Rivers fieldwork booklet

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A revision booklet for the rivers module which also prepares students for the fieldwrok activity.

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Rivers fieldwork booklet

  1. 1. Rivers <br />Fieldwork preparation Booklet.<br />Name:____________________RIVERS<br />Aim: to review changes in a river from source to mouth<br />River valleys are shaped by erosion, transportation and deposition<br />EROSION<br />Explain the four processes of erosion:<br /><ul><li>...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
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  3. 3. ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  4. 4. ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................</li></ul>Erosion may be in two directions: Vertical (downwards) and lateral (sideways). As a river moves downstream, vertical erosion decreases/increases and lateral erosion decreases/increases<br />TRANSPORTATION<br />There are four ways that a river transports its load. Explain what these are:<br /><ul><li>...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  5. 5. ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  6. 6. ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  7. 7. ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................</li></ul>DEPOSITION<br />This is when a river drops its load. The largest material is dropped first as it is ....................... Rivers deposit when the speed (velocity) of the river .................. This usually occurs when the gradient of the river .................. or when a river meets a lake or the ..................... Deposition may also occur when there is simply too much ................for the river to carry.<br />LONG PROFILE<br />This shows how a river changes in height from source to mouth. In the axis, below, draw a long profile<br /><ul><li> Label the axes Height above sea level and Distance
  8. 8. Add the following labels to the graph:
  9. 9. Mainly traction loadHighest dischargeUpper, middle, lower courseSteep slope due to potential energy
  10. 10. Concave slope
  11. 11. Mostly lateral erosion
  12. 12. Mostly vertical erosion
  13. 13. Deposition of largest load
  14. 14. Large amounts of load
  15. 15. Deposition is the main process</li></ul>CROSS PROFILE (or cross section)<br />As a river moves from source to mouth its channel changes shape.<br />The width increases/decreases<br />The depth increases/decreases<br />Velocity (speed) increases/decreases<br />Gradient increases/decreases<br />Size of load increases/decreases<br />You are now going to draw a simple cross profile of a river in the box below.<br /><ul><li>Draw a line 5cms long towards the top part of the box and label it width
  16. 16. Label the scale 1cm = 1 metre
  17. 17. Above the line mark and label 0,1,2,3,4 and 5m
  18. 18. Now draw a vertical line, 2 cms long down from the 0 and 5 marks. Label these lines depth
  19. 19. Label the scale 1cm = 50cm
  20. 20. Using the following table, plot the depths at each point across the channel.
  21. 21. Width012345Depth102550751000
  22. 22. Join the points together – you now have the shape of the river channel at this point
  23. 23. Shade the channel light blue – this shows the cross sectional area
  24. 24. Label an area of erosion, deposition, river cliff, slip-off slope.
  25. 25. Label the three processes of erosion in the relevant place.</li></ul>RIVER VELOCITY<br />This is a bird’s eye (aerial view) of a river meander.<br /> RIVER<br /><ul><li> Label where erosion would occur
  26. 26. Label an area of deposition
  27. 27. Using a blue pen, draw on the line of fastest flow (called THALWEG)
  28. 28. Label two river cliffs
  29. 29. Label two slip-off slopes
  30. 30. Put an X where an ox-bow lake may form
  31. 31. Draw dotted lines across the meander neck</li></ul>Rivers – Key Terms<br />Cross sectional area:<br />Wetted perimeter:<br />Velocity:<br />Discharge:<br />Thalweg:<br />Vertical erosion:<br />Lateral erosion:<br />Deposition:<br />Transportation:<br />Cross profile:<br />River cliff:<br />Slip-off slope:<br />Potential/kinetic energy:<br />

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