Arthropod Part 3


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Arthropod Part 3

  1. 1. Tabanidae <ul><li>Tabanids as transmitters of pathogens. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anautogeny - must have blood meal for development of eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telmophagy feeding habit - pool of blood that can receive pathogenic organisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large blood meals (feed for long time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate feeding (from organism to organism) </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Black Deer Fly Chrysop s
  3. 3. Glossina - The Tsetse Fly <ul><li>Day feeders, attracted to moving objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Both males and females feed on blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Larviparous giving birth to larvae ready to pupate. The larva is deposited in loose, dry soil, and soon completes development. </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted to chemicals found in human sweat (1st column, 580) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Glossina - The Tsetse Fly <ul><li>Important vectors of Trypanosoma gambiense and T. rhodiense , causative agents for African Sleeping Sickness </li></ul><ul><li>Glossina morsitans is one example of many </li></ul>
  5. 5. African Sleeping Sickness <ul><li>Caused by Trypanosoma gambiense and T. rhodiense. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T. gambiense causes a chronic form that is found in west central and central Africa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks CNS, often fatal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wild animals do not serve as reservoir hosts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T. rhodiense causes an acute form in east central and central Africa . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wild animals serve as reservoir hosts. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Muscidae <ul><li>Musca domestica - the house fly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it so important? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synarthropy - close relationship with man - frequent table and outhouse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A male and female fly inApril. All flies survive and reproduce offspring. How many flies in August? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.9 X10 20 in August (cover the surface of the earth 47 feet deep) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Myiasis <ul><li>Infestation of tissue with maggots </li></ul><ul><li>Cochliomyia hominovorax (primary screw worm) is the most important producer of human and domesticated animal myiasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Eradicated in U.S. by releasing of sterile male flies. </li></ul><ul><li>Female flies only mate once, if mate with sterile male, will not mate again. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Medically Important Arachnids <ul><li>The ticks and the mites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General statements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ticks and mites are important because they cause harm to animals they infest and because they are important vectors for other diseases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ticks are ectodermal parasites of vertebrate hosts during larval, nymphal and adult stages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mites are found on the skin or in the respiratory system or other organs of hosts. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Medically Important Ticks and Mites <ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segmentation is reduced externally. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior gnathostoma or capitulum (jawed mouth or head) and idiosoma which makes up the body of the organism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The capitulum consists of feeting apendages surrounding the mouth. Chelicera or pincher like feeding structures are characteristic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually contain 4 pair of legs although some mites have less than 4 pair of functioning legs. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Order Ixodida: the ticks <ul><li>Several ways they are important to man </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exsanguination - excessive loss of blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermatosis - breakdown of dermal tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralysis - Paralysis resulting from secretions of the tick. Reversed when tick is removed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Otoacariasis - Infestation of the ear with ticks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmitters of other pathogenic organisms. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. One, Two, and Three Host Ticks
  12. 13. Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks)
  13. 14. Family Ixodidae – Hard ticks <ul><li>Characteristics of hard ticks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitulum is terminal and can be seen from the dorsal view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scutum is present and eyes when present are on the scutum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedipalps are rigid and not leg like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked sexual dimorphorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior margin of opisthosoma may be divided into sclerites called festoons </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Scutum
  15. 16. Family Ixodidae – Hard ticks <ul><li>The family of hard ticks is divided into three subfamilies. </li></ul><ul><li>Subfamily Ixodinae with the single genus Ixodes </li></ul><ul><li>Subfamily Amblyominae containing Amblyomma, Haemaphysalis, Aponomma and Dermacentor. </li></ul><ul><li>Subfamily Rhipicephalinae containing Rhipicphalus, Anocentor, Hytalomma, Boophilus, and Margaropus </li></ul>
  16. 17. Dermacentor variabilis <ul><li>American Dog Tick </li></ul><ul><li>Principal vector of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Causes tick paralysis and transmits tularemia </li></ul><ul><li>Family Ixodidae - hard tick </li></ul>
  17. 18. Dermacentor andersoni <ul><li>Rocky Mountain Wood Tick </li></ul><ul><li>Vector for several diseases in man. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Amblyomma americanum <ul><li>Lone Star Tick </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Transmits Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Tularemia </li></ul><ul><li>Family Ixodidae - hard </li></ul>
  19. 20. Ixodes scapularis <ul><li>Blacklegged tick </li></ul><ul><li>Common In Eastern U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Family Ixodidae – hard tick </li></ul>
  20. 21. Rhipicephalus sanguineus <ul><li>Brown Dog Tick </li></ul><ul><li>Transmits East Coast Fever in Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Family Ixodidae – hard tick </li></ul>
  21. 22. Other ticks <ul><li>Ixodes dammini - important vector for Lyme disease. Caused by spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi </li></ul><ul><li>Boophilus annulatus - American cattle tick. Transmits Texas Cattle Fever. First evidence of arthropod as a vector </li></ul>
  22. 23. Family Argasidae – the soft ticks <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitulum is subterminal and can not be seen from the dorsal view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No festoons or scutum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual dimorphorism is slight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedipalps are freely articulated and leg like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other characteristics see text page 614 second column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 5 genera of Soft ticks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argas, Ornithodoros, Otobius, Nothoaspis , and Antricola </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Scutum
  24. 25. Otobius megnini <ul><li>Spinose ear tick </li></ul><ul><li>Soft tick belonging to the FamilyArgasidae </li></ul><ul><li>May be found in ears </li></ul><ul><li>Adults do not feed </li></ul>
  25. 26. Argas persicus <ul><li>Poultry tick </li></ul><ul><li>Soft tick belonging to the family Argasidae </li></ul><ul><li>Can be very destructive to fowl. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Mites <ul><li>Dermanyssus gallinae the chicken mites - Nocturnal feeders that will aggressively feed on humans can cause severe dermititis. </li></ul><ul><li>Dermadox folliculorum - hair follicle mite of humans (fig 40.9, page 617) </li></ul><ul><li>Family Trombiculidae - the chigger mites </li></ul><ul><li>Sarcoptes scabiei - the itch mite causes sarcoptic mange or scabies. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Dermodex folliculorum <ul><li>Human hair follicle mite </li></ul><ul><li>20 % of people under 20 are infected and nearly 100 % of older people. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Sarcoptes scabiei <ul><li>Sarcoptic mange or scabies mite. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin parasites of homoiotherms. What are homoiotherms? </li></ul><ul><li>7 year itch or Norwegian Itch, or scabies. </li></ul><ul><li>May see it. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Dermanyssus gallinae <ul><li>Chicken Mite </li></ul><ul><li>Very destructive to chickens </li></ul><ul><li>Can be very painful to humans. </li></ul>