Volcanoes by Jake Pirotta, 3.04


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  • Talk about this volcano when it erupted and what it is doing right now.
  • MASS, DENSITY, AND ESCAPE VELOCITY The Earth's mass is about 5.98 x 10 24 kg. The Earth has an average density of 5520 kg/m3 (water has a density of 1027 kg/m3). Earth is the densest planet in our Solar System. To escape the Earth's gravitational pull, an object must reach a velocity of 24,840 miles per hour (11,180 m/sec).
  • There are lots of uncertainties about why volcanoes form, because scientists have to rely on models based on rock samples and other data.
  • There are lots of uncertainties about why volcanoes form, because scientists have to rely on models based on rock samples and other data.
  • Volcanoes by Jake Pirotta, 3.04

    1. 1. By Jake Pirotta, 3.04
    2. 2. <ul><li>Definition of Volcano </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain that forms when molten rock is forced to the Earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of active volcanos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 erupting right now (50-60/year) (160/decade) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of volcanologists = 1,500 </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Nonexplosive Eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive Eruptions </li></ul>Volcanic Eruptions
    4. 4. Volcanoes form around vents that release magma onto the Earth’s surface. Magma chamber
    5. 5. Lava can be thick or thin . Blocky lava Pillow lava
    6. 6. What Erupts from a Volcano? <ul><li>Pyroclastic material </li></ul><ul><li>Rock fragments created by Explosive eruptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>magma explodes from volcano and solidifies in the air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>existing rock is shattered by powerful eruptions </li></ul></ul>Volcanic blocks Volcanic bombs Lapilli Volcanic ash
    7. 7. How do volcanoes affect the Earth? <ul><li>Flows and Fallouts </li></ul><ul><li>hot ash can flow really quickly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knock down buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dam rivers (flooding/drought) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kill crops and livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climatic Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash & Gases can block sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drop average global temperature noticeably </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Types of Volcanoes Shield volcano Cinder cone volcano Composite volcano
    9. 9. Craters, Calderas, and Lava Plateau <ul><li>Crater </li></ul><ul><li>From explosions of material out of the vent and the collapse of material back into vent </li></ul><ul><li>Caldera </li></ul><ul><li>Much larger depression that forms when magma chamber empties and its roof collapses </li></ul><ul><li>Lava Plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Forms when lava erupts from long cracks, or fissures, and spreads out evenly (thousands of km) </li></ul>
    10. 10. What causes volcanoes? <ul><li>The Formation of Magma </li></ul><ul><li>Mantle rock melts when the temperature increases </li></ul><ul><li>or the pressure decreases . </li></ul>
    11. 11. What causes volcanoes? <ul><li>Where Volcanoes Form </li></ul><ul><li>Tectonic Plate Boundaries!!! </li></ul>
    12. 12. What causes volcanoes?
    13. 13. What causes volcanoes? Hot Spots
    14. 14. <ul><li>Measuring Small Quakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before eruption, increase in number & intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measuring Slope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulges may form with magma (tiltmeter) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measuring Volcanic Gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outflow of volcanic gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Measuring Temperature from Orbit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure changes in temperature over time </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>You don’t like hiking, backbacking, rockclimbing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>You are not interested in experiencing extreme temperatures and heights. </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t like to travel to incredible places and see breathtaking views of the world. </li></ul>