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Gerard Wandera, Deputy Director, Kenya School of Government (KSG)


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"Policing Contemporary Kenya- KPR and Private Security"
Regional Review Conference on the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development
Nairobi, Kenya | 26-27 November 2014

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Gerard Wandera, Deputy Director, Kenya School of Government (KSG)

  1. 1. Policing Contemporary Kenya- KPR and Private Security Gerard Wandera Kenya School of Government 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  2. 2. LAIKIPIA COUNTY CONSEVANCIES 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  3. 3. 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  4. 4. Introduction • The concept of Private Security • The KPR and Rangers: Who are they? • Difference between KPRs and Rangers • Key Issues – Changing roles – Policy and oversight – SALW – Elitism – Politicization • Conclusion 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  5. 5. Quote The UN, whose agencies have a large presence in the Nairobi, reckon the number of burglaries in Nairobi doubled to 300 from the last quarter of 2013 to the first quarter of this year. Private security companies, who are reckoned to employ more than 100,000 people in Nairobi, are thriving. Ever more cameras, fences and walls are going up, with barbed wire strung along the top. Some robbers, dressed as guards, have taken over entire residential compounds and methodically cleaned out all the houses (The Economist, May 2014). This work examines the increasing growth of PSCs with a bias towards KPRs. 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  6. 6. Private security • A person or body of persons, other than a state agency, registered to provide private security services • The includes nongovernmental, private sector practice, and quasi-public police • Process of embedding in law ( Private Security Regulations Bill 2014) 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  7. 7. Core elements of Private Security  physical security, personnel security, information systems security, investigations, loss prevention, risk management, legal aspects, emergency and contingency planning, fire protection, crisis management, disaster management, counterterrorism, competitive intelligence, executive protection, violence in the workplace, crime prevention, crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), and security architecture and engineering. 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  8. 8. KPR and Rangers: Who are they • KPR is a volunteer auxiliary force recruited from a resident Sec. 110 (1) of NPSA • Allowed to take other employment Sec. 71 (1) • Armed by the State to provide security in the same locality. • Provisions of retirement is after 4 years, however hardly Sec. 112 • No clarity of reporting ie County Police Commander or County Ap Commander Sec 110 (3) • Many citizens consider them very important 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  9. 9. KPRs Traditional (Outside) KPR modern (Scouts/rangers) (Inside) No uniform or borrowed uniforms Uniform provided Work for communities Work for conservancies Minimal or no training Trained in Manyani by KWS and by British ex-soldiers No salary or compensation Salaried & compensated in case of injury/death No promotion Promotion is clear Armed by OCPD Some armed by OCPD Comparison of KPRs and or Rangers 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  10. 10. 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  11. 11. Issues: Changing Roles of KPRs • Metamorphosis of KPR roles • Privatisation • Urbanisation, due to changing economy – commoditization and the desire to earn real money • Livelihood is an important factor in these changes • Livelihood also the most important factor in arms misuse • Scouts funding may not be sustainable 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  12. 12. Issues: Policy and Oversight • Lack of policy on these changes • Proliferation of institutions responsible for scouts – bringing confusion • OCPD unable to oversee scouts properly and lacks resources to monitor ordinary KPRs • Police reform regulations for KPR not ready yet they are a bigger force than the police in some areas 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  13. 13. Issues: SALW • Licit arming, and misuse due to poor training, supervision and lack of pay • May lead to localized arms race • Potential for formation of militias • If scouts funding dries up this risk is significant • Land conflict is volatile in Laikipia – erosion of communal land could trigger conflict 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  14. 14. Issues: Elitism • Privatisation of security in Laikipia • State provision of arms • Diversion of security from other areas • A “public good” becomes enjoyed by the few • Community outside seek an alternative in the form of militias/vigilante 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  15. 15. Issues: Politicization • KPRs are from a single ethnic group • Often linked to their MP • Potential for recruitment into “private armies” should the time arise • Under new dispensation, the Governor as elected leader could misuse them. 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  16. 16. Conclusions • A private rancher recommended, – “KPRs are strength, because they are local. The police are outsiders, they are not local and they are not risk takers like KPR, so it is useful for them to help the police. What is needed for KPR is good pay, strict disciplinary procedures, a contract on service delivery, and training like the police. Reporting should be on a clear weekly or monthly basis.”[i][i] Interview, a private rancher, January, 2012. 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG
  17. 17. Conclusions • Livelihood is a vital consideration • Policy has not kept pace with change • It is vital that the state get on top of what is going on and resource OCPDs to manage KPRs adequately • Politicians should be kept out of security altogether 02/12/15 Gerard Wandera, KSG