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2005 Kashmir Earthquake by James Spiteri (4.05)


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A powerpoint by one of the geography students about the Kashmir Earthquake of 2005

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2005 Kashmir Earthquake by James Spiteri (4.05)

  1. 1. 2005 Kashmir Earthquake Made by: James Spiteri 4.5
  2. 2. 2005 Kashmir earthquake <ul><li>The 2005 Kashmir Earthquake was a major earthquake centered in Pakistan-administered Kashmir known as Azad Kashmir, near the city of Muzaffarabad. </li></ul><ul><li>It affected Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>It occurred at 08:52:37 Pakistan Standard Time (03:52:37 GMT) on 8 October 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>It registered a moment magnitude of 7.6 making it similar in size to the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the 1935 Quetta earthquake, the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, and the 2009 Sumatra earthquakes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The effected area: Azad Kashmir India
  4. 4. <ul><li>As of 8 November, the government of Pakistan's official death toll was 75,000. </li></ul><ul><li>The earthquake also affected countries in the surrounding region where tremors were felt in Tajikistan, western China. </li></ul><ul><li>Officials say nearly 1,400 people also died in Indian-administered Kashmir and four people in Afghanistan. </li></ul><ul><li>The severity of the damage caused by the earthquake is attributed to severe upthrust, coupled with poor construction. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Immediate effects: Buildings were destroyed, people injured and ended up without homes.
  6. 6. Broken bridge and North of Muzaffarabad.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Well over US$ 5.4 billion (400 billion Pakistani rupees) in aid arrived from all around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>US Marine and Army helicopters stationed in neighbouring Afghanistan quickly flew aid into the devastated region. </li></ul><ul><li>Five crossing points were opened on the Line of Control (LoC) between India and Pakistan to facilitate the flow of humanitarian and medical aid to the affected region. </li></ul><ul><li>International aid teams from around the world came to the region to assist in relief. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Pakistan-administered Kashmir lies in the area of collision of the Eurasian and Indian tectonic plates. </li></ul><ul><li>The geological activity born out of this collision, also responsible for the birth of the Himalayan mountain range, is the cause of unstable seismicity in the region. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pakistan Meteorological Department estimated the 5.2 magnitude on the richter scale. </li></ul>The Earthquake
  9. 9. <ul><li>The United States Geological Survey (USGS) measured its magnitude as a minimum of 7.6 on the moment magnitude scale, with its epicentre at 34°29′35″N 73°37′44″E34.49306°N 73.62889°E  / 34.49306; 73.62889, about 19 km (11.8 miles) northeast of Muzaffarabad, Pakistan-administered Kashmir, and 100 km (65 miles) north-northeast of the national capital Islamabad. </li></ul><ul><li>The earthquake is classified as &quot;major&quot; by the USGS </li></ul>
  10. 10. Tectonic plates shows how Pakistan lies on the direct fault line of South Asia, the Middle Eastern Iranian plate and the Eurasian Plate in the north.
  11. 11. <ul><li>The hypocenter was located at a depth of 26 km (16.2 miles) below the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japan Meteorological Agency estimated its magnitude at a minimum of 4.6. By comparison, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake had a magnitude of 9.15. </li></ul><ul><li>The worst-hit areas were Pakistan-administered Kashmir, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa,and western parts of the Kashmir valley in Indian-administered Kashmir. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Also affected were some parts of the Pakistani province of Punjab, the capital city of Islamabad, and the city of Karachi which experienced a minor aftershock of magnitude 4.6. </li></ul><ul><li>There were many secondary earthquakes in the region, mainly to the northwest of the original epicentre. </li></ul><ul><li>A total of 147 aftershocks were registered in the first day after the initial quake, of which one had a magnitude of 6.2. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Twenty-eight of these aftershocks occurred with magnitudes greater than the original quake. </li></ul><ul><li>On October 19, a series of strong aftershocks, one with a magnitude of 5.8, occurred about 65 km (40.5 miles) north-northwest of Muzaffarabad. </li></ul><ul><li>As of 27 October 2005 there have been more than 978 aftershocks with a magnitude of 4.0 and above that continue to occur daily. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Since then, measurements from satellites have shown that mountain parts directly above the epicenter have risen by a few meters. </li></ul><ul><li>Giving ample proof that the rising of the Himalayas is still going on, and that this earthquake was a consequence of that. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Most of the casualties resulting from the earthquake were in Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>The official confirmed death toll was 74,698, putting it higher than the massive scale of destruction of the 1935 Quetta earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>International donors have estimated that about 86,000 died but this has not been confirmed or endorsed by Pakistani authorities. </li></ul>Casualties
  16. 16. 2005 Kashmir earthquake casualties 106,000+ 74,500+ Total 14 4 Afghanistan 6,266 1,360 Indian Administered Kashmir 100,000 73,338 Pakistan Pakistani Kashmir Injured Dead Location
  17. 17. The Consequences:
  18. 18. Effects on children and schools <ul><li>As Saturday is a normal school day in the region, most students were at schools when the earthquake struck. </li></ul><ul><li>Many were buried under collapsed school buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people were also trapped in their homes and, because it was the month of Ramadan, most people were taking a nap after their pre-dawn meal and did not have time to escape during the earthquake. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Reports indicate that entire towns and villages were completely wiped out in Northern Pakistan with other surrounding areas also suffering severe damage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;...a second, massive wave of death will happen if we do not step up our efforts now&quot;, Kofi Annan said on 20 October with reference to the thousand remote villages in which people are in need of medical attention, food, clean water and shelter and the 120,000 survivors that have not yet been reached.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusion <ul><li>Pakistan's Interior Minister Aftab Ahmad Sherpao, Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;made the appeal to survivors&quot; on 26 October to come down to valleys and cities for relief,because bad weather, mountainous terrain, landslides and blocked roads are making it difficult for relief workers to reach each house and the winter snows are imminent. </li></ul>