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Flagellates Of The Lumen And Urogenitals


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flagellated protozoa

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Flagellates Of The Lumen And Urogenitals

  1. 1. Flagellated protozoa of the Digestive and Urogenital Tracts
  2. 2. Giardia lamblia <ul><li>Giardia lamblia is a flagellate of world-wide distribution </li></ul><ul><li>It is more common in warm climates than temporal climates </li></ul><ul><li>most common flagellate of the intestinal tract, causing Giardiasis </li></ul><ul><li>The infection is most common in parts of the world where sanitation is at its lowest . </li></ul><ul><li>Giardiasis is an infection of the upper small bowel, which may cause diarrhoea . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Trophozoite stage cyst
  4. 5. <ul><li>The movement of the trophozoites are described as tumbling leaf motility, using their 4 pairs of flagella for locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>They attach themselves to the surface of the jejunal or duodenal mucosa by their disc-like suckers which are found on their ventral surface </li></ul><ul><li>They multiply in the gut by binary fission </li></ul>
  5. 6. Clinical Disease <ul><li>Giardia lamblia colonises the small intestine where the trophozoites adhere to the mucosal surface by means of their sucking disc. Cysts are produced as the parasites descend the intestinal tract although trophozoites can be passed in the faeces in severe infections . G. lamblia is transmitted through ingestion of cysts in contaminated water or food. Cysts can survive outside the body for several weeks under favourable conditions. The main symptoms are abdominal pain, </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>flatulence, and episodic diarrhoea with steatorrhea and periodical soreness in severe cases. No blood or mucus is normally seen. However 50% of G. lamblia infections are symptomless, although severe infections may develop in immunocompromised hosts. What determines susceptibility is poorly understood. After swallowing cysts for the first time, symptoms commonly develop 2-6 weeks later. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Other names G. lamblia <ul><li>Cercomonas intestinalis </li></ul><ul><li>Lamblia intestinalis </li></ul><ul><li>Giardia enterica </li></ul>
  8. 9. Chilomastix mesnili <ul><li>There is a single nucleus and a curved cytostomal fibril  called the shepherd's crook </li></ul><ul><li>pear-shaped and measure from 6 to 24 µm in length and 4 to 8 µm wide </li></ul><ul><li>well defined cytosome </li></ul><ul><li>Cyst are characteristically lemon shape </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabit the cecal region of the large intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Multiply by binary fission </li></ul><ul><li>It is a harmless commensal </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Cosmopolitan distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Three free anterior flagella </li></ul><ul><li>Have similar life cycle with G. lamblia </li></ul><ul><li>Other synonyms : </li></ul><ul><li>Cercomonas intestinalis </li></ul><ul><li>Monocercomonas hominis </li></ul><ul><li>Macrostoma mesnili </li></ul><ul><li>Tetramitus mesnili </li></ul><ul><li>Chilomastix hominis </li></ul>
  10. 11. Trophozoite stage cyst
  11. 13. Trichomonas tenax <ul><li>trichomonas of the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Widely distributed in tropical areas and some temperate regions. </li></ul><ul><li>A species that lives as a commensal in the mouth of humans and other primates , especially in the tartar around the teeth or in the defects of carious teeth; there is no evidence of direct pathogenesis , but it is frequently associated with pyogenic organisms in pus pockets or at the base of teeth. </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>It does not have a cystic form and is transmitted directly in vegetative form. </li></ul><ul><li>It multiplies longitudinal binary fission </li></ul><ul><li>No specific treatment required. </li></ul><ul><li>Other names/synonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Trichomonas elongata </li></ul><ul><li>Tetratrichomonas buccalis </li></ul><ul><li>Tetratrichomonas buccalis </li></ul>
  13. 15. Trichomonas vaginallis <ul><li>Only exist in trophozoite stage </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear chromatin is uniform </li></ul><ul><li>The cytoplasm contains large amounts of siderophil. </li></ul><ul><li>Normally inhabits the vagina and prostrate gland that feeds on the mucosal discharge on females </li></ul><ul><li>It preferred the alkaline vagina </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Trichomoniasis is caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis . </li></ul><ul><li>The vagina is the most common site of infection in women, and the urethra is the most common site of infection in men. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>It multiplies through longitudinal binary fission. </li></ul><ul><li>It is sensitive to light </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted through sexual intercourse. </li></ul><ul><li>five flagella four of which are located at its anterior portion </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Infection often leads to vaginitis and accute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. </li></ul><ul><li>Trichomoniasis is associated with preterm delivery, low birthweight and increased infant mortality. Infection also pre-disposes individuals to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer (Cohen, 2000; Upcroft and Upcroft, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes and pelvis, and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis and oral lesions. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Trichomonas hominis <ul><li>The Trichomonas sp. do not have a cyst stage. </li></ul><ul><li>The trophozoite of T. hominis has a pyriform shape and has an axostyle, and four anterior flagella. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an undulating membrane that runs the entire length of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>The trophozoite measures from 5 to 15 µm in length and from 7 to 10 µm in width. </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>Cosmopolitan intestinal flagellates of man that can be identtified in diarrheric stool </li></ul><ul><li>one pear-shaped morphology </li></ul><ul><li>has 6 flagella , all previous ones except one, that are associate to the cellular surface forming a undulating membrane. Parallel to this membrane is arranged, inside the cell, a beam of microtúbules denominated coast. </li></ul><ul><li>It has an only nucleus with endosome that is arranged in the previous zone, near the point of insertion of flagella. </li></ul><ul><li>The trofozoito is the vegetative form that is fed, reproduces and infects. </li></ul>
  19. 25. vital Cycle and infection <ul><li>P. hominis lives in the heavy intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>The trofozoitos, when not presenting/displaying cyst state, are infects at any moment. </li></ul><ul><li>The common channel is the ingestion of trofozoitos by means of infected foods or drink with fecal matter . </li></ul><ul><li>In certain cases, the flies can act like mechanical vectors of the trofozoitos, when transporting rest of fecal matter to foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Once established in the new hospedador the trofozoitos they are divided and they extend by all the heavy intestine. </li></ul>
  20. 26. Other names <ul><li>Cercomonas davaine </li></ul><ul><li>Monocercomonas hominis </li></ul><ul><li>Pentatrichomonas hominis </li></ul>
  21. 27. Dientamoeba fragilis <ul><li>Despite its name, Dientamoeba fragilis is not an ameba but a flagellate. </li></ul><ul><li>This protozoan parasite produces trophozoites; </li></ul><ul><li>cysts have not been identified.  </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Dientamoeba fragilis has no cyst stage, and </li></ul><ul><li>its trophozoites usually measure 9 to 12 µm </li></ul>
  22. 31. Clinical Features <ul><li>Symptoms that have been associated with infection include diarrhea, abdominal pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. </li></ul>
  23. 33. <ul><li>Dientamoeba fragilis is a single celled parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans </li></ul><ul><li>Trophozoites of D. fragilis characteristically have two nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>The species name refers to the fact that the trophozoite stages are fragile - they do not survive long in the stool after leaving the body of the human host. </li></ul>
  24. 34. <ul><li>Naturally lives in the of the cecum and upper colon. </li></ul><ul><li>Those at highest risk for infection are people who live in institutions that have poor sanitary conditions and travelers who visit developing countries. </li></ul>
  25. 35. How D. fragilis is spread is uncertain, but infection is likely: <ul><li>By touching and bringing to your mouth anything, such as fingers, that have touched the stool of a person infected with D. fragilis . </li></ul><ul><li>By swallowing something, such as water or food, contaminated with D. fragilis . </li></ul><ul><li>By touching and bringing to your mouth D. fragilis picked up from contaminated surfaces. </li></ul>