Grid References● Each vertical and horizontal line is numbered. They are read column, then row.● Crawl before you can walk. 4 figure grid references are 1km● Eastings then x 1km. Northings. What is found in grid square 7415?
Grid References6 figure grid references:● are calculated by dividing grid square into 100 smaller squares (10 x 10).● cover 100m x 100m● most useful GR for bushwalking
NorthTrue, magnetic, Grid● True North - the direction of the North Pole (where longitude meet)● Magnetic North - direction compass points to when free from interference● Grid North - used to orientate each Grid Zone (result of representing a round object on a flat surface)
Magnetic Declination● Angle between True north and Magnetic north● 360 degrees in a circle.● N, E, S, W are 0°, 90°, 180°, 270°,360°● What is the Magnetic Declination of the Lorne map?
Scale Bar● Maps are scaled down versions of the land. The scale bar tells us the ratio of map coverage to ground coverage.● On a 1:50,000, 1km = 2 cm of map, or 1cm of map = 500 metres.● Grid Interval● Contour Interval● Australian Map Grid Zone● What is the scale of the Lorne map?
Orienting a map using land featuresObservations● Shape of the land - don’t be too quick to make the map fit.● Gradient - how steep is the slope?● Aspect - what direction does the slope face?● Distance travelled - how far have you come, how far do you have to go?● Gullies, knolls, saddles
Orienting a map using land features● Other information helpful in confirming position - huts, tracks, ruins, old mines - do not jump to conclusion too quickly as human made objects are not always marked accurately.● Vegetation coverage● Shadow - related to direction finding using the sun● Time of year, plants flowering, temperature in gullies in/out of sun, winter/summer.
Before you start, ask yourself...● Position - Where am I?● Direction - What direction do I need to go?● Distance - How far do I need to go?● Time - How long will it take?● Strategies - What strategies will I use?● Arrive - How will I know when I get there?● Overshoot - How will I know if I have gone too far?● PDDTSAO (Please Don’t Die Today Stressing About Orienteering).
Aiming Off● Deliberately aiming to one side of your destination in order to know which way to turn when reaching the creek/track● Used when travelling to a linear feature.
Handrails● Features that help you to follow roughly the direction of travel that you need to take. Examples of handrails - – waterways. – fences, tracks, power lines. – cliff edge, ridge. – vegetation boundaries
Catching Features● A prominent feature beyond your destination that signals to you that you have missed your destination.● Oops, it is back there!!
Attack Points● A point close to your destination which is easier to locate than your destination.For example - – Knoll, saddle, cliff – Dam, paddock – Vegetation boundaries
Thumbing the map● Thumbing the map helps you to stay focussed on your position when in difficult terrain.
Map and Compass Orientating your map.● Place compass on map. Both must be flat!!● Align grid lines up on map with grid lines of the reference arrow within the capsule of the compass.● Turn (rotate) the map until the magnetic needle is inside the reference arrow (Red in the Shed).● When this has been completed, your map is orientated north.
Bearings Back Bearings and triangulations.● A back bearing is from a known point back to you (ie 180°).● Triangulations - the method used to fix your location using 3 known points. And using 3 back bearings.
Route Planning● More than just plotting the shortest route from A to B● Ensures trip meets expectations of the group● Provides appropriate challenge● Allows opportunity for enjoyment
Route PlanningThere are many factors involved in planning for abushwalk:– Time of year, weather, water etc.– Maps - availability/accuracy– Location of campsites, escape routes, rivers– Capabilities of the group
What do I need to know?● Is the route likely to be affected by weather? – River crossings, treeless plains etc.● Is the altitude gained or lost within the capabilities of the group?● Obstacles to slow the group● Type of terrain● Vegetation – how dense?● What is the environmental impact of the group?
What do I need to know?● Is the route safe? – Mineshafts, snow drifts, fire● Required equipment● Water availability – How much needs to be carried?● Are the campsites at appropriate spots?● Is there enough time without rushing?
Making it easier to plan● Easier to go up a spur and down a gully● Vegetation is often less dense on top of spurs and ridges● North facing slopes are drier, less scrubby● South facing slopes are wetter, scrubbier● Granite country, gullies are easier, spurs have boulders● Big climbs should be at the start of trip or day
Measuring distance on a map● String – compass strap● Edge of paper● Blade of grass
How long til we get there?● Many variables are involved in predicting walk times● Naismiths rule works well in Australia● For an average walker with a medium pack, allow one hour for: – Every 4km of easy going – Every 3km of easy scrambling – Every 1.5km of very rough country/thick bush
How long til we get there?● Then add: – One hour for every 500m of up – One hour for every 1000m of down● Remember:● This rule is for an average group. – For fit and experienced walkers, reduce by a third – For larger less experienced walkers, this rule may be optimistic
Route Cards● A simple method of recording the information gained about the stages of a trip● Break the trip into easy achievable goals● If you have prepared a route card well, you will feel like you have already walked the route before.
Route Cards● Break the trip into short easy stages.● Avoid change of navigated route within a stage● Include: – Distance – Estimate of time required – Ascent and descent information
Route Cards Certificate IV in Outdoor RecreationTrip Location________________________________________ Date______________ Name____________________________________ Track Notes Bearings Track Track Time Ascend Ascend Descend Descend Total Total Actual Objectives(Grid Reference) Location Descriptions Grid Distance 12,20,40 or ? Distance Time Distance Time Distance Time Time Mag. Minutes per kmStart point:
How to create a route card● For more info, check out pp 16 in Bushwalking and Ski Touring Leadership (2000).