Cranfield UniversityPGCLTAHE<br />Enquiry-based, experiential, situated learning<br />October 2010<br />George Roberts<br ...
Aims, purpose of the day<br />To provide <br />Rich content and support to Module 2  of the curriculum, particularly focus...
ILOs<br /><ul><li>Identify a range of practices which might, broadly be included under a rubric
enquiry-based, experiential, situated learning
Relate that range of practices to underlying social, institutional, pedagogical, technical, political, philosophical, hist...
Identify criteria by which practices might be valued  for the purpose of academic award, validation, QA, certification, li...
express value judgements
Identify techniques associated with valued practices, and using knowledge of techniques and your current discipline/traini...
Conversely, you might argue against the implicit proposition that offered techniques meet the value criteria, in general, ...
Explain, wider risks and benefits as might apply to enquiry-based, experiential educational developments
assessment. governance, ethics, autonomy, resourcing, stakeholders</li></li></ul><li>Programme<br />0930		Introductions<br...
Wider aims: good practice<br />encourage student-tutor contact<br />encourage student-student co-operation<br />encourage ...
Constructive alignment<br />Description<br />Curriculum<br />Objectives<br />Activities<br />Assessment<br />Criteria<br /...
Reflective Learning<br />three key themes underlying and unifying this workshop:<br />Enquiry-based learning (Berthiaume 2...
Reflective practice<br />qualitative, practitioner-centred, evaluative and self-evaluative perspective of educational prag...
Range of practices<br />Range of practices<br />Action learning<br />Action research<br />Project-based learning<br />Prob...
Value criteria<br />Professional values<br />Boyer’s four scholarships<br />HEA professional standards, value statements<b...
Scholarship of teaching<br />Boyer’s model of 4 scholarships (Nibertn.d.; Boyer 1997)<br />Discovery<br />Teaching<br />In...
HEA Values<br />Respect for individual learners<br />Commitment to incorporating the process and outcomes of relevant rese...
Instrumental, other-directed<br />Compassion<br />Determination<br />Professionalism<br />Resourcefulness<br />Respect<br ...
QCF Level descriptors<br />Level 7 (paraphrase)<br />Ability to reformulate and use relevant methodologies and approaches ...
Practice<br />enquiry-based techniques for <br />professional/academic/scholarly <br />communities of <br />practice/inqui...
Techniques<br />World café: “the World Café is an innovative yet simple methodology for hosting conversations about questi...
Open Space<br />Affective recall<br />Interview in pairs:<br />Recall a time/place/context in your life when things were g...
World Cafe<br />Taking 3 Questions and 3 Contexts<br />Identify 3 Table Hosts<br />One host for each Question<br />Form 3 ...
Design exercise<br />Curricular case studies<br />Each context group must develop a case study (real or hypothetical) of a...
Assessment for EBL<br />“Assessment is at the heart of the student experience”<br />	(Brown, S & Knight, P., 1994) <br />“...
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Summative
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Enquiry based, experiential, situated learning

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Enquiry based, experiential, situated learning

  1. 1. Cranfield UniversityPGCLTAHE<br />Enquiry-based, experiential, situated learning<br />October 2010<br />George Roberts<br />Oxford Brookes University<br />
  2. 2. Aims, purpose of the day<br />To provide <br />Rich content and support to Module 2 of the curriculum, particularly focusing on situated teaching practices and skills;<br />this session complements other practice-based workshops on Course, Module and Session Design, Assessment, Open and Distance Learning, eLearning, and also supports ILOs 2, 3, 4 & 5.<br />Brief information about enquiry-based, experiential, situated learning and teaching practices and a guide to subsequent pursuit of subjects of interest, with a preliminary reading list <br />An opportunity to practice, hands-on with enquiry-based techniques for professional/academic/scholarly/others communities of practice/inquiry/assessment<br />Consideration of the similarities and differences in scholarship between research (scholarship of discovery) and enquiry based learning<br />
  3. 3. ILOs<br /><ul><li>Identify a range of practices which might, broadly be included under a rubric
  4. 4. enquiry-based, experiential, situated learning
  5. 5. Relate that range of practices to underlying social, institutional, pedagogical, technical, political, philosophical, historical events and notions
  6. 6. Identify criteria by which practices might be valued for the purpose of academic award, validation, QA, certification, licence to practise, professional incorporation
  7. 7. express value judgements
  8. 8. Identify techniques associated with valued practices, and using knowledge of techniques and your current discipline/training programme show how you might incorporate enquiry-based, experiential learning into your practice, or show that it is already there.
  9. 9. Conversely, you might argue against the implicit proposition that offered techniques meet the value criteria, in general, in which case expect to offer other approaches that might meet similar or restated value criteria
  10. 10. Explain, wider risks and benefits as might apply to enquiry-based, experiential educational developments
  11. 11. assessment. governance, ethics, autonomy, resourcing, stakeholders</li></li></ul><li>Programme<br />0930 Introductions<br />0945 Presentation: reflective learning<br />1030 Coffee<br />1045 Open Space<br />1115 World Café<br />1230 Lunch<br />1330 Develop curricular case study/ies<br />1430 Governance, assessment, authenticity, ethics<br />1500 Conclusions, questions, policy direction<br />1530 Depart<br />
  12. 12. Wider aims: good practice<br />encourage student-tutor contact<br />encourage student-student co-operation<br />encourage active learning<br />give prompt feedback<br />emphasise time on task<br />have and communicate high expectations<br />respect diverse talents and ways of learning<br />(Chickering & Ehrman, 1987)<br />independent of the mode of engagement<br />
  13. 13. Constructive alignment<br />Description<br />Curriculum<br />Objectives<br />Activities<br />Assessment<br />Criteria<br />What are “desired” objectives?<br />What teaching methods require students to behave in ways that are likely to achieve those objectives?<br />What assessment tasks will tell us if the actual results match those that are intended or desired?<br />This is the essence of ‘constructive alignment’<br />(Biggs, 1999)<br />
  14. 14. Reflective Learning<br />three key themes underlying and unifying this workshop:<br />Enquiry-based learning (Berthiaume 2009, p.268)<br />Experiential learning (Fry et al. 2009, pp.15, 450)<br />Situated learning (Lave & Wenger 1990)<br />
  15. 15. Reflective practice<br />qualitative, practitioner-centred, evaluative and self-evaluative perspective of educational pragmatism, founded in an idealist, enlightenment, social utilitarianism <br />approaches are predominantly social: taking place in groups. <br />practices reflect a broad series of qualitative turns in the social sciences <br />
  16. 16. Range of practices<br />Range of practices<br />Action learning<br />Action research<br />Project-based learning<br />Problem-based learning<br />Developmental work research (DWR)<br />Peer and self-organised learning<br />Community learning, learning organisations, communities of practice<br />Personal and community development learning (PCDL)<br />
  17. 17. Value criteria<br />Professional values<br />Boyer’s four scholarships<br />HEA professional standards, value statements<br />Instrumental, other-directed values<br />QAA Level descriptors<br />
  18. 18. Scholarship of teaching<br />Boyer’s model of 4 scholarships (Nibertn.d.; Boyer 1997)<br />Discovery<br />Teaching<br />Integration<br />Application<br />
  19. 19. HEA Values<br />Respect for individual learners<br />Commitment to incorporating the process and outcomes of relevant research, scholarship and/or professional practice<br />Commitment to development of learning communities<br />Commitment to encouraging participation in higher education, acknowledging diversity and promoting equality of opportunity<br />Commitment to continuing professional development and evaluation of practice<br />
  20. 20. Instrumental, other-directed<br />Compassion<br />Determination<br />Professionalism<br />Resourcefulness<br />Respect<br />Solidarity<br />
  21. 21. QCF Level descriptors<br />Level 7 (paraphrase)<br />Ability to reformulate and use relevant methodologies and approaches to address problematic situations that involve many interacting factors<br />Taking responsibility for planning and developing courses of action underpinning substantial change<br />Critically analyse, interpret and evaluate complex information, concepts and theories as they apply to current developments that affect the areas of work or study.<br />
  22. 22. Practice<br />enquiry-based techniques for <br />professional/academic/scholarly <br />communities of <br />practice/inquiry/assessment <br />
  23. 23. Techniques<br />World café: “the World Café is an innovative yet simple methodology for hosting conversations about questions that matter.” (TWC n.d.; Vogt et al. 2003). World Café is an emergent practice which shares underlying principles with <br />Open Space Technology: “a way to lead any kind of organization, in everyday practice and ongoing change” (Herman 1998), <br />the Bar Camp movement: “an ad-hoc unconference born from the desire for people to share and learn in an open environment“ (Many 2010), and unconferencing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unconference)<br />
  24. 24. Open Space<br />Affective recall<br />Interview in pairs:<br />Recall a time/place/context in your life when things were going well for you<br />Describe to your partner how that felt to you<br />Identifying the questions and contexts that matter: <br />“Brain storm”, group clustering<br />Questions for EBL approach to learning 3 plus/minus 1<br />Contexts for EBL approach to learning 3 plus/minus 1<br />Evaluation criteria<br />Professional values<br />
  25. 25. World Cafe<br />Taking 3 Questions and 3 Contexts<br />Identify 3 Table Hosts<br />One host for each Question<br />Form 3 Context (topic) groups<br />Each topic group visits each question for 15 minutes<br />Hosts report back<br />Derive professional values, assessment criteria<br />
  26. 26. Design exercise<br />Curricular case studies<br />Each context group must develop a case study (real or hypothetical) of a curriculum that uses EBL techniques <br />Broad curricular aims<br />Programme ILOs<br />Rationale for EBL<br />EBL technique(s) used<br />Rough weight of EBL over the course<br />
  27. 27. Assessment for EBL<br />“Assessment is at the heart of the student experience”<br /> (Brown, S & Knight, P., 1994) <br />“From our students’ point of view, assessment always defines the actual curriculum”<br /> (Ramsden, P.,1992) <br />“Assessment defines what students regard as important, how they spend their time and how they come to see themselves as students and then as graduates.........If you want to change student learning then change the methods of assessment”<br />(Brown, G et al, 1997) <br />“The assessment tasks need to be ‘authentic’ to the objectives” <br />(Biggs 1999, p 161)<br /><ul><li>Diagnostic
  28. 28. Formative
  29. 29. Summative
  30. 30. Valid
  31. 31. Reliable
  32. 32. Authentic</li></li></ul><li>Wider risks and benefits<br />Questions<br />Governance, <br />partnerships, community<br />stakeholders<br />Ethics<br />Autonomy<br />Resourcing<br />
  33. 33. Learning design<br /><ul><li>Lecture Based
  34. 34. Large group
  35. 35. Seminar
  36. 36. Small group
  37. 37. Experiential
  38. 38. AL, PBL, WBL
  39. 39. Open, distance
  40. 40. Peer & group
  41. 41. Teaching team</li></ul>Scale (but see new QCF)<br />Course (c. 600 hrs +)<br />Module (c. 50-200 hrs)<br />Session (c. 1- 5 hrs)<br />Audience<br />Recipient<br />Referee<br />Deductive/inductive<br />Content/communication<br />
  42. 42. Policy<br />The big picture<br />Changing?<br />Globalisation<br />Liberalisation<br />Participation<br />Innovation<br />Three levels of analysis, e.g.<br />Institutional<br />National<br />Global<br />Covert curriculum<br />
  43. 43. Questions<br />
  44. 44. Wrap-up<br />Questions?<br />Academics anonymous<br />
  45. 45. Thank you<br />George Roberts<br />Senior Lecturer, Educational Development<br />OCSLD<br />Wheatley Campus<br />Oxford Brookes University<br />Oxford, OX33 1HX<br />groberts@brookes.ac.uk<br />http://www.google.com/profiles/georgebroberts<br />
  46. 46. Learning theory<br />Cycles<br />Kolb<br />Laurillard<br />Hierarchies<br />Bloom’s Taxonomy<br />Salmon’s ladder<br />Maxims of stance<br />QAA level descriptors<br />Reflection<br />… in action<br />… on action<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Conversational model<br />Borrowed from http://www.elicit.scotcit.ac.uk/modules/intro/unit3.htm<br />
  49. 49. Levels of learning: Bloom<br />evaluation<br />synthesis<br />analysis<br />application<br />comprehension<br />knowledge<br />ATHERTON J S (2005) Learning and Teaching: Bloom's taxonomy [On-line] UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm<br />
  50. 50. Sequence & Stance<br />Sequence<br />Where are you in the course? Is it the first week or the 8th week?<br />Have groups been used in other settings?<br />Do people know one another yet?<br />What is the interactional function of groupwork (as opposed to the instrumental or regulatory orheuristicfunctions?)<br />Maxims of stance (Scollon 1998)<br />Channel<br />Relationship<br />Topic<br />e-Tivity Sequence<br />(Salmon)<br />

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