Cathedral of Florence(santa maria della fiore =Santa María de las flores)
Cathedral of florence The cathedral of is divided in seven parts parts: 3 1 2The Cathedral ( interior The façade The dome and exterior) 6 4 5 Florence Baptistery The crypt The main portal 7 Giottos Campanile
Principal information The dome of the cathedral, with its eight white ribs, Florence horinzonte chairs the background leaving the terracotta rooftops. Up close it is enormous. ni le pa m Ca DomeCampanile ribs façade e o w m ind Do w se Ro
The cathedral (interior and exterior)The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore (English: Basilica of Saint Mary of the Flower) is the main churchof Florence, Italy. TheDuomo, as it is ordinarily called, was begun in 1296 in the Gothic style to the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and completed structurally in 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi.
The cathedral (interior and exterior) The exterior of the basilica is facedwith polychrome marble panels in various shades of green and pink bordered by white and has an elaborate 19th century Gothic Revival façade by Emilio De Fabris.
The cathedral (interior and exterior) The cathedral complex, located in Piazza del Duomo, includes the Baptistery and Giottos Campanile. The three buildings are part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site covering the historic centre ofFlorence and are a major attraction to tourists visiting the region ofTuscany. The basilica is one of Italys largest churches, and until development of newstructural materials in the modern era, the dome was the largest in the world. It remains the largest brick dome ever constructed. The cathedral is the mother church of the RomanCatholic Archdiocese of Florence, whose archbishop is currently Giuseppe Betori.
The façade :The original façade, designed by Arnolfo di Cambioand usually attributed to Giotto, was actually begun twenty years after Giottos death. A mid-15th century pen-and-ink drawing of this so-called Giottos façade is visible in the Codex Rustici, and in the drawing of Bernardino Poccetti in 1587, both on display in the Museum of the Opera del Duomo.
The façade This façade was the collective work of several artists, among them Andrea Orcagna andTaddeo Gaddi. This original façade was only completed in its lower portionand then left unfinished. It was dismantled in 1587-1588 by the Medici court architect Bernardo Buontalenti, ordered by Grand Duke Francesco I de Medici, as it appeared totally outmoded in Renaissance times.
The façade In 1864, a competition was held to design a new façade and was won by Emilio De Fabris (1808–1883) in 1871. Work began in 1876 and completed in 1887. This neo- gothic façade in white, green and red marble forms aharmonious entity with the cathedral, Giottos bell tower and the Baptistery, but some think it is excessively decorated. The whole façade is dedicated to the Mother of Christ.
The dome The cathedral of Florence is built as a basilica, having a wide central nave of four square bays, with an aisle on either side. The chancel and transepts are of identical polygonal plan, separated by two smaller polygonal chapels. The whole plan forms a Latin cross. The nave and aisles are separated by wide pointed Gothic arches resting on composite piers. The dimensions of the building are enormous: length 153 metres (502 ft), width 38 metres (124 ft), width at the crossing 90 metres(295 ft). The height of the arches in the aisles is 23 metres (75 ft). The height from pavement to the opening of the lantern in the dome is also 90 metres (295 ft).
The DomeBy the beginning of the fifteenth century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing itsdome. The basic features of the dome had been designedby Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, 4.6 metres(15 ft) high 9.2 metres (30 ft) long, was standing in a sideaisle of the unfinished building, and had long ago become sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome higher andwider than any that had ever been built, with no externalbuttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.
Plan of the church withvarious extension phases Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. holy reparata the draft Alforno exchange magnifications francesco talents (current plan)
The dome Piazzale MichelangeloThe Duomo viewed from the heights of The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses hadbeen made when Neri di Fioravantes model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts and since the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, in addition to being a style favored by central Italys traditional enemies to the north.
The crypt The cathedral underwent difficult excavations between 1965 and1974. The subterranean vaults were used for the burial of Florentine bishops throughout the centuries.The archaeological history of thishuge area was reconstructed through the work of Dr Franklin Toker:remains of Roman houses, an early Christian pavement, ruins of theformer cathedral of Santa Reparata and successive enlargements of this church. Close to the entrance, in the part of the crypt open to the public, is the tomb of Brunelleschi. While its location isprominent, the actual tomb is simple and humble. That the architect was permitted such a prestigious burial place is proof of the high esteem he was given by the Florentines.[Also buried in the former cathedral of Santa Reparata was Conrad II of Italy.
The main portal The three huge bronze doors date from 1899 to 1903. They are adorned with scenes from the life of the Madonna. The mosaics in the lunettes above the doors were designed by Niccolò Barabino. They represent (from left to right): Charity among the founders ofFlorentine philanthropic institutions, Christ enthroned with Mary andJohn the Baptist, and Florentine artisans, merchants and humanists. The pediment above the central portal contains a half-relief by Tito Sarrocchi ofMary enthroned holding a flowered scepter. Giuseppe Cassioli sculpted the right hand door. On top of the facade is a series of niches with the twelve Apostles with, in the middle, the Madonna with Child. Between the rose window and the tympanum, there is a gallery with busts of great Florentine artists.
Florence Baptistery or st John baptistery The Florence Baptistry or Battistero di San Giovanni (Baptistry of St. John) is a religious building in Florence (Tuscany), Italy, which has the status ofa minor basilica.The octagonal Baptistry stands in both the Piazza del Duomo and the Piazza di San Giovanni, across from the Duomo cathedral and the Giottobell tower (Campanile di Giotto). It is one of the oldestbuildings in the city, built between 1059 and 1128. The architecture is in Florentine renaissance style.
Giottos Campanile Giotto’s Campanile is a free- standing campanile that is part of the complex of buildings that make up Florence Cathedral on the Piazza del Duomo in Florence, Italy. Standing adjacent the Basilica of Santa Maria del Fiore and the Baptistry of St. John, the tower is one of the showpieces of the Florentine Gothic architecture with its design by Giotto, its rich sculptural decorations and the polychrome marble encrustations. This slender structure stands on a square plan with a side of 14.45 meters (47.41 ft). It attains a height of 84.7 meters (277.9 ft) sustained by four polygonal buttresses at the corners. These four vertical lines are crossed by four horizontal lines, dividing the tower in five levels.
Some photos of cathedral and architectal elements: