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Morphoanatomy Of The Flower


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Morphoanatomy Of The Flower

  1. 1. Morphoanatomy of the Flower
  2. 2. Parts of a Flower <ul><li>Pedicel -the stalk of an individual flower </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Sepal --one member of the outermost whorl of a flower. Collectively, the sepals make up the calyx . The sepals may be free or fused. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Petal --one member of the second whorl of a flower. Collectively, the petals make up the corolla . The petals may be free (the flower then termed polypetalous) or fused into one piece (the flower then termed sympetalous). </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Perianth --the calyx and corolla together </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Calyx </li></ul>Corolla
  7. 7. <ul><li>Stamen --one member of the whorl of male sex parts. The part of the flower that produces pollen. This consists of two parts . The anther or top of the stamen actually produces the pollen. the anther is held aloft by a filament which is like a stem of the stamen. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Each stamen consists of a filament and anther , where pollen is produced. Collectively, the stamens make up the androecium androecium </li></ul>1. Tetradynamous - refers to four long and two short stamens in one flower Types of Stamens
  9. 10. <ul><li>2. Monadelphous --refers to stamens united by the filaments into one column </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>3. Diadelphous --refers to stamens united by the filaments into two groups--often 1 in one group and 9 in another </li></ul>Corydalis flavula
  11. 13. Desmodium laevigatum
  12. 16. Carpel <ul><li>- one member of the whorl of female sex parts. </li></ul><ul><li>- Collectively, the carpels make up the gynoecium . </li></ul><ul><li>- Each carpel consists of an ovary connected to a </li></ul><ul><li>s tigma by a style . </li></ul><ul><li>- The stigma is receptive to pollen. Within the ovary, on the placentae (sing., placenta ) are one or more ovules , which will mature into seeds. </li></ul><ul><li>- The open spaces inside the ovary are called locules or cells . The dividing walls are called septa . </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Carpel = inserted above the stamens, </li></ul><ul><li>= uppermost floral organ </li></ul><ul><li>= consist of Stigma, Style and Pistil </li></ul><ul><li>which is collectively called </li></ul><ul><li>Gynoecium </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>Stigma - Tip of the carpel, receptive to </li></ul><ul><li>pollen </li></ul><ul><li>Ovary - Base of the carpel, contains Ovules </li></ul><ul><li>Style - Connects the Stigma to the Ovary </li></ul>
  15. 20. Types of Carpels <ul><li>1. Apocarpous </li></ul><ul><li>- The flower is said to have many simple pistils </li></ul><ul><li>- A gynoecium of many separate carpels </li></ul>Crassula
  16. 22. Magnolia
  17. 23. <ul><li>2. Syncarpous </li></ul><ul><li>= A gynoecium of many fused carpels </li></ul><ul><li>= The flower is said to have a compound pistil </li></ul>Saxafraga
  18. 25. Poppy
  19. 26. 3. monocarpous <ul><li>In the very center of the flower is a single carpel . A carpel is the basic unit of a gynoecium. </li></ul><ul><li>This flower only has one carpel , and flowers like this are said to have a monocarpous gynoecium . </li></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>4. Unicarpellate </li></ul><ul><li>- gynoecium with only one carpel </li></ul><ul><li>- The flower has a simple pistil </li></ul>
  21. 29. hypanthium <ul><li>A hypanthium (= floral cup) is a structure derived by the adnation of the perianth bases and stamens. It can be variously shaped. This is a line drawing corresponding to a longitudinal section of a Prunus ( cherry) flower. </li></ul>
  22. 31. Ovary Position <ul><li>1. Hypogynous --The flower is hypogynous if the ovary is situated above the calyx and there is no floral cup around it. The ovary is superior . </li></ul>
  23. 34. <ul><li>2. Perigynous </li></ul><ul><li>-The flower is perigynous if the ovary is situated within (and free from) a floral cup or hypanthium . The ovary is superior . </li></ul>When the perianth and the stamens arise from a hypanthium that is NOT adnate to a superior ovary, the insertion is said to be perigynous , as in this longitudinal section of a flower of black cherry Prunus serotina.
  24. 37. <ul><li>3. Epigynous </li></ul><ul><li>--The flower is epigynous if the ovary is situated below the calyx. The ovary is inferior . (In the graphic example, the calyx is pink and the flower hangs upside down.) </li></ul>
  25. 40. Inflorescence <ul><li>An inflorescence may be defined as a cluster of flowers, all flowers arising from the main stem axis or peduncle : </li></ul>
  26. 41. cyme
  27. 42. Different types of inflorescences <ul><li>A catkin </li></ul><ul><li>- a spike-like inflorescence (i.e. the flowers do not have a pedicel and the main axis is elongated and unbranched) which has only male or female flowers. They occur in many woody trees such as the hazelnut and the willow. </li></ul>A willow catkin ( Salix sp)
  28. 43. Left: Male (staminate) catkin from the white mulberry ( Morus alba ), a fruitless variety commonly planted as a shade tree in southern California. Right: An individual male flower containing four stamens, each with an anther and a filament. At the base of each filament is a fleshy green sepal.
  29. 44. Female flowers consist of single pistil tightly enveloped by four inconspicuous sepals. Each carpel or pistil (also referred as a gynoecium) consists of a forked stigma, a short style and a spherical ovary. Each ovary (carpel) becomes a drupelet and the ripened cluster of drupelets (syncarp) is called a multiple fruit. In the aggregate fruit of a blackberry, all the drupelets of the cluster (syncarp) come from a single flower
  30. 45. <ul><li>Solitary </li></ul><ul><li>--just one flower on the peduncle </li></ul>
  31. 46. <ul><li>Spadix </li></ul><ul><li>- is the characteristic inflorescence of the remarkable arum family (Araceae). </li></ul><ul><li>- It consists of a thickened, fleshy axis (spike) bearing clusters of sessile, apetalous, unisexual flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>- The small unisexual flowers are packed together along the lower region of an erect, phallus-like central spike, typically with male flowers above the female. </li></ul><ul><li>- The upper region of the spadix is usually devoid of flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>- Male (staminate) flowers consist of numerous stamens packed together, </li></ul>
  32. 47. <ul><li>- while female (pistillate) flowers consist of numerous individual pistils. </li></ul><ul><li>- Individual flowers are reduced to a single stamen or pistil (gynoecium). </li></ul><ul><li>- The spadix emerges from a vase-shaped or funnel-like modified leaf or spathe which is often brightly colored. </li></ul><ul><li>- The spadix of some arums emits a putrid odor that attracts carrion flies for pollination. </li></ul>
  33. 50. The bizarre Malaysian Amorphophallus paeoniifolius . An enlarged, inflated, flower-bearing spadix protrudes from the vase-shaped spathe. Clusters of yellow male flowers (stamens) can be seen above the whitish stigmas of female flowers (pistils).
  34. 51. <ul><li>raceme </li></ul><ul><li>- This inflorescence has an unbranched main axis and all the pedicels of the flowers are more or less the same length. </li></ul>
  35. 52. Other raceme Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus ) Chinese hat ( Holmskioldia sp. )
  36. 53. <ul><li>umbel </li></ul><ul><li>- The peduncle of  this type of inflorescence bears all of the pedicels at its apex. </li></ul>Hydrangea ( Hydrangea macrophylla ) Lantana ( Lantana sp )
  37. 54. <ul><li>compound umbel </li></ul><ul><li>- The peduncle bears a number of primary pedicels at its apex. These do no bear flowers but a number of secondary pedicels at their apices which in turn bear the flowers.  </li></ul>Frangipani ( Plumeria rubra )
  38. 56. <ul><li>spike </li></ul><ul><li>- This inflorescence type has a long, unbranched main axis which bears flowers which have no pedicels or very short pedicels. </li></ul>Silver oak ( Grevillea robusta )
  39. 57. Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma ) Gladiolus ( Gladiolus sp. ) Red hot poker ( Kniphofia sp. ) Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma ) Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma ) Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma ) Quiver tree ( Aloe dichotma )
  40. 58. <ul><li>head (capitulum) </li></ul><ul><li>- which do not have pedicels </li></ul><ul><li>- are grouped together on the top of a peduncle which may be flattened or rounded. </li></ul><ul><li>- Daisies (Asteraceae) are a good example </li></ul><ul><li>- outer flowers may have one very large petal </li></ul><ul><li>- In other families the whole inflorescence may be surrounded by bracts e.g. the Proteas. </li></ul><ul><li>- This gives the impression that the whole structure is a single flower but it may in fact be hundreds of flowers grouped together. </li></ul>
  41. 59. Examples: King protea ( Protea cynaroides ) Daisy species
  42. 60. Mimosa sp. Pincushions ( Leucospermum sp. )
  43. 61. <ul><li>A corymb </li></ul><ul><li>- The main axis of this inflorescence type is elongated and unbranched as in a raceme, but the pedicels of the flowers are of unequal length so that the entire structure appears flat-topped. Examples include hawthorn, the apple and dogwood. </li></ul>Crataegus calpodendron
  44. 63. hawthorn Hydrangea corymb (group of flowers displayed as a disc)
  45. 64. Difference of corycomb, cyme and umbel
  46. 65. <ul><li>Spikelet </li></ul><ul><li>-like a spike, but with the flowers and inflorescence subtended by specialized bracts. Usually applied to the grass family (Poaceae) </li></ul>
  47. 66. <ul><li>Verticil or Whorl- </li></ul><ul><li>-the flowers are borne in a tight circle at each node </li></ul>
  48. 67. <ul><li>Panicle </li></ul><ul><li>--the main axis has branches which are in turn rebranched </li></ul>
  49. 68. Inflorescence Types
  50. 72. The End