2003 Bam Earthquake by John L. Howard


Published on

a powerpoint created by a geography student about the devastating earthquake that hit the City of Bam in Iran in 2003

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

2003 Bam Earthquake by John L. Howard

  1. 1. Earth Quakes The Bam Earthquake in 2003 Iran
  2. 2. Where and How much? <ul><li>The 2003 Bam earthquake was a major earthquake that struck Bam and the surrounding provinces of Kerman and south-east Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>The most widely accepted magnitude estimate of the earthquake was 6.6 and was estimated by the United States Geological Survey. </li></ul><ul><li>The death toll was extremely high 26,271 people dead and another 30,000 injured. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The buildings <ul><li>The effects of the earthquake were exacerbated by the use of mud brick as the standard construction medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Mud brick is a strong building material but because of it’s structure it could not comply with the strength of the earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the area's structures did not comply with earthquake regulations set in 1989. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Fear amongst Iran <ul><li>Following the earthquake, the Iranian government seriously considered moving the capital of Tehran in fear of an earthquake occurring there. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologically the earthquake had an impact on many of the victims for years afterwards.  </li></ul><ul><li>A new institutional framework in Iran was established to address problems of urban planning and to reconstruct the city of Bam in compliance with strict seismic regulations. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>  This process marked a turning point, as government ministers and international organizations collaborated under this framework with local engineers and local people to organize the systematic rebuilding of the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Eighty-five to ninety percent of buildings and infrastructure in the Bam area were either damaged or destroyed, with 75% of houses being completely destroyed, plus 70-90% of Bam's residential areas. </li></ul><ul><li>This left an estimated 100,000 homeless. </li></ul>
  6. 7. International Relations <ul><li>Due to the earthquake, relations between Iran and the United States thawed. </li></ul><ul><li>he U.S. generally treated Iran as part of the “axis of evil&quot;, as its President George W .Bush referred to those states regarded to sponsor terrorism. </li></ul><ul><li>However, following the earthquake the U.S. offered direct humanitarian assistance to Iran . </li></ul>
  7. 8. Tourism <ul><li>Before the earthquake, Bam had a population of roughly 97,000. </li></ul><ul><li>t is one of the most popular tourism areas of Iran, one of its most popular attractions being its 2000-year-old mud-brick Bam Citadel. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Iran’s Plate Tectonics <ul><li>Iran suffers from frequent earthquakes, with minor ruptures occurring almost daily. </li></ul><ul><li>his earthquake occurred as a result of stresses generated by the motion of the Arabian plate northward against the Eurasian plate at a rate of approximately 3 centimetres (1 in) per year.  </li></ul><ul><li>Deformation of the Earth's crust in response to the plate motion </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Earthquakes occur as the result of both reverse faulting and strike-slip faulting within the zone of deformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary analysis of the pattern of seismic-wave radiation from the December 26 earthquake is consistent with the earthquake having been caused by right-lateral strike-slip motion on a north-south oriented fault. </li></ul><ul><li>The earthquake occurred in a region within which major north-south, right-lateral, strike-slip faults had been previously mapped. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>The Bam earthquake is 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of the destructive earthquakes of June 11, 1981 (magnitude 6.6, approximately 3,000 deaths) and July 28, 1981 (magnitude 7.3, approximately 1,500 deaths). </li></ul><ul><li>These earthquakes were caused by a combination of reverse-motion and strike-slip motion on the north-south oriented Gowk fault. </li></ul><ul><li>The rupture length of the earthquake was estimated to be around 24 kilometres. </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the quake was produced from its southern segment </li></ul>
  11. 12. Before and After
  12. 13. Rescue and relief <ul><li>Bam was described as &quot;literally a rubble pile&quot; by the U.S. relief coordinator, Bill Garvelink. </li></ul><ul><li>Iranian President Mohammad Khatami called the rupture a &quot;national tragedy&quot; and urged all Iranians to help its victims. </li></ul><ul><li>The disaster was a prompt for pledges of aid, which showed Khatami &quot;a spirit of humanity and kindness is alive.&quot; </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>On January 8, the International Federation of the Red  and the U.N. launched an international appeal for relief together at a conference in Bam, appealing for $42 million and $31.3 million respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>In response a reported 44 countries sent in personnel to assist in operations and 60 countries had offered assistance in the aftermath of the earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>During the nights following the earthquake, the temperatures would drop to &quot;bitterly cold&quot; extremes, effectively killing some survivors. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Aftermath <ul><li>Iran seriously considered moving the capital of Tehran following the Bam earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>The city lies on a major fault, on which scientists predicted a devastating earthquake similar to that of Bam.  </li></ul><ul><li>The most cited example was Isfahan, a city in central Iran that had previously served as capital until it was moved to Tehran in 1788. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Bam was a large trading hub due to its location on the Silk Road. </li></ul><ul><li>  It gradually declined in significance after the Afghans invaded in 1722, serving as an army camp until its abandonment in 1932. </li></ul><ul><li>The city became a tourist attraction in 1953, when restoration of Bam's Old Quarter began. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism after this disaster ceased due to the lack of the monumental Citadel of Bam and due to fear of another earthquake hitting this once wonderful city </li></ul>
  16. 17. The End John L Howard.