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carbon capture webinar

  1. 1. Can Carbon Capture and Storage Clean up Fossil Fuels Geoffrey Thyne Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute University of Wyoming
  2. 2. Main Points  Possible with current science and technologies.  Future technological advances will reduce cost, improve efficiency and enhance safety.  More scientific work needs to be done.  There is technical knowledge and experience within petroleum industry.  CCS is a potentially viable approach, but with legislation (international and national) creating a carbon-constrained world.  Legal/Regulatory framework is under construction, but the political will is questionable.  CCS industry will be on scale of oil and gas industry in terms of infrastructure, personnel and $$$.  Expense is uncertain until large scale projects are completed, but the likely cost is on order of $1 trillion/year.
  3. 3. Carbon (Dioxide) Emissions and Climate Change  Increase in atmosphere is “linked” to climate changes.  There is still no proof of the link.
  4. 4. Technology Options for Stabilization The Stabilisation Wedge Emission trajectory to achieve 500ppm Emission trajectory BAU 1 GtC Slices of the Stabilisation Wedge
  5. 5. Carbon Capture and Sequestration  First step is capture of carbon applied to large point sources that currently emit 10,500MtCO2/year (e.g. power stations).  CO2 would be compressed and transported for storage and use.
  6. 6. Large Stationary CO2 Sources •carbon dioxide sources >0.1 MtCO2/yr •most (75 %) CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion/processing (coal-fired power plants are almost 3 wedges)
  7. 7. North American CO2 Sources
  8. 8. Four basic systems  Post combustion  Pre combustion  Oxyfuel  Industrial All gas is mostly CO2 plus N2, CO, SO2, etc. All Methods capture 80-95% of CO2 Carbon Dioxide Capture
  9. 9. Carbon Dioxide Capture Matching captured CO2 to target (P-T) Four basic systems  Pre combustion  Post combustion  Oxyfuel  Industrial Separation stage CO2
  10. 10. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided PC+ Capture (500 MW) Tons of CO2
  11. 11. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided PC+ Capture (500 MW) Tons of CO2 90% capture
  12. 12. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided PC+ Capture (500 MW) Tons of CO2 90% capture Carbon Captured
  13. 13. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided PC+ Capture (500 MW) Tons of CO2 90% capture Carbon Captured PC (500 MW)
  14. 14. Carbon Captured vs. Carbon Avoided
  15. 15. Sequestration Targets  Terrestrial  Release into the atmosphere for incorporation into biomass (short term - 10-100’s years)  Oceanic  Release into ocean for dissolution and dispersion (medium term – 100-1000’s years)  Geologic  Injection into subsurface (long term – 10,000-1,000,000’s years)
  16. 16. Sequestration Targets  Atmospheric  Oceanic  Geologic
  17. 17. Sequestration Targets  Atmospheric  Oceanic  Geologic Disposal into deep ocean locations Much of the ocean is deep enough for CO2 to remain liquid phase (average ocean depth is 12,460 feet) Largest potential storage capacity (2,000 - 12,000GtCO2 – worldwide) Storage time 100’s – 1000’s years Potential ecological damage (pH change) Models and small scale projects only Characteristics
  18. 18. Sequestration Targets  Atmospheric  Oceanic  Geologic
  19. 19. Sequestration Targets  Atmospheric  Oceanic  Geologic Disposal into subsurface locations Deep enough to remain supercritical (greater than 2500 feet depth) Large potential storage capacity (200 - 2,000GtCO2 worldwide) Storage time 10,000’s – 1,000,000’s years Potential ecological damage (point source leaks) 40+ years experience in petroleum EOR operations and sour gas disposal Characteristics
  20. 20. CO2 trapping mechanisms
  21. 21. Carbon Dioxide Phase Behavior Supercritical Fluid is a liquid-like gas Gas-like viscosity, fluid-like compressibility and solvent behavior CO2 above critical T and P (31°C and 73.8 bar or 1085 psi) Density about 50% of water  Combustion product from fossil fuel  GHG  Four phases of interest
  22. 22. Carbon Storage Geological Sequestration  want to inject to greater than 800 m depth  CO2 in supercritical state  behaves like a fluid with properties that are mixture of liquid and gas  also stores more in given volume  price to pay in compressing gas
  23. 23.  Terrestrial, Oceanic and Geologic P and T conditions.  Ocean conditions allow disposal of liquid CO2  Geologic conditions allow disposal of supercritical CO2 Carbon Dioxide Phase Behavior and Sequestration
  24. 24.  need geologic site that will hold CO2 safely for 1000s of years – natural analogs  four possible geologic targets  enhanced oil and gas recovery  depleted oil and gas fields  saline aquifers  enhanced CBM recovery Geological Carbon Sequestration
  25. 25. Geological Carbon Sequestration Leakage Paths
  26. 26. Carbon Capture and Sequestration
  27. 27. CCS relative cost Capture + Pressurization  Cost data from IGPCC 2005  Includes cost of compression to pipeline pressure (1500 psi) Separation stage CO2 45% difference
  28. 28. CCS relative cost Capture + Pressurization + Transport  Price highly dependent on volume per year.  Includes construction, O&M, design, insurance, right of ways.  for capacities of >5 MtCO2 yr-1 the cost is between 2 and 4 2002US$/tCO2 per 250km for an onshore pipe Separation stage CO2 37% difference
  29. 29. CCS relative cost Capture + Pressurization + Transport + Storage (Oceanic and Geologic)  Oceanic - For transport (ship) distance of 100- 500km and injection depths of 3000m  Geologic - For storage in onshore, shallow, highly permeable reservoir with pre- existing infrastructure Separation stage CO2 31% difference 23% difference
  30. 30. CCS relative cost Capture + Pressurization + Transport + Storage (Oceanic and Geologic) – EOR Offset  Assuming oil price of $50 bbl.  Without Sequestration Credit (Carbon Tax) Separation stage CO2
  31. 31. Pilot Projects  Sleipner, Norway (North Sea)  Weyburn Project, Saskatchewan (Canada)
  32. 32. Pilot Projects: Sleipner  Sleipner is a North Sea gas field  operated by Statoil, Norway’s largest oil company  produces natural gas for European market  in North Sea, hydrocarbons are produced from platforms
  33. 33. Pilot Projects: Sleipner  special platform, Sleipner T, built to separate CO2 from natural gas  supports 20 m (65 ft) tall, 8,000 ton treatment plant  plant produces 1 million tons of CO2  also handles gas piped from Sleipner West  Norway has a carbon tax of about $50/ton for any CO2 emitted to the atmosphere  to avoid the tax, Statoil has re-injected CO2 underground since production began in 1996
  34. 34.  production is from Heimdal Formation  2,500 m (8,200 ft) below sea level  produces natural gas - mixture of hydrocarbons (methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), butane (C4H10)), gases (N2, O2, CO2, sulfur compounds, water)  the natural gas at Sleipner has 9 % CO2 Pilot Projects: Sleipner
  35. 35.  CO2 injected into Utsira Formation  high porosity & permeability sandstone layer  250 m thick and 800 m (2,600 ft) below sea bed  filled with saline water, not oil or gas  CO2 storage capacity estimated at 600 billion tons (20 years of world CO2 emissions)  millions tons CO2 stored since 1996  first commercial storage of CO2 in deep, saline aquifer Pilot Projects: Sleipner
  36. 36.  seismic surveys conducted to determine location of CO2  results shown in diagram to left  Optimum conditions for geophysical imaging Pilot Projects: Sleipner
  37. 37. Conclusions  Ultimately CCS is viable only if legislation (international and national) produces a carbon-constrained world.  Legal/Regulatory framework under construction.  CCS industry will be on scale of oil and gas industry (largest in human history).  Expense is uncertain until large scale project completed, but on order of $1 trillion/year to build CCS industry.  Possible with current science and technologies.  Future technological advances will reduce cost, improve efficiency and enhance safety.  More scientific work needs to be done.  There is technical knowledge and experience within petroleum industry.

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