Mindmap push and pull factors. Push for development / PEEL. Ask for evidence, e.g. if students say ‘poor living conditions’ – what does this mean? Fact? Prove it.
Gapminder casino / visualisation to compare the two countries. Record reasons for migration. Zoom back in time – what are the changes?
Complete with own research, the following slides, and the cardsort activity
GCSE Geography OCR B yellow textbook p148-149 for Rocinha, p146-147 for UK
What is migration
Do now…discuss the reasons why
this message was produced
What on earth happened here?
http://flickr.com/photos/matthigh/ Made available under Creative Commons
What is migration and why do people move?What is migration and why do people move?
• The movement of people from one place
to another to work or live
Term Meaning Example
The movement of people from one place to
another to live or work
Pull Factor Reasons to move TO a country
Push Factor Reasons to move away from a country
Migration within one country
Migration between different countries
Migration from the countryside into cities
A person who has moved into a different
British people retiring to Spain.
A person who has left a country to migrate
A person who has fled from a danger such as
war, famine, natural disaster or political
Migration into a country
Migration out of a country
Protection given to a political refugee by a
Positive impacts to country of origin Positive impacts to host country
Negative impacts on country of origin Negative impacts on host country
Push Factors and Pull Factors
Impact upon the USA
• Getting highly qualified labour contributing to the economy
• Promotes economic growth in strategic sectors such as science
• Not having to pay education and health costs.
• 30% of Mexicans with a PhD are in the US.
• Highly flexible workforce free from legislation (can be hired
• Cheap labour supply for USA
• Immigrants consume goods and services and pay taxes to the
• More money can be earned and this money can be sent back
to Mexico (leaves USA with less investment though)
The US Border Patrol polices the border, apprehends, and deports those
attempting to enter country illegally
- 12,000 officers patrol the border, concentrating on specific points.
-Over the last decade, US enforcement budget has increased dramatically
Government agents monitor US employers suspected of hiring illegal aliens,
issuing fines to those they detect and convict
- Employer monitoring is lax, with less than 300 agents to inspect all US
worksites; few fines levied, most are small
- In practice, US employers are more or less free to hire any worker with a
social security card and a green card without risk of prosecution (even if
documents are fake)
•In 2004, 10.5 million Mexican immigrants in USA
•Of thse, 5.9 million are illegal immigrants
•Mexico accounts for 57% of all US illegal immigrants
Impact upon the USA
Education and health costs not paid back to Mexico – the benefit goes to USA
Losing potential leaders and talent. ‘Brain drain’ – loss of intellectual property
Long term impact on economic growth, could lead to decline
Main benefit is money sent home from immigrants in USA to family in Mexico
Many ‘brain drain’ migrants have skills which they can’t use at home. The
resources and technology are not available. Therefore they can work.
Some migrants eventually come back with skills and connections.
Mainly the young and old left behind.
Social tensions develop.
Impact upon Mexico
Lack of taxes paid from workers who leave the country = less investment for
the government to support those who remain behind.
Workforce who remain are likely to be older or less skilled, can lead to a spiral
Opportunities for young families but precludes the old – social barrier.
Rural problems in Mexico still exist – escaping to USA is not a sustainable
Urban areas such as Tijuana suffer huge overcrowding issues and slum
development, which is made worse by short-term migrants here before they
escape to USA.
Impact upon Mexico
Name a destination country and a
source country of an international
migration that you have studied.
Describe the positive and negative
impacts of this international
migration (9 marks + SPaG)
A writing strategy PEEL
• Is there a point
of view that
• Is there an
of the puzzle that
you can share?
• Do you need to
define a term?
do you have to
support your point?
quotes/fact that you
can use to illustrate
the point that you
•Are there examples
that you can include
that show what you
•What effect does
this evidence have?
•How important is
the evidence that
you have shared?
•What does the
• What does this
evidence have to
do with the
• Link back to the
start and link to
• Summarise /
To begin with…
Moving on to…
As well as…
This is shown in…
As a result of…
This means that…
This tells us that…
This helps answer the
Describe the positive and negative impacts of international
migration that you have studied. (9marks +SPaG)
Mexico to the
USA is that
Mexicans will do
the jobs that
do not want to
used as orange
dirty jobs with
poor wages &
This is a positive
impact as it
helps to boost
turn this income
can be used to
invest in the
local area and
The point that I want to
The example evidence to
back up what is being said.
Showing that I know
what the evidence
I know what all this writing
has to do with my question
Swap books with the person sitting next to you.
Read the answer and decide what level it would
Remember 3 marks for SPAG.
Write down what was done well
and what can be done to improve the answer.
Level 1 (1-3 marks)
Demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding of the issue
Basic description, limited explanation and points not developed.
Candidate either writes very little or it is not focused on question.
Written work is unclear and muddled, frequent SPaG mistakes.
Level 2 (4-6 marks)
Demonstrates sound knowledge and understanding of the issue
One to three relevant developed ideas.
May lack clear explanations. Not clear place specific detail.
Written work is muddled at times, some common SPaG mistakes. Work not
entirely focused or logical.
Level 3 (7-9) marks
Demonstrates good knowledge and understanding of the issue.
At least three relevant developed ideas. Place specific factual detail.
Full level 3 needs three developed ideas plus relevant place specific detail of
the example, (such as place name, specific figures). If no relevant place
specific detail limit to 7 marks.
Written work is legible and spelling, grammar and punctuation are accurate.
Meaning is communicated very clearly.
Award up to 3 extra marks for SPaG
•Rural-to-urban migration from countryside
to Rocinha shanty town, Rio de Janeiro
•Migration within UK, e.g. north-south
migration into south-eastern England or
urban-to-rural migration (e.g. out from
London to countryside)
• What might be the causes of rural-to-
urban migration in Brazil? (AKA
• Why might people migrate from north to
• Why does urban-to-rural migration occur
in England? (AKA counter-urbanisation)
• GCSE Geography OCR B yellow textbook
p148-149 for Rocinha, p146-147 for UK
• Find out the causes and consequences of
• Condense this information into 5 key
facts to revise from
Refugees and Asylum
• Write a mini-case study in the format of a plea
to the United Nations from a Darfur refugee
Geog.GCSE p160-161 & internet
• Describe the location of Darfur
• Briefly explain the causes of this migration
• Categorise the causes (S.E.E.)
• Describe the consequences
• Revise all Population work for mock
• Anyone aiming for C+ should complete own
independent research into additional case
study knowledge, e.g. Poland to UK
migration, detailed knowledge on antinatalist
and pronatalist examples (e.g. China and