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Fuerzas

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Material didáctico en el que se analizan las fuerzas y presiones

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (Unlimited) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/qURD } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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Fuerzas

  1. 1. FUERZAS Y SU EQUILIBRIO ( Paloma Román Gómez)
  2. 2. CONCEPTO ES TODA CAUSA CAPAZ DE: MODIFICAR EL ESTADO DE REPOSO O MOVIMIENTO DE UN CUERPO PRODUCIR UNA DEFORMACIÓN EN UN CUERPO  - -
  3. 3. EFECTOS DE LAS FUERZAS <ul><li>- CAMBIAN LA FORMA </li></ul><ul><li>CAMBIAN LA VELOCIDAD </li></ul><ul><li>CAMBIAN LA DIRECCIÓN DE DESPLAZAMIENTO </li></ul>
  4. 4. TIPOS DE MATERIALES • ELÁSTICOS . LOS MATERIALES RECUPERAN SU FORMA ORIGINAL CUANDO DEJA DE ACTUAR LA FUERZA QUE LOS DEFORMA. • PLÁSTICOS. AL CESAR LA FUERZA QUE LOS DEFORMA, LOS MATERIALES NO RECU­PERAN SU FORMA PRIMITIVA Y QUEDAN DEFORMADOS PERMANENTEMENTE. • RÍGIDOS. NO MODIFICAN SU FORMA CUANDO ACTÚA SOBRE ELLOS UNA FUERZA
  5. 5. LEY DE HOOKE EL ALARGAMIENTO DEL MUELLE (O CUERPO ELÁSTICO) ES DIRECTAMENTE PROPORCIONAL A LA FUERZA APLICADA F = K. ( L f - L i )
  6. 6. DEFORMACIÓN/ FUERZA APLICADA
  7. 7. PESO LA MAGNITUD DE LA FUERZA DE LA ATRACCIÓN DE LA TIERRA SOBRE TODOS LOS CUERPOS QUE ESTÁN SOBRE ELLA ES EL PESO DE LOS CUERPOS P= m.g PUEDE MEDIRSE CON EL DINAMÓMETRO
  8. 8. CENTRO DE GRAVEDAD SOBRE ÉL ACTÚAN TODAS LAS FUERZAS QUE TIENEN RELACIÓN CON EL CUERPO (TRACCIÓN, RESISTENCIA, PESO, ETC) EN É L SE INTERCEPTAN TODOS LOS EJES DE ROTACIÓN Y ES ADEMÁS UN PUNTO DE EQUILIBRIO SU POSICIÓN DETERMINA LA ESTABILIDAD DE UN CUERPO E L PESO SE DISTRIBUYE EN TODO EL VOLUMEN DE UN CUERPO, PERO PARA HACER C Á LCULO S , SE LO CONSIDERA COMO UNA FUERZA APLICADA SOBRE UN PUNTO DETERMINADO DEL CUERPO CONOCIDO COMO CENTRO DE GRAVEDAD (C)
  9. 9. ESTABILIDAD COMPORTAMIENTO DE DOS CUERPOS QUE SÓLO SE DIFERENCIAN EN LA ALTURA AL SER INCLINADOS: EN EL MAS BAJO , LA RECTA QUE CONTIENE LA FUERZA PESO , SE MANTIENE DENTRO DE LA BASE DEL CUERPO, RECUPERARÁ SU POSICIÓN ORIGINAL EN EL MÁS ALTO (CENTRO DE GRAVEDAD MÁS ELEVADO) DICHA RECTA CAE FUERA DE LA BASE LO QUE PROVOCARÁ LA CAÍDA DEL CUERPO.
  10. 10. TIPOS DE EQUILIBRIO HAY TRES TIPOS: ESTABLE INESTABLE NEUTRO PARA UN OBJETO ESTÁTICO EL EQUILIBRIO DEPENDE DEL PAR FORMADO POR EL PESO Y LA REACCIÓN CUANDO SE DESPLAZA EL OBJETO
  11. 11. LA FUERZA ES UN VECTOR ELEMENTOS DE UN VECTOR: • INTENSIDAD: ES SU VALOR NUMÉRICO O MÓDULO . VIENE INDICADA POR LA LONGITUD DEL VECTOR • DIRECCIÓN: QUEDA SEÑALADA POR LA RECTA EN LA QUE SE MANIFIESTA LA FUERZA. VIENE DADA POR LA RECTA QUE SOPORTA AL VECTOR • SENTIDO TODA DIRECCIÓN HAY DOS SENTIDOS OPUESTOS. LA PUNTA DE LA FLECHA SEÑALA EL SENTIDO EN EL VECTOR • PUNTO DE APLICACIÓN: LUGAR DEL CUERPO DONDE SE APLICA LA FUERZA Y PUNTO DONDE ARRANCA EL VECTOR
  12. 12. FUERZA RESULTANTE AL EFECTO COMBINADO DE DOS O MÁS FUERZAS SOBRE UN OBJETO, SE LE LLAMA FUERZA RESULTANTE
  13. 13. COMPOSICIÓN DE FUERZAS OPERACIÓN QUE CONSISTE EN DETERMINAR LA FUERZA RESULTANTE DE LA ACCIÓN DE OTRAS
  14. 14. 1. CON EL MISMO PUNTO DE APLICACIÓN MISMA DIRECCIÓN SENTIDOS OPUESTOS NO TIENEN LA MISMA DIRECCIÓN MISMO SENTIDO
  15. 15. 2. CON DISTINTO PUNTO DE APLICACIÓN a) FUERZAS CON EL MISMO SENTIDO b) FUERZAS CON SENTIDO CONTRARIO
  16. 16. MOMENTO DE UNA FUERZA (Newton. Metro)
  17. 17. Cuando yo subo, tú bajas; si tú subes, bajo yo: a la misma altura nunca podemos estar los dos. ¿ CUAL ES LA SOLUCIÓN?
  18. 18. MOMENTOS Y EQUILIBRIO. PRINCIPIO DE LOS MOMENTOS SE PUEDE ENUNCIAR DE LAS SIGUIENTES FORMAS: - EXISTE EQUILIBRIO SI LA SUMA DE LOS MOMENTOS EN SENTIDO HORARIO ES IGUAL A LA SUMA DE LOS MOMENTOS EN SENTIDO ANTIHORARIO - EXISTE EQUILIBRIO SI EL MOMENTO RESULTANTE ES CERO (SUMA DE LOS MOMENTOS QUE ACTÚAN)
  19. 19. EJEMPLOS: MOMENTOS
  20. 20. FUERZAS Y PRESIONES PRESIÓN EN SÓLIDOS
  21. 21. CÁLCULO DE LA PRESIÓN EN SÓLIDOS
  22. 22. PRESIÓN EN FLUIDOS CARACTERÍSTICAS: - SUS MOLÉCULAS SE MUEVEN LIBREMENTE - SUS MOLÉCULAS CAMBIAN FÁCILMENTE DE POSICIÓN. - LAS CAPAS SUPERIORES EJERCEN UNA FUERZA (PESO) SOBRE LAS INFERIORES CREANDO UNA PRESIÓN, EN EL FONDO, LAS PAREDES DE LOS RECIPIENTES QUE LOS CONTIENEN Y EN CUALQUIER PUNTO DEL INTERIOR FLUIDOS LÍQUIDOS GASES
  23. 23. PRESIÓN EN LÍQUIDOS LOS LÍQUIDOS SON INCOMPRESIBLES PASCAL ( s. XVII ): DEMOSTRÓ QUE LA PRESIÓN EJERCIDA EN UN PUNTO DE UN LÍQUIDO, SE TRANSMITE POR IGUAL EN TODAS LAS DIRECCIONES ESTA CARACTERÍSTICA SE UTILIZA EN: BASCULAS, FRENOS, GATOS HIDRÁULICOS, ETC.
  24. 24. LA PRENSA HIDRÁULICA
  25. 25. PRESIÓN EN EL INTERIOR DE UN LÍQUIDO LA PRESIÓN EN EL INTERIOR DE UN LIQUIDO ACTÚA EN TODAS LAS DIRECCIONES AUMENTA CON LA PROFUNDIDAD NO DEPENDE NI DE LA FORMA NI DE LA ANCHURA DEL RECIPIENTE ES MAYOR CUANTO MAYOR ES LA DENSIDAD DEL LÍQUIDO
  26. 26. PRESIÓN HIDROSTÁTICA - ES LA PRESIÓN QUE EXPERIMENTA UN CUERPO EN EL INTERIOR DE UN LÍQUIDO - SE DEBE AL PESO DEL LÍQUIDO QUE ESTÁ SOBRE ÉL. - SU VALOR DEPENDE DE: <ul><li>LA PROFUNDIDAD EN EL INTERIOR DEL LÍQUIDO </li></ul><ul><li>DE LA DENSIDAD DEL LÍQUIDO </li></ul>
  27. 27. CÁLCULO DE LA PRESIÓN HIDROSTÁTICA LA PRESIÓN HIDROSTÁTICA A CIERTA PROFUNDIDAD BAJO LA SUPERFICIE LIBRE DE UN LÍQUIDO EN REPOSO ES IGUAL AL PRODUCTO DE LA DENSIDAD DEL LÍQUIDO POR LA ACELERACIÓN DE LA GRAVEDAD Y POR LA PROFUNDIDAD DEL PUNTO CONSIDERADO DENSIDAD 9,8 m/s 2 PROFUNDIDAD P = d. (kg/m 3 ) GRAVEDAD (m) en la Tierra g . h ( en kg/m . S 2 = Pascal )
  28. 28. PRESIÓN EN LOS GASES. LEY DE BOYLE <ul><li>- Los gases se pueden comprimir. </li></ul><ul><li>- Existe una relación entre la presión aplicada a un gas y el volumen que ocupa.Cuando aumenta la presión disminuye el volumen del gas. </li></ul><ul><li>LEY DE BOYLE: Para una determinada masa gaseosa y a temperatura constante, el producto de la presión que soporta el gas por el volumen que ocupa es constante. </li></ul><ul><li>Matemáticamente: p V 1 = p 2 V 2 = constante </li></ul>
  29. 29. PRESIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA ES LA PRESIÓN QUE EJERCE LA ATMÓSFERA SOBRE LA SUPERFICIE DE LA TIERRA
  30. 30. EFECTOS DE LA PRESIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA
  31. 31. EXPERIMENTO DE TORRICELLI (1643) LA PRESIÓN EJERCIDA POR UNA COLUMNA DE MERCURIO DE 760 MM DE ALTURA SE DENOMINA PRESIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA NORMAL Y PARA MEDIRLA SE UTILIZA LA ATMÓSFERA (ATM), UNIDAD QUE EQUIVALE A 1,013 .10 5 PA.
  32. 32. VARIACIÓN DE LA PRESIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA LA PRESIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA DEPENDE DE LA ALTURA A MEDIDA QUE ASCENDEMOS, HAY MENOS AIRE POR ENCIMA DE NOSOTROS, LA PRESIÓN ATMOSFÉRICA ES MENOR
  33. 33. PRINCIPIO DE ARQUÍMEDES TODO CUERPO SUMERGIDO EN UN FLUIDO EXPERIMENTA UN EMPUJE VERTICAL HACIA ARRIBA IGUAL AL PESO DEL FLUIDO DESALOJADO.

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