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Chinese writing

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Chinese writing

  1. 1. The Chinese Language
  2. 3. Written vs. Spoken Chinese <ul><li>There are many written Chinese langauges (27). </li></ul><ul><li>Many spoken Chinese languages share the same written form. </li></ul><ul><li>Written Chinese does not show how to pronounce words. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 54 spoken languages in China. </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken Chinese and written Chinese are not the same. There is no way to spell Chinese phonetically. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Tonal Languages <ul><li>The tone of a word changes the meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Asian and African languages are tonal. </li></ul><ul><li>MA = horse, mother, </li></ul><ul><li>flax/linen/cloth, to scold </li></ul>
  4. 5. Stressed Languages <ul><li>Most European languages are stressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in stress change meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>That is a hot dog. That is a hot dog. </li></ul><ul><li>That is a hot dog? That is a hot dog? </li></ul>
  5. 6. China’s National Language? <ul><li>Written Chinese unifies the many spoken languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Mandarin Chinese is the spoken language that all government officials must learn. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Chinese Languages <ul><li>Northern Groups </li></ul><ul><li>(Mandarin) 800,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Wu 80,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Cantonese 80,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Xiang 40,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Hakka 40,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Min 50,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Gan 20,000,000 </li></ul>
  7. 8. How old is the Chinese written language? <ul><li>Mythology says the language goes back 4000 years, although historians date it back to 8000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>The current system is 3500 years old. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Qin Shi Huangti (259 – 210 BCE)                                                                    
  9. 10. How many characters are there? <ul><li>There are 50,000 characters. </li></ul><ul><li>8000 of them are still in use. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes 3000 to read a newspaper and be considered literate. </li></ul><ul><li>An educated person knows 6000 characters. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Transliteration <ul><li>Transliteration is writing the sounds of words in Romanized letters. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Chinese is traditionally written right to left and top to bottom. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Stroke Order of Characters                                  From top to bottom From left to right Horizontal before vertical Backstroke before forewardstroke First (three sided) enclosure, then filling Square enclosure top first, next filling, last seal Middle stroke, then left portion, then right portion
  13. 14. The Four Treasures of the Chinese Scholar <ul><li>1. Ink (in block form) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Stone to grind the ink with water </li></ul><ul><li>3. Paper </li></ul><ul><li>4. Brush </li></ul>
  14. 15. Chinese Names <ul><li>Last names first. </li></ul><ul><li>First names last. </li></ul><ul><li>It honors the family and not the individual. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Should Chinese be “romanized” or “transliterized”? <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul>
  16. 17. So, what does Bĕijīng mean? <ul><li>Bĕi = North jīng = Capital </li></ul>                   
  17. 18. Nánj ī ng = <ul><li>Southern Capital </li></ul>                   
  18. 19. Shàngh ă i <ul><li>Above the Sea </li></ul>
  19. 20. Húanghé <ul><li>Yellow River </li></ul>                                                           
  20. 21. Hăinán Island <ul><li>South Sea Island </li></ul>
  21. 22. Gŭangdōng <ul><li>Wide Country to the East </li></ul>
  22. 23. Jīangxī <ul><li>Western River </li></ul>                   
  23. 24. Héb ĕ i <ul><li>Northern River </li></ul>                   
  24. 25. Yúnnán <ul><li>Southern Clouds </li></ul>                   
  25. 26. Sìchūan <ul><li>Four Rivers </li></ul>                   
  26. 27. China doesn’t call itself China. They call their country Zhong wen. Wen is kingdom. What does Zh ō ng wen mean? <ul><li>Middle Kingdom </li></ul>
  27. 28. 11. Northern Lake = <ul><li>Húbĕi </li></ul>
  28. 29. 12. Southern Lake <ul><li>Húnán </li></ul>
  29. 30. 13. Western Mountain = <ul><li>Shānxī </li></ul>
  30. 31. 14. Eastern Mountain = <ul><li>Shān d ō ng </li></ul>
  31. 32. Numbers

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