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YEAR 10 HISTORY
USA 1910-1929
2. RELIGIOUS AND RACIAL
INTOLERANCE IN AMERICA
Religious freedom came to America in 1791, when the First
Amendment to the Constitution was passed.
This stated that Ameri...
After World War One, a number of conservative Americans
tried to rekindle old values.
As a result, a new Christianity emer...
The Presbyterian Beginnings of Fundamentalism
In 1925 the ideas of the Fundamentalists gained much
publicity in America. A new law was passed in six states,
including T...
As a result, a major Biblical
Conference organised a
campaign against the teaching
of Darwin's theory of evolution
in Amer...
John Scopes and The American Civil
Liberties Union from Dayton, Tennessee,
were outraged by the new act.
Scopes took the d...
'The Monkey Trial' solicitors: Clarence Darrow (left) and William Jennings Bryan
To many people living outside the Bible Belt, the ideas of the
Fundamentalists seemed irrational.
John Scopes was found gu...
At the beginning of the 20th
century, there was more racial
prejudice towards those who
were not 'real' Americans.
In 1900...
African American Community Building in Atlanta: A Guide to the Study of Race in America
The Jim Crow Laws were the laws
that introduced segregation in the
south.
The majority of black Americans
were not able to...
Industrial development had created a demand for
manufactured goods and jobs were created in the industrial
cities of the n...
The Ku Klux Klan was
a racist group
established by people
who believed that
white people were
better and wanted to
see bla...
The movement was revived in 1915 by
William J Simmons.
It grew quickly and by 1921 it had over
100,000 members.
By the mid...
Sometimes the local police could not protect the victims and
even took part in the killings.
Those responsible were not br...
By 1900 a former slave, Booker T
Washington, was fighting the cause of the
black people.
He opened the Tuskegee Institute ...
A different view was taken by two
organisations that were trying to
highlight the way in which black
Americans were being ...
The Universal Negro Improvement
Association (UNIA), established in 1914 by
Marcus Garvey.
UNIA members were more militant....
Summarize in your books, at the end of the lesson, in one paragraph per
each subject (at least 3 sentences):
Was America a...
HISTORY YEAR 10: RELIGIOUS AND RACIAL INTOLERANCE IN AMERICA
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HISTORY YEAR 10: RELIGIOUS AND RACIAL INTOLERANCE IN AMERICA

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Religious fundamentalism. What was the 'Monkey Trial'? Attitudes towards Black Americans and racial minorities. Who were the KKK? The response of the black people.

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HISTORY YEAR 10: RELIGIOUS AND RACIAL INTOLERANCE IN AMERICA

  1. 1. YEAR 10 HISTORY USA 1910-1929 2. RELIGIOUS AND RACIAL INTOLERANCE IN AMERICA
  2. 2. Religious freedom came to America in 1791, when the First Amendment to the Constitution was passed. This stated that America should not be dominated by one church. According to the constitution, Americans are free to believe in whatever religion they choose. Many people came to live in America because they were being persecuted because of their religion.
  3. 3. After World War One, a number of conservative Americans tried to rekindle old values. As a result, a new Christianity emerged: Fundamentalism. Social changes in the 1920s led to a major religious revival among conservative Christians. They did not like the influence of cinema and jazz, or the new way in which women dressed and behaved. The Fundamentalists believed strongly and literally in everything the Bible said, and in the Bible Belt they condemned any other beliefs. Laws were passed to prohibit short swimming costumes, and gambling on a Sunday.
  4. 4. The Presbyterian Beginnings of Fundamentalism
  5. 5. In 1925 the ideas of the Fundamentalists gained much publicity in America. A new law was passed in six states, including Tennessee, prohibiting the teaching of Charles Darwin's evolution ideas in schools because those ideas contradicted the story of the Creation in the Bible. Darwin said that humans had evolved from apes over millions of years, and when one Biology teacher ignored the new law and taught his pupils Darwin's ideas, he was taken to court. The Fundamentalists launched a fierce attack on Charles Darwin's ideas of evolution in his book On the Origin of Species. They strongly believed that God had created the world in six days.
  6. 6. As a result, a major Biblical Conference organised a campaign against the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution in American schools and especially the idea that men and monkeys had evolved from the same creature. The campaign succeeded in prohibiting the use of Darwin's books in schools in several states across the country.
  7. 7. John Scopes and The American Civil Liberties Union from Dayton, Tennessee, were outraged by the new act. Scopes took the decision to teach his pupils about Darwin and evolution in his biology lessons in order to make a political point. He was arrested for breaking the law. Clarence Darrow was Scopes' lawyer, while the lawyer for the Fundamentalists was William Jennings Bryan. The case was known informally as The Monkey Trial.
  8. 8. 'The Monkey Trial' solicitors: Clarence Darrow (left) and William Jennings Bryan
  9. 9. To many people living outside the Bible Belt, the ideas of the Fundamentalists seemed irrational. John Scopes was found guilty of teaching the theory of evolution to his pupils and was fined $100. William Bryan died suddenly just a few days after winning the case for the Fundamentalists. By 1929, six states in the Bible Belt, in the most southern parts of the country, had passed laws against teaching the theory of evolution. It was now possible that some children in America would grow up not knowing anything about this theory.
  10. 10. At the beginning of the 20th century, there was more racial prejudice towards those who were not 'real' Americans. In 1900 there were 12 million black people living in the USA and 75 per cent of them lived in the south. There was discrimination against them and only a few had the right to vote.
  11. 11. African American Community Building in Atlanta: A Guide to the Study of Race in America
  12. 12. The Jim Crow Laws were the laws that introduced segregation in the south. The majority of black Americans were not able to profit from the flourishing economy of the 1920s and early 1930s. This was true in the southern states where the economy was based on agriculture and crop prices fell throughout the 1920s and early 1930s.
  13. 13. Industrial development had created a demand for manufactured goods and jobs were created in the industrial cities of the north. Black people from the south started to migrate north and west to look for work. Most of them moved to cities such as New York, Chicago and Detroit. The relationship between black and white people deteriorated as people moved into the cities of the north. Black areas developed within these cities which were called ghettos, such as Harlem in New York. This was one of the factors that sparked the increase in the membership of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
  14. 14. The Ku Klux Klan was a racist group established by people who believed that white people were better and wanted to see black people remaining slaves. It began in the southern states at the end of the American Civil War in 1865. The key failings of government officials regarding KKK activity
  15. 15. The movement was revived in 1915 by William J Simmons. It grew quickly and by 1921 it had over 100,000 members. By the mid 1920s the movement was at its strongest with 5 million members. Only WASPs could join the Klan. The KKK discriminated against black people, Roman Catholics, Jews and Mexicans. Members of the Klan often killed black people by hanging without trial (lynching) – Rope Law.
  16. 16. Sometimes the local police could not protect the victims and even took part in the killings. Those responsible were not brought to justice very often, and Klan members knew that their friends in the courts would not find them guilty. It was difficult for the government to change the attitudes of the whites in the south - and politicians were scared of losing votes. In 1925 David Stephenson, the Klan Indiana Grand Dragon, was found guilty of causing serious injuries to a woman on a train in Chicago. The membership of the Klan fell by 1928 - by then its membership had fallen to a few hundred thousand members
  17. 17. By 1900 a former slave, Booker T Washington, was fighting the cause of the black people. He opened the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama to provide education and training for black people, believing that they had to make economic progress before making political progress.
  18. 18. A different view was taken by two organisations that were trying to highlight the way in which black Americans were being unfairly treated: The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP), established in 1909 by William du Bois. The NAACP focussed on opposing racism and segregation through litigation and holding non-violent activities, such as marches and protests.
  19. 19. The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), established in 1914 by Marcus Garvey. UNIA members were more militant. Garvey encouraged black people to establish their own businesses and to employ black people only. He also encouraged them to return to their homeland, Africa. Black is beautiful was his most famous slogan. William du Bois and Marcus Garvey both tried to improve conditions for black people, but their methods were so different that they became sworn enemies.
  20. 20. Summarize in your books, at the end of the lesson, in one paragraph per each subject (at least 3 sentences): Was America a country of religious and racial intolerance? What was religious fundamentalism and the role of the Monkey Trial? How were black people and other racial minorities treated during this period?

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