IB Geography: Drainage Basins: Sustainable River Management


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IB Geography: Drainage Basins: Sustainable River Management

  1. 1. Sustainable River Management
  2. 2. Sustainable development ‘ development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’
  3. 3. <ul><li>Features of soft river engineering: </li></ul><ul><li>Minimise the use of hard engineering techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Use eco-friendly construction methods to ensure that vegetation on the banks and bed suffer minimal damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Include basin areas / washlands for rivers to flood in. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop embankment levees that are set back from the river to allow wetlands to develop (buffer strips). </li></ul><ul><li>Time all operations to avoid breeding seasons etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Managed retreat from floodplains. </li></ul><ul><li>Land use / hazard mapping leading to planning legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Do nothing. </li></ul><ul><li>River restoration. </li></ul>
  4. 4. River Restoration: Kissimmee River in Florida.
  5. 5. <ul><li>One of the largest restoration projects in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Central Florida, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Before: the river flowed 160km between Lake Kissimmee and Lake Okeechobee. </li></ul><ul><li>Meandered across the floodplain, often in multiple channels. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1940s – area suffered from severe flooding. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The river was channelised to prevent floods and assist navigation. </li></ul><ul><li>1962 – 1971: United States Corps of Engineers replaced the river with a 90 km long drainage canal. </li></ul><ul><li>2 thirds of the floodplain wetlands were drained. </li></ul><ul><li>River velocity slowed – leading to the death of many species of fish. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Due to the lack of flooding – the aquifers were not recharged annually so there was an impact of groundwater supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>There were effects downstream as the project changed the water inputs into the Florida Everglades. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Website Video
  10. 11. <ul><li>1999 work started to restore the river. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost estimated at $US 450 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Buying back of farmland to replace 104 sq km of the floodplain. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinstating large areas of wetland. </li></ul><ul><li>Blocking the canal to force the river to flow in it original course. </li></ul><ul><li>Removing levees to allow flooding of wetland. </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining some of the canal to protect settlement from flooding. </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging tourism based on hunting and fishing to boost the economy of the area. </li></ul>