CuUnkv sImXpIv
X¿mdm¡nbXv

tPm{^n tP¡ºv
C³
sl¯v C³kvs]ÎÀ
{]mYanImtcmKy tI{µw
AmSn¸pdw
geofferyjacob@gmail.com
9037756810
Ncn{Xw
B{^n¡³
B{^n¡³ hwiw
Im«n Xmakw
Dbcങ്ങfn Pohnച്ചnê¶Xv
]£nIfnÂ
]£nIfnÂnìw æcങ്ങn nìw
cà]m
cà]mw
acs¸m¯pIfn ap«bn«n...
Im«nÂ
Im«nÂnìw m«nte¡v
{][m
h ioIcWw {][m ImcWw
Dbcങ്ങfn nìw Xmtg¡v
DjvWtaJebnepw anXiotXmjWtaJebnepw
{][m
{][mambpw Iméì...
CuUnkv CuPn]vXn

CuUnkv

CuUnkv BÂs_m]nIväkv
CuUnkv CuPn]vXn
]IÂ kabw ISnçì þ DZb¯në
tijhpw AkvXab¯në ap¼pw
aëjy kmao]yapÅnS¯v Iméì
ANTHRAPO PHAGIC
s_Ív dqan hscsb¯pì...
CuUnkv BÂs_m]nIväkv
]IÂ kabw ISnçì þ DZb¯në
tijhpw AkvXab¯në ap¼pw
arK kmao]yapÅnS¯v Iméì
ZOONO PHAGIC
knäu«v hsc am{Xta h...
hfÀച്ച¡v 4 L«ങ്ങÄ

ap«

emÀÆ

]}¸,

sImXpIv
]}¸bn nìw ]pd¯p hê¶
kmh[m
CuUnkv sImXpæIÄ kmh[mw
CWtNcpì
CW tNcenë tijw B¬sImXpIv
1þ2 Znhkw am{Xw Pohnçì.
B¬ sImXpæIfpsS ...
CW tNcenë tijw ap«IfpsS hfÀച്ച¡v
s]¬sImXpIn
s]¬sImXpInv 1 þ 3 hsc »Uv aoÂkv thWw
Zln¡m³
Hmtcm »Uv aoepw Zln¡m³ 2 þ 7 Znhkw...
ap« þ hncnªndങ്ങÂ
Häbmbn ap«bnSpì
Pe
Penc¸në sXm«papIfnembmWv ap«IÄ
nt£oç¶Xv
shÅ nd¯nepÅ ap«IÄ nanjങ്ങjçÅnÂ
Xnfങ്ങp¶
Idp¸p...
Distinguishing characters of Anopheles, Culex
and Aedes mosquito eggs

Air
bubles

Culex eggs (raft)

Aedes egg
CuUnkv

As
Asm^nenkv

a¬skmWnb

I}eIvkv
Distinguishing characters of Anopheles, Culex
and Aedes mosquito eggs
Anopheles

Aedes

Culex

Eggs laid singly

singly

I...
emÀÆ
• ssk^¬ S}_v Ptem]cnXe¯në
apIfnem¡n shůn Xqങ്ങnInSçì.
• BÂtKIfpw kq£vaPohnIfpamWv Blmcw
• emÀÆhfÀച്ച¡v 4 L«ങ്ങfp−v ...
Distinguishing characters of Anopheles , Culex and Aedes
mosquito larvae

air tube
present

Ventral hair (2 or more)

Anop...
Resting posture: Distinguishing characters of Anopheline &
Culine larvae

Anopheline larva

Culicine larva

•

When undist...
• Anopheles: Rests parellel,
• spiracles in 8th seg.,
• presence of palmate hair
• Culex: Hang downwards, siphon in the
8th seg. ‘C’ like move, not sensitive to light,
not gregarious, long siphon
• Aedes: Downwards, short barrel shaped
siphon, spiracle in the tip, ‘S’ move, light
sensitive, gregarious
• Mansonia: Attached to roots of pistia,
respirate through the root cells.
Visual recognition of Aedes & Culex larvae
•
•
•
•

•

Aedes
Gregarious in habit
Air tube (siphon) short, about
twice as l...
]}¸
memw L«w ]qÀ¯nbm¡nb emÀÆ ]}¸
L«¯nte¡v ISçì
]}¸ Ptem]cnXe¯n InS¶v HêtPmSn FbÀ
S}_|IÄ hgn izknçì
Ch ചenç¶hbpw Neങ്ങtfmS...
• Anopheles: Comma, short respiratory trumpet,
funnel shaped, last ab.seg. has paddle hair
• Culex: Comma, tubular breathing siphon,
paddle hair absent
• Aedes: Comma shaped, paddle hair absent
• Mansonia: Comma shaped, attached to the
pistia, if detaches it dies
sImXpIv
o 2 Znhk¯në tijw ]}¸bpsS ]pdwtXmSv
s]m«nച്ച് sImXpIv ]pd¯phêì
o hmbp henച്ചp ndച്ച് DZc`mKw hoÀ¸nçì
þ
Cങ്ങs ]}¸bps...
Medically important genera and species of Mosquito
Genus
Anopheles

Number of species
In World
In India
364
51

Aedes

888...
Male

Anopheline:
Palpi enlarged at tip
(club shaped)

Culicine:
Palpi distinctly
longer & always papering at
tip
Female

Anopheline:
Palpi = proboscis

Culicine:
Palpi < Proboscis
Proboscis of aedes: Slim, straight,
decorated
• Anopheles: Spotted, Clumping of dark 7
light coloured scales
• Culex: Non spotted with narrow scales on
veins, clear wings
• Aedes: Light scales with brown/black in
colour
• Mansonia: Broader scales asymmetrically
arranged, speckled wings
Rest
• Anopheles: creates an

• Culex: Parellel to surface

angle in resting, Dark pale
color

dull coloured often brown

...
• Anopheles:Adult

• Aedes:Adult

• Culex:Adult

• Mansonia:Adult
Breeding habits
• Anopheles: Fresh • Culex: Water with
water, water tanks

• Aedes: Artificial
containers like
coconut she...
Blood meals
• Anopheles: Both

• Culex:Preferably

antropophilic and
zoophilic

anthropophilic,

• Aedes:
Anthropophilic a...
DISTINCTION
AEDES ALBOPICTUS

AEDES EGYPTI

• Not a house hunting
mosquito
• Vigourous biter
• Natural enemy:
toxorynchiti...
shÎÀ ÌUn
shÎÀ ÌUn F¶mÂ
sImXpæ nb{ന്തW {]hÀ¯ങ്ങfpsS
Bkq{XW¯ntm, hnebnê¯entm th−n
sImXpæIfpsS km¶n[ys¯çdntച്ചm,
km{µXsbçdntച്ചm DÅ im...
shÎÀ ÌUnbpsS e£yങ്ങÄ
P
sImXpæ Py tcmKങ്ങsfçdnച്ചpw sImXpæ nb{ന്തW
{]hÀ¯
{]hÀ¯ങ്ങfpsS BhiyIXsbçdnച്ചpapÅ hnhc
tiJcW¯n
tiJcW...
shÎÀ ÌUnbn Fsന്തÃmw hnhcങ്ങfmWv th−Xv?
sImXpæhn`mKങ്ങfpsS km{µXbpw hnXcWhpw
cà]m¯ntâbpw hn{ia¯ntâbpw
hnhcങ്ങÄ
{]X|Â]mZ kz...
shÎÀ ÌUn St¯−
kqNnIm {]tZiങ്ങÄ GsXÃmamWv?

sImXpæ Py tcmKw F³Uan¡mb Øeങ്ങÄ
sImXpInsâ km¶n[yw sIm−pw ]mcnØnXnI
{]tXyIXIÄ sI...
Ft¸mgmWv St¯−Xv?
hÀjw apgph³
BgvNbnsemcn¡Â
c−mgvN IqSpt¼mÄ
amk¯nsemcn¡Â

kmlNcyhpw
Bhiyhpw
Aëkcnച്ച്
What are the Other information required on
Entomological Surveillance?
Terrain features – Altitude, fauna & flora, type of...
Annexure 5

NATIONAL VECTOR BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME
AEDES SURVEY TOOL
Place of survey

Name of local body

Name of...
REPORT OF VECTOR STUDYCONDUCTED AT ANGADIPPURAM
IN CONNECTION WITH SUSPECTED DENGUE FEVER CASE
HOUSES
DATE

PLACE OF STUDY...
LARVAL INDEX OF AEDES
• House Index
• Number of positive houses for
Aedes larveX100/Number of
houses examined
• Container index
• Number of positive containers
for aedes foundX100/No.
containers examined
Breteau Index

• Number of positive containersX100 Number
of houses examined
]T nKaങ്ങÄ Cങ്ങs
]T nKa
ഹൌkv

C³
C³sUIvkv Ht¶m AXnÂ
XmsgbpamsW¦n B {]tZiw
A]IS km[yXbnÃm¯XmWv
C³
{_nt«m C³UIvkv At©m AXnÂ...
ഹൌkv

C³
C³sUIvkv ]t¯m AXn IqSpXtem
BsW¦n B {]tZiw
A]IS km[yXbpÅXmWv

C³
{_nt«m C³UIvkv A³ ]tXm AXn IqSpXtem
BsW¦n B {...
C³
{_nt«m C³UIvkv
A³]tXm AXn IqSpXtem
BsW¦n ASnbന്തncambn sImXpæ
{]hÀ¯
nb{ന്തW {]hÀ¯ങ്ങÄ
Bcw`n¡Ww
shÎÀ ÌUn S¯pt¼mÄ kÀtÆ
S¯p¶bmÄ¡v
{i²
sImXpæISntb¡msX {i²n¡Ww
Aedes mosquito
Aedes mosquito
Aedes mosquito
Aedes mosquito
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Aedes mosquito

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Aedes mosquito

  1. 1. CuUnkv sImXpIv X¿mdm¡nbXv tPm{^n tP¡ºv C³ sl¯v C³kvs]ÎÀ {]mYanImtcmKy tI{µw AmSn¸pdw geofferyjacob@gmail.com 9037756810
  2. 2. Ncn{Xw B{^n¡³ B{^n¡³ hwiw Im«n Xmakw Dbcങ്ങfn Pohnച്ചnê¶Xv ]£nIfn ]£nIfnÂnìw æcങ്ങn nìw cà]m cà]mw acs¸m¯pIfn ap«bn«nêì
  3. 3. Im«n Im«nÂnìw m«nte¡v {][m h ioIcWw {][m ImcWw Dbcങ്ങfn nìw Xmtg¡v DjvWtaJebnepw anXiotXmjWtaJebnepw {][m {][mambpw Iméì ssiXy taJebnepw I−Xmbn dnt¸mÀ«v sU¦n¸ Kp aª¸ sU¦n¸n, Nnç³ Kpnb, aª¸n, tdmÊv ] s ] dnhÀ ]n, shÌv sbn ]n F¶nh ]SÀ¯pì
  4. 4. CuUnkv CuPn]vXn CuUnkv CuUnkv BÂs_m]nIväkv
  5. 5. CuUnkv CuPn]vXn ]I kabw ISnçì þ DZb¯në tijhpw AkvXab¯në ap¼pw aëjy kmao]yapÅnS¯v Iméì ANTHRAPO PHAGIC s_Ív dqan hscsb¯pì ho«nëÅnse Ccq− Øeങ്ങfn hn{iançì
  6. 6. CuUnkv BÂs_m]nIväkv ]I kabw ISnçì þ DZb¯në tijhpw AkvXab¯në ap¼pw arK kmao]yapÅnS¯v Iméì ZOONO PHAGIC knäu«v hsc am{Xta hcmdpÅq hoSnë ]pd¯v æän¡mSpIfn hn{iançì
  7. 7. hfÀച്ച¡v 4 L«ങ്ങÄ ap« emÀÆ ]}¸, sImXpIv
  8. 8. ]}¸bn nìw ]pd¯p hê¶ kmh[m CuUnkv sImXpæIÄ kmh[mw CWtNcpì CW tNcenë tijw B¬sImXpIv 1þ2 Znhkw am{Xw Pohnçì. B¬ sImXpæIfpsS `£Ww sNSnIfpsS ocmWv ( NECTUM )
  9. 9. CW tNcenë tijw ap«IfpsS hfÀച്ച¡v s]¬sImXpIn s]¬sImXpInv 1 þ 3 hsc »Uv aoÂkv thWw Zln¡m³ Hmtcm »Uv aoepw Zln¡m³ 2 þ 7 Znhkw thWw 3 »Uv aoenë tijw Hmtcm ¢ച്ചnepw 200 ap«IÄ hsc CSpì ]m cà ]m¯nsâ Afhëkcnച്ച് F®¯n hyXymkw hcmw Hê PohnX Ime¯n 5 ¢ച്ച് hscbp−mImw
  10. 10. ap« þ hncnªndങ്ങ Häbmbn ap«bnSpì Pe Penc¸në sXm«papIfnembmWv ap«IÄ nt£oç¶Xv shÅ nd¯nepÅ ap«IÄ nanjങ്ങjçÅn Xnfങ്ങp¶ Idp¸p Idp¸pndambn amdpw hc− AhØsb ap«IÄ 6 amkw hsc AXnPohnçw shÅw e`nçt¼mÄ 2 þ 7 Znhk¯nëÅn hncnªv emÀÆIÄ D−mæì {Sm³ {Sm³ nj³ {Sm³kv Hmthdnb {Sm³kvanj³ CXnsâ {]tXyIXbmWv
  11. 11. Distinguishing characters of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito eggs Air bubles Culex eggs (raft) Aedes egg
  12. 12. CuUnkv As Asm^nenkv a¬skmWnb I}eIvkv
  13. 13. Distinguishing characters of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito eggs Anopheles Aedes Culex Eggs laid singly singly In cluster (raft) Float & frill present absent absent No.of eggs (29-147) 140 (eggs may be laid in successive days 16 sittings 200 Not so resistant to drying but can survive up to 3 weeks in mud Can withstand desiccation up-to 6 months Cannot withstand drying Duration of egg stage 2-3 days 2 days 24-36 hours
  14. 14. emÀÆ • ssk^¬ S}_v Ptem]cnXe¯në apIfnem¡n shůn Xqങ്ങnInSçì. • BÂtKIfpw kq£vaPohnIfpamWv Blmcw • emÀÆhfÀച്ച¡v 4 L«ങ്ങfp−v (INSTARS) • 3 L«ങ്ങÄ AXnthKw ]qÀ¯nbm¡n memw L«¯nte¡v ISçì. • memw L«w Bt]£nIambn kmh[m (3 kmh[m¯nemWv (3 Znhkw ) • Xé¯ ImemhØsb 1 amkw hsc {]Xntcm[n¡m³ {]Xntcm[n¡m³ emÀÆIÄ¡mhpw
  15. 15. Distinguishing characters of Anopheles , Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae air tube present Ventral hair (2 or more) Anopheles Culex Ventral hair (1) Aedes
  16. 16. Resting posture: Distinguishing characters of Anopheline & Culine larvae Anopheline larva Culicine larva • When undisturbed, larvae of Anophelines lie flat along the surface of water • In contrast, in a similar situation, culicine larvae hang ‘head down’ from the surface of water keeping the tip of breathing tube (siphon) in contact with the surface of water
  17. 17. • Anopheles: Rests parellel, • spiracles in 8th seg., • presence of palmate hair
  18. 18. • Culex: Hang downwards, siphon in the 8th seg. ‘C’ like move, not sensitive to light, not gregarious, long siphon
  19. 19. • Aedes: Downwards, short barrel shaped siphon, spiracle in the tip, ‘S’ move, light sensitive, gregarious
  20. 20. • Mansonia: Attached to roots of pistia, respirate through the root cells.
  21. 21. Visual recognition of Aedes & Culex larvae • • • • • Aedes Gregarious in habit Air tube (siphon) short, about twice as long as wide Siphon with only one pair of ventral hair Move in a characteristic (“S”/“8”) fashion, involving all parts of the body React quickly to changes in light intensity, removal of the cover from the container will disturb them- dive to the bottom • • • • • Culex Not gregarious in habit Siphon long & tapered, at least 3 times as long as wide With more than one pair of ventral hair Whip-like or figure “C” movement which propels them rapidly to the bottom of the container Not sensitive to changes of light intensity. A rather strong disturbance required to cause them go to the bottom- return fairly soon to the surface
  22. 22. ]}¸ memw L«w ]qÀ¯nbm¡nb emÀÆ ]}¸ L«¯nte¡v ISçì ]}¸ Ptem]cnXe¯n InS¶v HêtPmSn FbÀ S}_|IÄ hgn izknçì Ch ചenç¶hbpw Neങ്ങtfmSv Ne {]XnIcnç¶hbpamWv ]}¸ `£nç¶nà ]qÀ¯nbm¡m³ hfÀച്ച ]qÀ¯nbm¡m³ 2 Znhkw thWw ]}¸¡I¯phച്ച് emÀÆ cq]mന്തcw {]m]nച്ച് sImXpImhpì ImepIÄ, NndæIÄ, I®qIÄ, hmbv`mKങ്ങÄ, F¶nh cq]s¸Spì.
  23. 23. • Anopheles: Comma, short respiratory trumpet, funnel shaped, last ab.seg. has paddle hair
  24. 24. • Culex: Comma, tubular breathing siphon, paddle hair absent
  25. 25. • Aedes: Comma shaped, paddle hair absent
  26. 26. • Mansonia: Comma shaped, attached to the pistia, if detaches it dies
  27. 27. sImXpIv o 2 Znhk¯në tijw ]}¸bpsS ]pdwtXmSv s]m«nച്ച് sImXpIv ]pd¯phêì o hmbp henച്ചp ndച്ച് DZc`mKw hoÀ¸nçì þ Cങ്ങs ]}¸bpsS ]pdwtXmSv s]m«nച്ചmWv sImXpIv ]pd¯p hê¶Xv
  28. 28. Medically important genera and species of Mosquito Genus Anopheles Number of species In World In India 364 51 Aedes 888 111 Culex 715 57 Mansonia 23 4 Other genus 121 26 Total 16 genus and 249 species in India 34 genus and 2968 species in the world
  29. 29. Male Anopheline: Palpi enlarged at tip (club shaped) Culicine: Palpi distinctly longer & always papering at tip
  30. 30. Female Anopheline: Palpi = proboscis Culicine: Palpi < Proboscis
  31. 31. Proboscis of aedes: Slim, straight, decorated
  32. 32. • Anopheles: Spotted, Clumping of dark 7 light coloured scales
  33. 33. • Culex: Non spotted with narrow scales on veins, clear wings
  34. 34. • Aedes: Light scales with brown/black in colour
  35. 35. • Mansonia: Broader scales asymmetrically arranged, speckled wings
  36. 36. Rest • Anopheles: creates an • Culex: Parellel to surface angle in resting, Dark pale color dull coloured often brown • Aedes: Hunched back, dusty appearance , grey color • Mansonia: Hunched back, brown color
  37. 37. • Anopheles:Adult • Aedes:Adult • Culex:Adult • Mansonia:Adult
  38. 38. Breeding habits • Anopheles: Fresh • Culex: Water with water, water tanks • Aedes: Artificial containers like coconut shells, tyres, tubes, broken pots,,, bio-waste contents • Mansonia: Ponds, lakes etc., Pistia.
  39. 39. Blood meals • Anopheles: Both • Culex:Preferably antropophilic and zoophilic anthropophilic, • Aedes: Anthropophilic and zoonophilic • Mansonia: Anthropophilic
  40. 40. DISTINCTION AEDES ALBOPICTUS AEDES EGYPTI • Not a house hunting mosquito • Vigourous biter • Natural enemy: toxorynchitinae • 1/100 world’s most invasive species. • Can see 2 white lines in the misonotum • House hunting mosquito • Can bite through socks and shirts • Vicious (violent) biter • Only 1 white line in the misonotum and divides when reaches scutellam.
  41. 41. shÎÀ ÌUn
  42. 42. shÎÀ ÌUn F¶m sImXpæ nb{ന്തW {]hÀ¯ങ്ങfpsS Bkq{XW¯ntm, hnebnê¯entm th−n sImXpæIfpsS km¶n[ys¯çdntച്ചm, km{µXsbçdntച്ചm DÅ imkv{Xobamb hnhc tiJcWamWv shÎÀ ÌUn
  43. 43. shÎÀ ÌUnbpsS e£yങ്ങÄ P sImXpæ Py tcmKങ്ങsfçdnച്ചpw sImXpæ nb{ന്തW {]hÀ¯ {]hÀ¯ങ്ങfpsS BhiyIXsbçdnച്ചpapÅ hnhc tiJcW¯n tiJcW¯nv ap³ sImXpæ km{µXbptSbpw ap³ Ime tcmK Ncn{Xs¯bpw ASnØm ASnØmam¡n A]ISkm[yXm {]tZiങ്ങÄ dnbm³ Xncnച്ചdnbm³ sImXpP sImXpPy tcmKങ്ങfpsS s]m«n¸pds¸S ap¦q«n Adnªv kzoIcn¡m³ {]Xntcm[ S]SnIÄ kzoIcn¡m³ ZoÀL Ime þ {lkz Ime sImXpæ nb{ന്തW X{ന്തÄ BhnjIcn¡m³ BhnjIcn¡m³ {]hÀ¯ tcmK¸IÀച്ചmnb{ന്തW {]hÀ¯ങ്ങfpsS ^e{]m]vXn Afç¶Xn Afç¶Xnv
  44. 44. shÎÀ ÌUnbn Fsന്തÃmw hnhcങ്ങfmWv th−Xv? sImXpæhn`mKങ്ങfpsS km{µXbpw hnXcWhpw cà]m¯ntâbpw hn{ia¯ntâbpw hnhcങ്ങÄ {]X|Â]mZ kz`mhങ്ങÄ sImXpæminn {]tbmK¯nsâ km[yX tcmtKmÂ`h¯nsâ t{kmXÊv
  45. 45. shÎÀ ÌUn St¯− kqNnIm {]tZiങ്ങÄ GsXÃmamWv? sImXpæ Py tcmKw F³Uan¡mb Øeങ്ങÄ sImXpInsâ km¶n[yw sIm−pw ]mcnØnXnI {]tXyIXIÄ sIm−pw tcmK]IÀച്ചm km[yXbpÅ Øeങ്ങÄ tcmK¯nsâ s]m«n¸pds¸Sep−mb Øew
  46. 46. Ft¸mgmWv St¯−Xv? hÀjw apgph³ BgvNbnsemcn¡Â c−mgvN IqSpt¼mÄ amk¯nsemcn¡Â kmlNcyhpw Bhiyhpw Aëkcnച്ച്
  47. 47. What are the Other information required on Entomological Surveillance? Terrain features – Altitude, fauna & flora, type of soil, riverine belt etc. Meterological factors – Temperature, relative humidity, rainfall Agriculture – Agricultural practices, deforestation / aforestation etc. Irrigation – Irrigation practices, projects, dams, water reservation, canals, lift pumps etc. Human lifestyle, socio-economic and cultural aspects etc. Industrialization, housing, living, economic, sanitary conditions, water management, water storage practices, fairs and festivals, migration due to employment, political compulsions, war, etc.
  48. 48. Annexure 5 NATIONAL VECTOR BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMME AEDES SURVEY TOOL Place of survey Name of local body Name of Institution Date Number Containe of r with members No. of larvae No. of No.of No. of dry No. of in the Fever present/ container positive containers containers No House No house cases absent observed container seen eliminated Remarkas Name & Signature of JHI / JPHN / Surveyer
  49. 49. REPORT OF VECTOR STUDYCONDUCTED AT ANGADIPPURAM IN CONNECTION WITH SUSPECTED DENGUE FEVER CASE HOUSES DATE PLACE OF STUDY CONTAINER HOUSES WITH LARVAE HOUSE INDEX 1/3/2010 KOTTAPARAMBA MADRASSA 28 0 0 30 0 0 0 1/3/2010 KOTTAPARAMBA SCHOOL 38 0 0 15 0 0 0 1/3/2010 ANGADIPPURAM TOWN 24 2 8.3333333 10 2 20 8.333333 1/3/2010 KC THEATRE AREA 33 0 0 31 0 0 0 1/3/2010 KAYAKKUNDU ROAD 35 2 5.7142857 10 2 20 5.714286 158 4 2.5316456 96 4 GRAND TOTAL NO. WITH WITH CONTAINER WATER LARVAE INDEX BRETEAU REMARKS INDEX HOUSES VISITED 4.16666667 2.531646 SHOPS
  50. 50. LARVAL INDEX OF AEDES
  51. 51. • House Index • Number of positive houses for Aedes larveX100/Number of houses examined
  52. 52. • Container index • Number of positive containers for aedes foundX100/No. containers examined
  53. 53. Breteau Index • Number of positive containersX100 Number of houses examined
  54. 54. ]T nKaങ്ങÄ Cങ്ങs ]T nKa ഹൌkv C³ C³sUIvkv Ht¶m AXn XmsgbpamsW¦n B {]tZiw A]IS km[yXbnÃm¯XmWv C³ {_nt«m C³UIvkv At©m AXn Xmsgtbm BsW¦n B {]tZiw A]IS km[yXbnÃm¯XmWv
  55. 55. ഹൌkv C³ C³sUIvkv ]t¯m AXn IqSpXtem BsW¦n B {]tZiw A]IS km[yXbpÅXmWv C³ {_nt«m C³UIvkv A³ ]tXm AXn IqSpXtem BsW¦n B {]tZiw A]IS km[yXbpÅXmWv
  56. 56. C³ {_nt«m C³UIvkv A³]tXm AXn IqSpXtem BsW¦n ASnbന്തncambn sImXpæ {]hÀ¯ nb{ന്തW {]hÀ¯ങ്ങÄ Bcw`n¡Ww
  57. 57. shÎÀ ÌUn S¯pt¼mÄ kÀtÆ S¯p¶bmÄ¡v {i² sImXpæISntb¡msX {i²n¡Ww

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