Relief of the Basque Country Mountains and landscapes
Relief units There are three main areas: Pyrenees Basque mountains Ebro’s depression
Pyrenees This mountain range covers from the Table of the Three Kings to Larrun. There are three areas: Northern Axial Southern
Pyrenees Axial Pyrenees: It is formed by the Paleozoic massifs of Bortziriak, Larrun, Urtzumendi, Aldude-Kinto, Oroz-Betelu, Irati- Mendibeltza and Iguntza’s massif. These mountains are not very high but they are very stepped and the activity of rivers is very important on them.
Pyrenees South Pyrenees: Interior mountains It is the highest area, with Orhi, Auñamendi. There are covered by limestone and they were folded up during the Alpine orogenesis.Orhi 2017m
Pyrenees South Pyrenees: Interior depression It goes from Irunberri to Pamplona following Araquil river basin. Materials are tertiary with sectors of flysch. Rivers cut this perpendicularly.Araquil basin
Pyrenees South Pyrenees: Exterior mountains The orography is simple. The mountains go losing height and they have several glaciers.Leire range
Pyrenees Northern Pyrenees They go loosing height progressively Some valleys have glacial origin
Basque Mountains There are not as high as the Pyrenees and they have two different directions so that we can distinguish two sectors: Northern Southern
Northern Basque Mountains It goes in parallel to the coast. The traditional modeling is karsts in the area of Gorbea and Aralar. It presents different sectors
Northern Basque Mountains Coastal tertiary mountain range From the East of Guipuzcoa to Getaria. The most important part is the monoclinal close to the coast in which the most important relief is Jaizkibel-Ulia.
Northern Basque Mountains Coastal anticlinoria From Bortziei to Matxitxako. In this area are Ernio, Izarraitz, Arno, Illuntzar and Sollube. The dominant rock is limestone and the modeling of karsts.
Northern Basque Mountains Biscay’s sinclinoria It goes from Punta Galea to Bortzirieta and Aldudes- Kinto. The mountains of the region are Unbe, Bizkargi, Oiz, Urko, Elosua and Murumendi. There are sandstones, flysch and basalt. Some forms are rounded, mainly in the narrow courses of rivers.
Northern Basque Mountains Biscay’s anticlinoria From Bortzirieta to Ordunte, with the mountains: Aralar, Aizkorri, Anboto, Gorbea and Ganekogorta. It is a section with constant changes of height and medium height. The main materials are limestone and the relief is monoclinal.
Southern Basque mountains They are located in the Mediterranean slope and their structure belongs to a big sinclinal. It is common to find in this region hanging sinclinals and monoclinals.
Southern Basque mountains Alava’s plain It is the elongation of the depression of the Pyrenees. It is a sinclinoria and relieves are deep.
Southern Basque mountains Western mountain ranges They close the plain from the West and are formed by limestone with monoclinal structure. Arkamo, Salvada eta Gibixo are in this section in which the highest mountain is Eskutxi.
Southern Basque mountains Central mountain ranges They expand between Alava and Navarre: Andia, Urbasa, Entzia, Iturrieta and Mountains of Gasteiz.
Southern Basque mountains Southern mountain ranges Toloño mountain range separates Treviño from Alavan Rioja. The relief is complex, with several crests.
Ebro’s depression It is the area crossed by Ebro River and it is a sedimentary basin. The sector in central Navarre was the limit of an ancient tertiary lake and it has a slopped relief with crests.
Ebro’s depression The most amazing area is that of Bardenas because due to the presence of material that answers to erosion in different ways results in a landscape in with there are different levels.