Science Communication• To create bridges between specialists in‘science and technology’ and the societySpecialists inscience andtechnologyThe societySciencecommunication
Why science communication?• Relation among science, technology and thesociety has become extremely complicated.• The number of questions which can be askedof science and yet cannot be answered byscience (= trans-science issues) increases.• To deal with such issues, individuals with‘novel skills’ are needed in the society.
Goal• The educational organization to nurture“science communicators”.Specialists inscience andtechnologyThe societySciencecommunicators
History• Founded in 2005 at Hokkaido Universityas a 5-year project funded by the nationalgovernment.• At April, 2010, Hokkaido Universitydecided to continue the program by itsown budget.• Now the 9th yearly program is running.
Mission1. To educate science communicators2. To do practice variety of sciencecommunications3. Research and development ofeducational methodsTo realize better relationship betweenscience, technology, and the society
Principles• Mutual communication• Community based• Learning by practice• Science communicator as a ‘role’ (notrestricted to ,so-called, ‘profession’)• Generalist-oriented (not to excludespecialists but to focus on collaboratingwith them)
Definition of concepts, again• Science communication– To improve collective decision-making function in theentire society, by conducting communications aboutscience and technology• Practices– To affect decision-making of any individuals ororganizations by conducting practical activities in thesociety• Practices of science communication– To improve collective decision-making function in theentire society, through affecting decision-making ofany individuals or organizations by conductingpractical communication activities about science andtechnology
How the curriculum should bedesigned?• What kind of knowledge, skills, mindsets andexperiences are needed for sciencecommunicators?• They depend on– purpose of communication,– with whom they will work,– what the society expects,– students career design,– students background,– time and other resources available for education– etc.
Conditions• There’s no top-down answer.• It must be dynamically constructed in themutual relationship among education,practice, and conceptualization.
Education, practice, andconceptualization• Education– lectures and seminars in the classroom• Practice– activities in the real society with diverse actors(clients, audience, visitors, etc.)• Conceptualization– Description, abstraction, and systematization ofeducation and practice
Relation among the 3 processesEducation PracticeConceptualizationimprovementsystematizationevaluationevaluationapplicationimprovementsystematizationevaluationevaluation
3 major componentsI. Way of thinking in science communicationII. Analysis and Planning for ActionIII. Practices in science communicationTo understand theoretical constellation of the field and ‘frame ofreference’ which gives basis for agenda setting and decisionmaking for science communicators to handle with practical issuesTo learn basic way of thinking to investigate, analyze, andevaluate information about science and society, in order to givebasis for decision making, consensus building, and strategymakingTo learn basic knowledge and skills necessary for taking effectiverole through a variety of practices in the real society
7 elementsTheoretical frameworkTrans-science issuesUnderstanding diversity among related actorsAnalysis and planning for actionPractical methods for learningPractices and management in the real societyI. Way of thinking in sciencecommunicationII. Analysis and Planning for ActionIII. Practices in sciencecommunication3 major components 8 elementsPractical methods for expression and communication
1. Theoretical frameworkTo outlook how to allocate science communication in the socialsystemsocietysciencepublictechnologycommunitypoliticseducation sustainabilityeconomics
2. Trans-science issuesTo understand practical social problems, and to train way ofthinking to deal with complicated structure of trans-science issues.GlobalenvironmentalissuesInformation andComputerTechnologyMedical issuesFood SafetyEnergy issuesNanotechnologyScience andTechnology PolicyIntellectual AssetsNeuroethics
3. Understanding diversity amongrelated actorsTo understand major actors which science communicatorsmight collaborate (or negotiate) with.Internet media BureaucracyJournalists(mass media)CitizensUniversity VentureTeachers(formal education)ArtistsEducators(informal education)Scientists
4. Analysis and planning for actionTo learn basic way of thinking to investigate, analyze, andevaluate information and process necessary for practiceinvestigationdecision makinganalysisevaluationactionplanningproposal
5. Practical methods for expressionand communicationTo acquire expression and communication skills necessary forscience communicatorsGraphic designPresentationFacilitationexpression and communicationScience writingMovie contents creationInformation designScience event designPublic speakingEditorial designEducational program design
6. Practical methods for learningTo acquire learning and teaching skills necessary for sciencecommunicatorsCollaborative learningProblem based learningCase methodsVarious ways of learning andteachingInstructional designSocial learningGamificationAdult/Practitioners learningWorkshopOpen educationFlipped learning
7. Practices and management in thereal societyTo learn practical skills necessary in the real societySchedulemanagementTeammanagementNegotiation /BusinesscommunicationPublic relations /MarketingCost managementHumannetworkingLeadershipQualitymanagementRisk managementAdvanced communication skillsManagement skillsCollaboration
Relationship among each elementTheoretical frameworkTrans-science issuesUnderstanding diversityamong related actorsAnalysis and planning for actionPractical methodsfor expression andcommunicationPractices and management in the real societyI. Way of thinkingII. Analysis andPlanning for ActionIII. Practices3 major components 8 elementsPractical methodsfor learning
Educational programI. Way of thinking inscience communicationII. Analysis andPlanning for ActionIII. Practices in sciencecommunication3 majorcomponents7 elementsLecturesSeminarsProjectsCurriculum framework programTo realizebetter andmutualrelationshipbetweenscience andthe societymission
Lecture modules8 lecture modules1. Theoretical framework2. Trans-science issues3. Understanding diversityamong related actors (1)4. Understanding diversityamong related actors (2)5. Analysis and planning foraction6. Practical methods forexpression andcommunication7. Practical methods forlearning8. Practices and managementin the real societyI. Way of thinking inscience communicationII. Analysis andPlanning for ActionIII. Practices in sciencecommunication3 majorcomponents7 elementsCurriculum framework
Modular structure• For TeachersTo judge whether1. the curriculum is “MECE” or not2. each class is well corresponded to eachmodule3. the modular structure meets current need ofstudents and in the society• For students1. To outlook what they should learn2. To effectively connect and apply what theyhad learned(*)Mutually Exclusive and Collectively Exhaustive*
3 Courses for different needscourses purposecomprehensive •To take leadership to plan and managescience communication activities in thesociety.Selective A •To learn basic knowledge and skillsabout science communication•Weight on designing face-to-facecommunication experienceSetective B •To learn basic knowledge and skillsabout science communication•Weight on scientific writing
3 Courses for different needscourse number Min. req. styleComprehensive20～30 Lecture：27 On site （ Sat. 14：00～15：30）／ E-learningSeminar：16 On site （Wed. 18：30～20：00）Project：27 On site （Sat. 15：00～17：00）Selective A 20～30 Lecture：27 On site （ Sat. 14：00～15：30）／ E-learningSeminar：12 Intensive （3 days）Selective B 20～30 Lecture：27 On site （ Sat. 14：00～15：30）／ E-learningSeminar：12 Intensive （3 days）
Difficulty in science communication• Inter-disciplinarity• Complexity of problems• Various stake holders related• Strong need in quick and practicalsolutionsOnly individual skill cover suchproblems?
Educational methodology• So educational methodology for sciencecommunication must be distinctively differentfrom traditional ones which have been designedto develop individual’s competence.• In order to make consensus, to solve problems, orto make decisions, communicators mustcollaborate with people of various specialties,professions, interests, value systems, anddemographic attributes.
Educational methodology• We focus on educating science communicatorswho can have leadership to plan and manageactivities in the real society,– by collaborating with others.
4. How to Collaborate?- by ‘Community of Practice’
Community of Practice• A group of people which share concern,awareness, or passion about any issuesand which develop knowledge and skillsin that domain through continuousreciprocal communication.(Wenger, Mcdermott, and Snyder (2002))
A group of studentsin our educational programCommunity of practice
Components of “community ofpractice”1. Domain (What do the participants deal with?)2. Community (How are they grouped?)3. Practice (What do they try to achieve?)
Components of ‘community ofpractice’ at CoSTEPDomain Science communicationCommunity Students,teachers, graduates, and supportersPractice To learn science communication ?
The key concept of ‘communityof practice’A group designed to do something other thanlearningSome entity to be described through theframework of learningto intentionallyinterpret
Learning• Not a given, final purpose• Spontaneously created process to achievesomething else (ex. goal of the project)
Components of ‘community ofpractice’ at CoSTEPDomain Science communicationCommunity Students,teachers, supporters, and graduatesPractice To learn science communication ?
Components of ‘community ofpractice’ at CoSTEPDomain Science communicationCommunity Students,teachers, supporters, and graduatesPractice To learn science communicationTo perform science communicationTo develop the growing field ofscience communication in Japan
To facilitate ‘community of practice’• Our program intentionally accepts studentswith much diversity, and is well designed forthem to learn essentially by collaboration andthrough actual projects with feedback fromclients and the real society.• They are encouraged to reflect what they havelearned and to construct its meta-conception,for future application and for supporting theirneighbors to learn in turn.
To facilitate ‘community of practice’• Through the program as a whole, students notonly study by themselves but also learn how tocollaborate with others of ‘different’ talents andmotivations, to solve ‘common’ problems.• They make interpersonal networks not onlyamong each other but also with various stakeholders, specialists, and organizations, which arequite valuable for their post-graduate practice.
Cases1. Introductory Workshop2. Sharing of Each Interest by Presentation3. Project-based Learning4. Action Learning5. Workshop for making mutualrelationship6. Social Networking System7. Supporter group
1. Introductory Workshop to LearnCollaboration• Held at the very beginning of the one-yeareducational program.• Students are divided into small groups.• They introduce themselves to the other in eachgroup.• Introduction is to share ‘what I want to do’ and‘what I can do’ in terms of science communication.• Members in each group combine someone’s‘want-to-do’ to some other’s ‘can-do’ in order toplan a virtual project about sciencecommunication.
2. Sharing of Each Interest byPresentation• All the students give short presentation tothe others, which is about their interest inscience, technology, or sciencecommunication.• Audience not only give questions aboutthe content of the presentation, but alsogive comments about its style.• Students not only develop presentationskill but also share each other’s interestsfor future collaboration.
3. Project-Based Learning• Project– to design learning program based on theproject proposed by any ‘clients’ in the localsociety• Team– composed of students with variousbackgrounds• Learning Goal– defined by students themselves• Evaluation– defined by students themselves
4. Seminor with ‘Action Learning’ Method• A series of discussions to solve problemsby ‘question-based communication’– One shows his/her own problem.– The other help him/her solve it byhimself/herself.– By giving questions to him/her, not teaching,directing, nor criticizing.• Students share their problems with eachother, and learn how to solve them bycollaboration.Marquardt(2004)
5. Workshop for Mutual Relationship• Organized a workshop for staffs in PRsections of various research institutes.• There, each participant showed their ownproblems in their organization.• For each other, participants offered ‘anykind of supports’ to solve them.• They continued to communicate with eachother even after the workshop becausethey ‘had promised supports’ to eachother.
6. Social Networking System• Participants’ Diaries to share• Casual conversation• Event information
7. Supporter group• Our educational program had had asupporter group voluntarily founded justafter it had started since several years ago.• The member of the group joined sciencecommunication practices produced byCoSTEP in the way they like.• Such a style of participation is consideredas ‘legitimate peripheral participation’.(Lave and Wenger (1991))
Teachers’ Role• Students as teachers• Textbooks and cases inside the students’experiences• Teachers as facilitators
Expands communitycatalyzed by practiceindividualsgroupscommunity(local) societyKnowledge/skillacquisitionNetworkingEmergence of communityof practiceActivation of localsociety and culture
Helps students design their life-longlearningDuring programPre- Post-individuals groups / community local societyOccasion forengagement such as“science cafe”Occasion for variety oflearning and practiceSustainable occasion forlearning through communityCoSTEP
Improves ‘problem solving function andproductivity’ in the local society, and quality of lifethere1. Expands community of practiceThe Next Step2. Helps students design their own life-long learningEnriches social capital