What is migration


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  • Give out key terms sheet
  • Mindmap push and pull factors. Push for development / PEEL. Ask for evidence, e.g. if students say ‘poor living conditions’ – what does this mean? Fact? Prove it.
  • Gapminder casino / visualisation to compare the two countries. Record reasons for migration. Zoom back in time – what are the changes?
  • Complete with own research, the following slides, and the cardsort activity
  • GCSE Geography OCR B yellow textbook p148-149 for Rocinha, p146-147 for UK
  • What is migration

    1. 1. Do now…discuss the reasons why this message was produced
    2. 2. What on earth happened here? http://flickr.com/photos/matthigh/ Made available under Creative Commons
    3. 3. MigrationMigration What is migration and why do people move?What is migration and why do people move?
    4. 4. Migration • The movement of people from one place to another to work or live
    5. 5. Term Meaning Example The movement of people from one place to another to live or work Pull Factor Reasons to move TO a country Push Factor Reasons to move away from a country Migration within one country Migration between different countries Migration from the countryside into cities A person who has moved into a different country British people retiring to Spain. A person who has left a country to migrate to another A person who has fled from a danger such as war, famine, natural disaster or political persecution Migration into a country Migration out of a country Protection given to a political refugee by a country Migration terms OPTIONS: •Asylum •Migration •Refugee •Emigration •Immigrant •Internal •Emigrant •International •Rural-to-urban migration •Immigration
    6. 6. International Migration Mexico to USA
    7. 7. Positive impacts to country of origin Positive impacts to host country Negative impacts on country of origin Negative impacts on host country Push Factors and Pull Factors Management
    8. 8. Impact upon the USA • Getting highly qualified labour contributing to the economy • Promotes economic growth in strategic sectors such as science and technology. • Not having to pay education and health costs. • 30% of Mexicans with a PhD are in the US. • Highly flexible workforce free from legislation (can be hired and fired) • Cheap labour supply for USA • Immigrants consume goods and services and pay taxes to the government. • More money can be earned and this money can be sent back to Mexico (leaves USA with less investment though)
    9. 9. Illegal immigration: The US Border Patrol polices the border, apprehends, and deports those attempting to enter country illegally - 12,000 officers patrol the border, concentrating on specific points. -Over the last decade, US enforcement budget has increased dramatically Government agents monitor US employers suspected of hiring illegal aliens, issuing fines to those they detect and convict - Employer monitoring is lax, with less than 300 agents to inspect all US worksites; few fines levied, most are small - In practice, US employers are more or less free to hire any worker with a social security card and a green card without risk of prosecution (even if documents are fake) •In 2004, 10.5 million Mexican immigrants in USA •Of thse, 5.9 million are illegal immigrants •Mexico accounts for 57% of all US illegal immigrants Impact upon the USA
    10. 10. Education and health costs not paid back to Mexico – the benefit goes to USA Losing potential leaders and talent. ‘Brain drain’ – loss of intellectual property Long term impact on economic growth, could lead to decline Main benefit is money sent home from immigrants in USA to family in Mexico Many ‘brain drain’ migrants have skills which they can’t use at home. The resources and technology are not available. Therefore they can work. Some migrants eventually come back with skills and connections. Mainly the young and old left behind. Social tensions develop. Impact upon Mexico
    11. 11. Lack of taxes paid from workers who leave the country = less investment for the government to support those who remain behind. Workforce who remain are likely to be older or less skilled, can lead to a spiral of decline. Opportunities for young families but precludes the old – social barrier. Rural problems in Mexico still exist – escaping to USA is not a sustainable solution. Urban areas such as Tijuana suffer huge overcrowding issues and slum development, which is made worse by short-term migrants here before they escape to USA. Impact upon Mexico
    12. 12. EXAM Q Name a destination country and a source country of an international migration that you have studied. Describe the positive and negative impacts of this international migration (9 marks + SPaG)
    13. 13. A writing strategy PEEL Point • Is there a point of view that needs sharing? • Is there an important piece of the puzzle that you can share? • Do you need to define a term? Evidence •What information do you have to support your point? •Are there quotes/fact that you can use to illustrate the point that you are making? •Are there examples that you can include that show what you mean? Explanation •What effect does this evidence have? •How important is the evidence that you have shared? •What does the evidence show? Link • What does this point and evidence have to do with the question? • Link back to the start and link to theory • Summarise / conclude To begin with… Moving on to… As well as… For example… This is shown in… Such as… As a result of… This means that… This caused… In conclusion… This tells us that… This helps answer the question because…
    14. 14. Describe the positive and negative impacts of international migration that you have studied. (9marks +SPaG) One positive impact of migration from Mexico to the USA is that Mexicans will do the jobs that many Americans do not want to do. Mexicans are used as orange pickers in Californian orange groves during harvest time. Americans are pleased to employ Mexicans in dirty jobs with poor wages & unsociable hours, allowing businesses to make more money. This is a positive impact as it helps to boost the American economy. In turn this income can be used to invest in the local area and infrastructure The point that I want to talk about The example evidence to back up what is being said. Showing that I know what the evidence means I know what all this writing has to do with my question
    15. 15. Swap books with the person sitting next to you. Read the answer and decide what level it would get. Remember 3 marks for SPAG. Write down what was done well and what can be done to improve the answer.
    16. 16. Level 1 (1-3 marks) Demonstrates limited knowledge and understanding of the issue Basic description, limited explanation and points not developed. Candidate either writes very little or it is not focused on question. Written work is unclear and muddled, frequent SPaG mistakes. Level 2 (4-6 marks) Demonstrates sound knowledge and understanding of the issue One to three relevant developed ideas. May lack clear explanations. Not clear place specific detail. Written work is muddled at times, some common SPaG mistakes. Work not entirely focused or logical. Level 3 (7-9) marks Demonstrates good knowledge and understanding of the issue. At least three relevant developed ideas. Place specific factual detail. Full level 3 needs three developed ideas plus relevant place specific detail of the example, (such as place name, specific figures). If no relevant place specific detail limit to 7 marks. Written work is legible and spelling, grammar and punctuation are accurate. Meaning is communicated very clearly. Award up to 3 extra marks for SPaG
    17. 17. INTERNAL MIGRATION Migrating WITHIN a country
    18. 18. Internal migration Examples •Rural-to-urban migration from countryside to Rocinha shanty town, Rio de Janeiro Brazil •Migration within UK, e.g. north-south migration into south-eastern England or urban-to-rural migration (e.g. out from London to countryside)
    19. 19. Internal migration • What might be the causes of rural-to- urban migration in Brazil? (AKA urbanisation) • Why might people migrate from north to south UK? • Why does urban-to-rural migration occur in England? (AKA counter-urbanisation)
    20. 20. Research • GCSE Geography OCR B yellow textbook p148-149 for Rocinha, p146-147 for UK • Find out the causes and consequences of internal migration • Condense this information into 5 key facts to revise from
    21. 21. Impacts POSITIVE NEGATIVE
    22. 22. WHAT ABOUT FORCED MIGRATION? Refugees and Asylum
    23. 23. Darfur • Write a mini-case study in the format of a plea to the United Nations from a Darfur refugee Geog.GCSE p160-161 & internet • Describe the location of Darfur • Briefly explain the causes of this migration • Categorise the causes (S.E.E.) • Describe the consequences
    24. 24. Homework • ShowMyHomework • Revise all Population work for mock • Anyone aiming for C+ should complete own independent research into additional case study knowledge, e.g. Poland to UK migration, detailed knowledge on antinatalist and pronatalist examples (e.g. China and France), etc,.