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13.3 Global Interdependence: The development of international tourism


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13.3 Global Interdependence: The development of international tourism

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13.3 Global Interdependence: The development of international tourism

  2. 2. KEYTERMSANDDEFINITIONS Tourism is travel away from the home environment a for leisure, recreation and holidays, b to visit friends and relatives and c for business and professional reasons. International tourist arrivals are tourists travelling to a country, which is not their place of residence, for more than one day but no longer than a year. International tourism receipts is the money spent by visitors from abroad in a destination country. Package holiday (tour) is the most popular form of foreign holiday where travel, accommodation and meals may all be included in the price and booked in advance, usually through a travel agent. Optional extras such as car hire and special visits may also be booked at the same time. Travel motivators are the reasons that people travel.
  3. 3. KEYTERMSANDDEFINITIONS External shock is an economic, political or other trend or event in a major market that significantly reduces the demand for tourism at a particular destination or a range of destinations. Carrying capacity of a destination is the number of tourists a destination can take without placing too much pressure on local resources and infrastructure. Travel and tourism satellite accounting is a comprehensive system of accounting that includes not only direct expenditure and receipts but also all the indirect knock-on effects. Economic leakages are the part of the money a tourist pays for a foreign holiday that does not benefit the destination country because it goes elsewhere. Leakages include payments to foreign owners of hotels and payment for goods and services imported for the tourist industry.
  4. 4. KEYTERMSANDDEFINITIONS The multiplier effect is a new or expanding economic activity in a region that creates new employment and increases the amount of money circulating in the region. In turn, this attracts further economic development, creating more employment, services and wealth. Niche tourism is tourism that deals in a specialised product. Destination footprint is the environmental impact caused by an individual tourist on holiday in a particular destination. Sustainable tourism is tourism organised in such a way that its level can be sustained in the future without creating irreparable environmental, social and economic damage to the receiving area. Ecotourism is a specialised form of tourism where people experience relatively untouched natural environments such as coral reefs, tropical forests and remote mountain areas, and ensure that their presence does no damage to environments.
  5. 5. TOPICSUMMARY Over the past 50 years tourism has developed into a major global industry, which is still expanding rapidly. A range of factors has been responsible for the growth of global tourism. These can be subdivided into economic, social and political. By far the greatest developments have occurred since the end of the Second World War, arising from the substantial growth in leisure time, affluence and mobility enjoyed in developed countries. Many developing countries have become more open to foreign direct investment in tourism compared to two or three decades ago.
  6. 6. TOPICSUMMARY Unfortunately, more than many other industries, tourism is vulnerable to ‘external shocks’. Periods of economic recession characterised by high unemployment, modest wage rises, and high interest rates, affect the demand for tourism in most parts of the world. Many communities in the developing world have suffered considerable adverse cultural changes, some of them through the imposition of the worst of western values. The attitudes to tourism of host countries and destination communities in particular can change over time. Communities that were once very close socially and economically may be weakened considerably due to a major outside influence such as tourism.
  7. 7. TOPICSUMMARY Tourism undoubtedly brings valuable foreign currency to developing countries and a range of other obvious benefits but critics argue that its value is often overrated because of economic leakages. Butler’s model of the evolution of tourist areas attempts to illustrate how tourism develops and changes over time. Tourism benefits other sectors of the economy, providing jobs and income through the supply chain. This is called the multiplier effect because jobs and money multiply as a result of tourism development. Tourism that does not destroy what it sets out to explore has come to be known as ‘sustainable’.
  8. 8. TOPICSUMMARY Education about the environment visited is clearly the key. The environmental impact of tourism is not always negative. Landscaping and sensitive improvements to the built environment have significantly improved the overall quality of some areas. In the past 20 years more specialised types of tourism have become increasingly popular. An important factor seems to be a general re-assessment of the work– life balance. Virtually every aspect of the industry now recognises that tourism must become more sustainable. Ecotourism is at the leading edge of sustainable tourism.
  9. 9. ADDITIONALWORKS • Are there any countries that you would not visit as a matter of principle? Give reasons for your answer. • Research the expected benefits to London of the 2012 Olympic Games. • For the country in which you live find out which are the most popular tourism locations and explain the reasons for their popularity. • Suggest how you could minimise the economic leakage of a foreign holiday by careful planning.
  10. 10. SUGGESTEDWEBSITES – World Travel and Tourism Council – The World Tourism Authority – World Tourism Organisation – Galapagos Conservation Trust