Enabling Flexible Distributed Learning (FDL)at Oxford Brookes University    George Roberts    Development Director    Off-...
Beyond FlexibilityEnabling Flexible Distributed Learning1) Background    •  Personal    •  Policy2) Strategic Definitions:...
Life before and around BrookesEducation•    1968 - DEC PDP8 & FORTRAN•    1972 - BA (English Lit)•    1986 - MPhil (Histor...
Role at Brookes•    Identify opportunities for off-campus e-learning development•    Undertake research on e-learning nati...
Policy: the Big Picture•    Globalisation•    Liberalisation•    Participation•    Innovation     the Code is based on the...
What s happening, then? Chips with e-verything e-Society: ICT is becoming   Everywhere            Ubiquitous   Background ...
A 21st century education system Learners                 Flexible                     ProfessionalEmpowered               ...
Widening participationWidening participation policies are focused in two conflictingdirections: •  emancipatory and empowe...
Covert Curricula  The less obvious--but more important curriculum--is the covert curriculum, which  is composed of the ski...
Quick discussion•  What is flexibility?                          SQAA   10   06/12/2004
Learning Technology Affordances•  Flexibility with respect to time    •  Time shifting•  Flexibility with respect to place...
Strategic definitionsFlexible Distributed Learning     Code of practice for the assurance of academic     quality and stan...
DfES e-Learning ConsultationBroad and inclusive•  If someone is learning in a way that uses information   and communicatio...
Axes of Flexible Learning •    Individual   •    Organisation •    Identity     •    Culture •    Technology   •    Standa...
Axes of Flexible Learning •    Individual Identity Technologies                                  •  Organisational       •...
Blended learning   The variety of approaches represented by FDL in the UK and   elsewhere is now considerable,   and embra...
Blended learning: 3-C                         hi collocation                         hi collaboration   traditional labora...
Techniques•    Large class teaching      •  Personal response systems      •  Prior reading: fewer plenary lectures•    Fo...
VLE/MLE          http://www.jisc.ac.uk/mle/reps/briefings/bp1.html                                                  SQAA  ...
Thinking Outside the Slots“More or less off-campus more or less most of the time”   http://www.brookes.ac.uk/research/odl/...
Flexibility: Multiple Learning and Teaching Styles  •  Contingent  •  Inherent  •  Relative  •  Political                 ...
Contingent Flexibility•    Organised•    Managed•    Funded•    Directed•    Accredited      •  Bureaucratised•    Wired I...
Inherent Flexibility•    Latent      •  Potential & Kinetic      •  Emergent & Evolutionary•    Located in domains      • ...
Relative Flexibility•    zero sum      •  worth asking if an increased flexibility in one part of a system will          r...
Political Flexibility•    Work-related                             One of the cavaliers, those Bonny Princes, said:•    Va...
Brookes Context•  16,000 students (12,000 fte)•  1,600 DL (all “part time” 0.4 fte)    •  More or less off campus more or ...
Archaeology                                            Mists of time•  Modular Programme•  RBL•  IT Term (the Hypothetical...
Institutional Structure                       Board of Governors Academic Development including C4eL        Students Union...
Networks and Critical Distance                  Vice Chancellor    Deputy Vice                            Deputy Vice     ...
Networks of Influence:Flexibility Inherent•  Structure•  Leadership•  Responsibility•  Budgets•  Authority All derive from...
Institutional Structure: NetworksCentres for e- Learning?                                University                       ...
Institutional Structure: Networks Institutional Structure                       Board of Governors Academic Development in...
Why e-Learning?                 (Brookes e-L Strategy 2002-04)•  to encourage active learning in all domains•  to support ...
University e-Learning Strategy 2002 - 031.   Provide a Managed Learning Environment2.   Personal computer ownership and co...
Centre for e-Learning•  support for the achievement of the Academic Plan•  leadership in all aspects of learning technolog...
E-Learning at Brookes::                        E-Learning at Brookes                        Excellence    aims to apply Le...
Good learningbased on•  reciprocity•  authenticity•  credibility   independent of the mode of engagement                  ...
Good teaching•    sets ground rules•    provides alternative modes of participation•    exemplifies models of engagement• ...
Good practice•    encourage student-tutor contact•    encourage student-student co-operation•    encourage active learning...
Good design•  Permeability: multiple pathways•  Variety: multiple learning & teaching styles/   preferences•  Legibility: ...
Modes of Engagement   Mode 1 – baseline course administration and learner support (e-Learning                      Strateg...
Approaches in the Schools               Large      Diagnostic   Work-      International /   Multi-         Collab’   Blog...
Quality Reflections:Frameworks & Standards•  Process/outcomes•  Frameworks  •  Standards & Standardisation•  Beliefs      ...
FDL Precepts•  Overall, the revision may be characterised as moving   from the process-based style of the earlier version ...
Learning Technology Support ArchitectureEmbedded in systems architectures          (source IEEE LTSA)                     ...
Source: Bill Olivier, CETIS, 2003-04   SQAA   46   06/12/2004
… and, Conditioned by beliefspositivism: knowledge is out there , categorical   •  objective-led (behaviourist) pedagogies...
Final thought•  Flexibility is not an end in itself  •    Contingent  •    Inherent  •    Relative  •    Political•  Quest...
Thank you! George Roberts Development Director, Off-campus E-learning Oxford Brookes University groberts@brookes.ac.uk +44...
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Enabling Flexible Distributed Learning (FDL) at Oxford Brookes University

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Presentation to Scottish QAA Enhancement Themes Conference in 2004

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Enabling Flexible Distributed Learning (FDL) at Oxford Brookes University

  1. 1. Enabling Flexible Distributed Learning (FDL)at Oxford Brookes University George Roberts Development Director Off-campus e-Learning Oxford Brookes University Scottish QAA Seminar 06/12/2004
  2. 2. Beyond FlexibilityEnabling Flexible Distributed Learning1) Background •  Personal •  Policy2) Strategic Definitions: Flexibility •  Agenda(s)3) Brookes context •  Institutions and structures •  Values •  Criteria •  Examples4) Frameworks, Standards, Quality •  Pedagogical Pragmatism SQAA 2 06/12/2004
  3. 3. Life before and around BrookesEducation•  1968 - DEC PDP8 & FORTRAN•  1972 - BA (English Lit)•  1986 - MPhil (Historical & Comparative Linguistics)•  2001 - MA (Education w/Open and Distance Education)•  2004 - PhD study at U of Southampton •  The extent to which beliefs (ideologies) about learning and teaching are embedded in the artefacts of learning technologyWork & Related•  1987 PEP Preparatory Education Project•  1988 ACE adult community continuing education tutor•  1989 College of Petroleum and Energy Studies•  2000 Brookes•  2003 Open University•  ALT•  Writing SQAA 3 06/12/2004
  4. 4. Role at Brookes•  Identify opportunities for off-campus e-learning development•  Undertake research on e-learning nationally and internationally•  Advise SMT on: •  potential and actual partnerships in e-learning •  feasibility of specific off-campus developments •  resource requirements to underpin off-campus developments•  Establish and maintain strategic relationships with actual and potential partners•  Stimulate internal development of e-learning for external use and application•  Advise and work with •  academic staff preparing and delivering off campus e-learning •  admin staff on adaptation of systems to support off-campus e- learning•  Facilitate sharing and dissemination of best practice across boundaries•  Ensure off-campus and on-campus developments are complementary and co-ordinated SQAA 4 06/12/2004
  5. 5. Policy: the Big Picture•  Globalisation•  Liberalisation•  Participation•  Innovation the Code is based on the key principle that collaborative and FDL provision, wherever and however organised, should widen learning opportunities•  Education and training policy replaces industrial policy as the means by which governments seek to make regions economically competitive SQAA 5 06/12/2004
  6. 6. What s happening, then? Chips with e-verything e-Society: ICT is becoming Everywhere Ubiquitous Background Ambient Personal Adaptive and Aware Fast High-speed Mobile Wireless (wifi and telephony) Merging Convergent (TV, radio, learning, work, leisure) Multi/multiple media All Connected, Always on SQAA 6 06/12/2004
  7. 7. A 21st century education system Learners Flexible ProfessionalEmpowered Provision Workforce Better Value Creativity & for Learners Innovation Objectives of Current DfES Strategies Raising Standards Improving quality Removing Barriers Preparing for employment skills Widening Participationearly years Primary Secondary 14-19 Skills Post-16 HE Contributions from e-Learning Personalised support, Online communities, Flexible Study Virtual Environments, Individualised Study, Collaborative Learning, Tools for Innovation, Quality at Scale Strategic Actions Leading Sustainable e-Learning, Supporting pedagogical innovation, Staff development, Unifying Learner support, Aligning assessment, Building a better market, Assuring tech SQAA quality standards and 7 06/12/2004
  8. 8. Widening participationWidening participation policies are focused in two conflictingdirections: •  emancipatory and empowering for the individual: stimulate the growth of autonomous, entrepreneurial, IT-literate, multi- skilled individuals capable of creating and taking advantage of the opportunities inherent in a post fordist economy •  ensuring a supply of appropriately skilled workers for industry: create a compliant low-expectation labour force inured to the demands of flexibilisation in order to attract inward investment not on the basis of high skills available but on the basis of low costs SQAA 8 06/12/2004
  9. 9. Covert Curricula The less obvious--but more important curriculum--is the covert curriculum, which is composed of the skills and characteristics the student develops as a result of successfully completing the overt curriculum. (Appleby) http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_59.aspIndustrial era •  Overt 3 Rs : reading, riting and rithmatic •  Covert punctuality, subordination, repetitionPostmodern era •  Overt flexibility, community, personalisation •  Covert piecework, normalisation, surveillance see Roberts (2004) http://www.shef.ac.uk/nlc2004/Proceedings/Individual_Papers/Roberts.htm SQAA 9 06/12/2004
  10. 10. Quick discussion•  What is flexibility? SQAA 10 06/12/2004
  11. 11. Learning Technology Affordances•  Flexibility with respect to time •  Time shifting•  Flexibility with respect to place •  Location shifting•  Flexibility with respect to sequence •  Tutor directed learning •  Student directed learning•  Enhanced communication•  Distributed collaboration•  Access to resources•  Simulations SQAA 11 06/12/2004
  12. 12. Strategic definitionsFlexible Distributed Learning Code of practice for the assurance of academic quality and standards in higher education, Section 2: Collaborative provision and flexible and distributed learning (including e-learning) - September 2004 http://www.qaa.ac.uk/public/COP/cprovis/contents.htm•  The term e-learning will be used here to refer to modes of learning that are ICT-based•  Flexible and distributed learning (FDL) denotes educational provision leading to an award, or to specific credit toward an award, of an awarding institution delivered and/or supported and/or assessed through means which generally do not require the student to attend particular classes or events at particular times and particular locations. SQAA 12 06/12/2004
  13. 13. DfES e-Learning ConsultationBroad and inclusive•  If someone is learning in a way that uses information and communication technologies ICTs, they are using e-learning … playing an interactive game, … collaborating using the Internet, … watching an animated diagram, … taking a driving theory test online - it all counts as e-learning. (DfES Consultation, Towards a Unified e-Learning Strategy , July 2003) SQAA 13 06/12/2004
  14. 14. Axes of Flexible Learning •  Individual •  Organisation •  Identity •  Culture •  Technology •  Standards SQAA 14 06/12/2004
  15. 15. Axes of Flexible Learning •  Individual Identity Technologies •  Organisational •  Personal, Team, Collaboration, Collegiality •  Identity •  Culture •  Organisational Culture and Standards •  Hierarchy (Estate), Network or Market •  Technologies •  Standards •  Pedagogies, orthodoxies SQAA 15 06/12/2004
  16. 16. Blended learning The variety of approaches represented by FDL in the UK and elsewhere is now considerable, and embraces a continuum of pedagogical opportunities.3-C matrix:•  collocation low/high (face-to-face vs. distance learning)•  collaboration low/high (individualised vs. collaborative learning)•  computerisation low/high (e-learning vs. traditional print and communication technologies) SQAA 16 06/12/2004
  17. 17. Blended learning: 3-C hi collocation hi collaboration traditional laboratory lo computerisation hi collocation whiteboards in classrooms hi collaboration virtual field trips hi computerisation lo collocation CACL, online forums hi collaboration Learning to teach online hi computerisation hi collocation lo collaboration video link lecture hi computerisation lo collocation lo collaboration traditional OU DL lo computerisation lo collocation lo collaboration CBT training hi computerisation SQAA 17 06/12/2004
  18. 18. Techniques•  Large class teaching •  Personal response systems •  Prior reading: fewer plenary lectures•  Formative assessment •  CAA •  Simulations•  Distrubuted (online) discussion forums •  Work-based learning •  International / distributed cohorts •  Multi-professional learning •  Collaborative working•  Reflective learning •  Blogging •  ePDP/ ePortfolio SQAA 18 06/12/2004
  19. 19. VLE/MLE http://www.jisc.ac.uk/mle/reps/briefings/bp1.html SQAA 19 06/12/2004
  20. 20. Thinking Outside the Slots“More or less off-campus more or less most of the time” http://www.brookes.ac.uk/research/odl/taocp_home.html •  and/or Semester Calendar •  and/or Room slotting •  and/or Modular degreeBUT Systems issues embed certain (traditional?) practices •  Workload planning • unit of academic resource expressed as ratio of time in classroom : time in preparation •  Resource allocation model • DL does not use Library = Learning Resources but.. Learning Resources also = Computer Services (VLE, eJournals, etc) SQAA 20 06/12/2004
  21. 21. Flexibility: Multiple Learning and Teaching Styles •  Contingent •  Inherent •  Relative •  Political SQAA 21 06/12/2004
  22. 22. Contingent Flexibility•  Organised•  Managed•  Funded•  Directed•  Accredited •  Bureaucratised•  Wired Infrastructure •  Wired-in, connected•  Networked SQAA 22 06/12/2004
  23. 23. Inherent Flexibility•  Latent •  Potential & Kinetic •  Emergent & Evolutionary•  Located in domains •  Disciplined •  Sectored •  Nationalised•  Symbolic Capital •  Personal, Social, Cultural•  Experienced, Phenomenal •  Prior Learning•  Cognitive •  Modelled & Theorised •  Taught & Learned SQAA 23 06/12/2004
  24. 24. Relative Flexibility•  zero sum •  worth asking if an increased flexibility in one part of a system will result in decreased flexibility (+inflexibility) in another•  digital/analogue : particle/wave •  granular (objectified) •  modular / linear •  lifelong & continuing•  genetic/mimetic •  inherited •  preventable/unstoppable•  recreational/re-creational SQAA 24 06/12/2004
  25. 25. Political Flexibility•  Work-related One of the cavaliers, those Bonny Princes, said:•  Valued (high/low)•  Classified (Property) If I have freedom in my love and in my heart am free,•  Controlled then Angels who dwell in heaven above•  Democratic … or not shall know no such liberty.•  Pragmatic•  Global•  Shapable•  Standardised•  Assured•  Necessary? SQAA 25 06/12/2004
  26. 26. Brookes Context•  16,000 students (12,000 fte)•  1,600 DL (all “part time” 0.4 fte) •  More or less off campus more or less most of the time •  Outside UMP, semester calendar and slotting system •  Increasingly “Blended”•  Funding •  Self •  Employer •  TTA/NHS •  Other•  “Full price” •  Financial models problematic •  Economics embeds practice: RAM & PWP SQAA 26 06/12/2004
  27. 27. Archaeology Mists of time•  Modular Programme•  RBL•  IT Term (the Hypothetical)•  LTTF•  Brookes Virtual•  Brookes Online•  e-Learning at Brookes Today SQAA 27 06/12/2004
  28. 28. Institutional Structure Board of Governors Academic Development including C4eL Students Union Academic Executive Board Board Schools Schools Schools Learning and Resources Research Teaching and Planning Committee Committee Committee Directorates Directorates Directorates Directorates Undergraduate Forum e-Learning Forum Widening Participation Postgraduate Forum CPD ForumNew Project-Based Management Approach SQAA 28 06/12/2004
  29. 29. Networks and Critical Distance Vice Chancellor Deputy Vice Deputy Vice Chancellor Chancellor Pro Vice Pro Vice Chancellor Chancellor Registrar SQAA 29 06/12/2004
  30. 30. Networks of Influence:Flexibility Inherent•  Structure•  Leadership•  Responsibility•  Budgets•  Authority All derive from institutional utility based on knowledge, experience and information. Chaos model of management allows individuals to gain influence on the basis of charisma and hermeneutic approaches. SQAA 30 06/12/2004
  31. 31. Institutional Structure: NetworksCentres for e- Learning? University School Department Admin & Support Social Polity SQAA 31 06/12/2004
  32. 32. Institutional Structure: Networks Institutional Structure Board of Governors Academic Development including C4eL Students Union Academic Executive Board Board Schools Schools Schools Learning and Resources Research Teaching and Planning Committee Committee Committee Directorates Directorates Directorates Directorates Undergraduate Forum e-Learning Forum Widening Participation Postgraduate Forum CPD ForumNew Project-Based Management Approach SQAA 32 06/12/2004
  33. 33. Why e-Learning? (Brookes e-L Strategy 2002-04)•  to encourage active learning in all domains•  to support and develop independent, reflective learners•  to maintain high levels of support and guidance to a diversity of learners•  to develop key transferable skills: •  IT, teamwork, self-management, learning, problem solving and communications SQAA 33 06/12/2004
  34. 34. University e-Learning Strategy 2002 - 031. Provide a Managed Learning Environment2. Personal computer ownership and connectivity for all3. Library development and support4. Develop and provide of learner support resources5. School support for the development of e-learning6. Stimulate e-learning and provide a University framework for development of e-learning7. Create Centre for Higher Education e-Learning Development SQAA 34 06/12/2004
  35. 35. Centre for e-Learning•  support for the achievement of the Academic Plan•  leadership in all aspects of learning technology; guide the University s vision of the future for e-learning•  ensure that the e-learning strategy is coherent, focussed and in-line with national policy recommendations•  determine central e-learning strategy and take responsibility for cross-University decisions relating to e-learning•  steer and advise on the balance between innovative developments in e-learning and practical applications support for e-learning•  co-ordinate, conduct and disseminate research into e-learning and commission, or undertake as appropriate, research and development projects in e-learning•  co-ordinate and steer ongoing staff development and evaluation of the impact of e-Learning on the University community SQAA 35 06/12/2004
  36. 36. E-Learning at Brookes:: E-Learning at Brookes Excellence aims to apply Learning Technology to the provision of flexible, active, collaborative and professionally authentic learning … with these underpinning values E-Learning at Brookes values: innovation, enterprise, equality, scholarship and social responsibility … and 5 key projects Improving Researching Supporting and and e–learning expanding evaluating through Developing, environments Widening e–learning curriculum enabling and for e–learning participation design and valuing e– and creatingdevelopment Learning effective e– learning practitioners partnerships SQAA 36 06/12/2004
  37. 37. Good learningbased on•  reciprocity•  authenticity•  credibility independent of the mode of engagement SQAA 37 06/12/2004
  38. 38. Good teaching•  sets ground rules•  provides alternative modes of participation•  exemplifies models of engagement•  gives access to the experience of the instructor (cf. Brookfield 2001, Jones 1999) independent of the mode of engagement SQAA 38 06/12/2004
  39. 39. Good practice•  encourage student-tutor contact•  encourage student-student co-operation•  encourage active learning•  give prompt feedback•  emphasise time on task•  have and communicate high expectations•  respect diverse talents and ways of learning independent of the mode of engagement SQAA 39 06/12/2004
  40. 40. Good design•  Permeability: multiple pathways•  Variety: multiple learning & teaching styles/ preferences•  Legibility: multiple literacies, modes and systems of meaning•  Robustness•  Visual appropriateness•  Richness: complexity at scale•  Personalisation independent of the mode of engagement SQAA 40 06/12/2004
  41. 41. Modes of Engagement Mode 1 – baseline course administration and learner support (e-Learning Strategy Action 6a) ! Baseline course administration and learner support (chosen from the following): use web to distribute course information and carry out course administration, e.g. aims and objectives, assessment criteria/proformas, past exam questions and model answers/assessment sheets, timetabling announcements, reading lists, tutor contact details, course evaluation tools, Mode 1: baseline FAQs, additional web resources, links to field level resources, course/module handbook, lecture notes. Mode 2 – blended learning leading to significant enhancements to learning and admin and support teaching processes ! Communication ! Assessment and feedback Provide improved tutor-student, Provide improved feedback to student-student communications, students on their learning via mainly using discussion boards or computer assisted assessment for email. Enable students, especially either formative (self-assessment in disparate groupings and and monitoring of progress) or locations, to exchange information, summative (examination and ask questions and discuss issues grading) purposes or both. May Mode 2: Blended relating to the course. involve electronic setting, submission and return of student assignments using digital artefacts and proformas where objective Learning testing inappropriate. ! Collaboration ! Quality learning material Provide a platform for collaborative Develop flexible access to high student projects, involving shared quality, reusable learning content, responsibility for resources and which may include structured outcomes. Students use gateways to web and other Mode 3: communication tools and shared resources with accompanying self- directory to collaborate on task paced independent learning processes and outcomes. activities, interactive tutorials with feedback, simulations, study and learning skills resources and FDL activities fostering independent learning. Mode 3 – on-line course/module ! Develop course/module primarily on-line, incorporating all or most of the above, for flexible delivery, allowing learners to learn at times and places of their choosing. Likely to include learning materials, communication between tutor and students, assessment and monitoring of progress, learner support and course administration. SQAA 41 06/12/2004
  42. 42. Approaches in the Schools Large Diagnostic Work- International / Multi- Collab’ Blogs PDP/ class testing based distributed professional tive Portfolio teaching learning cohorts learning workingBusiness     Education     Health andSocial Care      SocialScience and LawBuiltEnvironment  Biological &Molecular Arts &Humanities Technology    SQAA 42 06/12/2004
  43. 43. Quality Reflections:Frameworks & Standards•  Process/outcomes•  Frameworks •  Standards & Standardisation•  Beliefs SQAA 43 06/12/2004
  44. 44. FDL Precepts•  Overall, the revision may be characterised as moving from the process-based style of the earlier version to a more outcome-based approach.•  The focus now is on ends rather than means. Institutions … will see that the basics remain in the content of the revised version but will, it is hoped, appreciate the flexibility now offered by the greater attention to outcomes.•  Flexibility has become an epi-phenomenon, part of the meta-curriculum SQAA 44 06/12/2004
  45. 45. Learning Technology Support ArchitectureEmbedded in systems architectures (source IEEE LTSA) SQAA 45 06/12/2004
  46. 46. Source: Bill Olivier, CETIS, 2003-04 SQAA 46 06/12/2004
  47. 47. … and, Conditioned by beliefspositivism: knowledge is out there , categorical •  objective-led (behaviourist) pedagogies of external motivations such as enquiry-based learning, physical simulation and experimentsocial perspective: knowledge emergent, constructed •  dominant approaches are exploratory learning and constructivismtacit communitarianism: common-sense normalisation •  knowledge engineering, and computational approaches such as organisational learning and intelligent systemsnew critical: cognitive disconnect in L&T practice •  project and problem-based learning, applied and action research are characteristic SQAA 47 06/12/2004
  48. 48. Final thought•  Flexibility is not an end in itself •  Contingent •  Inherent •  Relative •  Political•  Questions/Comments/Discussion SQAA 48 06/12/2004
  49. 49. Thank you! George Roberts Development Director, Off-campus E-learning Oxford Brookes University groberts@brookes.ac.uk +44 (0) 1865 484871 +44 (0) 7711 698465 http://www.brookes.ac.uk/virtual/ http://www.alt.ac.uk/altc2004/ SQAA 49 06/12/2004

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