRUCTURE OF OS  The structure of OS consists of 4 layers: 1. Hardware Hardware consists of CPU, Main memory, I/O Devices, etc, 2. Software (Operating System) Software includes process management routines, memory management routines, I/O control routines, file management routines. (Contd…)
    44. 44. STRUCTURE OF OS 3. System programs This layer consists of compilers, Assemblers, linker etc. 4. Application programs This is dependent on users need. Ex. Railway reservation system, Bank database management etc.,
    45. 45. Operating system humor

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