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Relief of the Basque Country    Mountains and landscapes
Relief units   There are three main    areas:       Pyrenees       Basque mountains       Ebro’s depression
Pyrenees   This mountain range    covers from the Table    of the Three Kings to    Larrun.   There are three    areas: ...
Pyrenees   Axial Pyrenees: It is formed    by the Paleozoic massifs of    Bortziriak, Larrun,    Urtzumendi, Aldude-Kinto...
Pyrenees                    South Pyrenees: Interior                     mountains                    It is the highest ...
Pyrenees                       South Pyrenees:                        Interior depression                        It goes...
Pyrenees                     South Pyrenees:                      Exterior mountains                     The orography i...
Pyrenees   Northern Pyrenees   They go loosing    height progressively   Some valleys have    glacial origin
Basque Mountains   There are not as high    as the Pyrenees and    they have two    different directions so    that we ca...
Northern Basque Mountains                It goes in parallel to                 the coast.                The traditiona...
Northern Basque Mountains   Coastal tertiary    mountain range       From the East of        Guipuzcoa to Getaria.     ...
Northern Basque Mountains   Coastal anticlinoria       From Bortziei to        Matxitxako.       In this area are Ernio...
Northern Basque Mountains   Biscay’s sinclinoria        It goes from Punta Galea        to Bortzirieta and Aldudes-     ...
Northern Basque Mountains   Biscay’s anticlinoria        From Bortzirieta to        Ordunte, with the        mountains: ...
Southern Basque mountains                They are located in                 the Mediterranean                 slope and ...
Southern Basque mountains   Alava’s plain   It is the elongation of    the depression of the    Pyrenees.   It is a sin...
Southern Basque mountains   Western mountain    ranges       They close the plain        from the West and are        fo...
Southern Basque mountains   Central mountain    ranges        They expand between        Alava and Navarre:        Andia...
Southern Basque mountains   Southern mountain    ranges       Toloño mountain        range separates        Treviño from...
Ebro’s depression            It is the area crossed             by Ebro River and it is             a sedimentary basin. ...
Ebro’s depression   The most amazing    area is that of    Bardenas because    due to the presence    of material that   ...
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Relief of the basque country

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Presentation describing main relief units in the Basque Country.

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Relief of the basque country

  1. 1. Relief of the Basque Country Mountains and landscapes
  2. 2. Relief units There are three main areas:  Pyrenees  Basque mountains  Ebro’s depression
  3. 3. Pyrenees This mountain range covers from the Table of the Three Kings to Larrun. There are three areas:  Northern  Axial  Southern
  4. 4. Pyrenees Axial Pyrenees: It is formed by the Paleozoic massifs of Bortziriak, Larrun, Urtzumendi, Aldude-Kinto, Oroz-Betelu, Irati- Mendibeltza and Iguntza’s massif. These mountains are not very high but they are very stepped and the activity of rivers is very important on them.
  5. 5. Pyrenees  South Pyrenees: Interior mountains  It is the highest area, with Orhi, Auñamendi.  There are covered by limestone and they were folded up during the Alpine orogenesis.Orhi 2017m
  6. 6. Pyrenees  South Pyrenees: Interior depression  It goes from Irunberri to Pamplona following Araquil river basin.  Materials are tertiary with sectors of flysch. Rivers cut this perpendicularly.Araquil basin
  7. 7. Pyrenees  South Pyrenees: Exterior mountains  The orography is simple.  The mountains go losing height and they have several glaciers.Leire range
  8. 8. Pyrenees Northern Pyrenees They go loosing height progressively Some valleys have glacial origin
  9. 9. Basque Mountains There are not as high as the Pyrenees and they have two different directions so that we can distinguish two sectors:  Northern  Southern
  10. 10. Northern Basque Mountains  It goes in parallel to the coast.  The traditional modeling is karsts in the area of Gorbea and Aralar.  It presents different sectors
  11. 11. Northern Basque Mountains Coastal tertiary mountain range  From the East of Guipuzcoa to Getaria.  The most important part is the monoclinal close to the coast in which the most important relief is Jaizkibel-Ulia.
  12. 12. Northern Basque Mountains Coastal anticlinoria  From Bortziei to Matxitxako.  In this area are Ernio, Izarraitz, Arno, Illuntzar and Sollube.  The dominant rock is limestone and the modeling of karsts.
  13. 13. Northern Basque Mountains Biscay’s sinclinoria  It goes from Punta Galea to Bortzirieta and Aldudes- Kinto.  The mountains of the region are Unbe, Bizkargi, Oiz, Urko, Elosua and Murumendi.  There are sandstones, flysch and basalt.  Some forms are rounded, mainly in the narrow courses of rivers.
  14. 14. Northern Basque Mountains Biscay’s anticlinoria  From Bortzirieta to Ordunte, with the mountains: Aralar, Aizkorri, Anboto, Gorbea and Ganekogorta.  It is a section with constant changes of height and medium height.  The main materials are limestone and the relief is monoclinal.
  15. 15. Southern Basque mountains  They are located in the Mediterranean slope and their structure belongs to a big sinclinal.  It is common to find in this region hanging sinclinals and monoclinals.
  16. 16. Southern Basque mountains Alava’s plain It is the elongation of the depression of the Pyrenees. It is a sinclinoria and relieves are deep.
  17. 17. Southern Basque mountains Western mountain ranges  They close the plain from the West and are formed by limestone with monoclinal structure.  Arkamo, Salvada eta Gibixo are in this section in which the highest mountain is Eskutxi.
  18. 18. Southern Basque mountains Central mountain ranges  They expand between Alava and Navarre: Andia, Urbasa, Entzia, Iturrieta and Mountains of Gasteiz.
  19. 19. Southern Basque mountains Southern mountain ranges  Toloño mountain range separates Treviño from Alavan Rioja.  The relief is complex, with several crests.
  20. 20. Ebro’s depression  It is the area crossed by Ebro River and it is a sedimentary basin.  The sector in central Navarre was the limit of an ancient tertiary lake and it has a slopped relief with crests.
  21. 21. Ebro’s depression The most amazing area is that of Bardenas because due to the presence of material that answers to erosion in different ways results in a landscape in with there are different levels.

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