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Chris Wakube, Country Manager, Saferworld | Kenya


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"Building Consensus for Peace in the Post-2015 Development Agenda"
Regional Review Conference on the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development
Nairobi, Kenya | 26-27 November 2014

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Chris Wakube, Country Manager, Saferworld | Kenya

  1. 1. Building Consensus for Peace in the Goal 16: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels Presented by Christopher Wakube Post 2015 Development Agenda Geneva Declaration, RRC, Nairobi 26 November 2014
  2. 2. What do we mean by Peace? Saferworld’s priority is people – we believe that everyone should be able to lead peaceful, fulfilling lives, free from violent conflict and insecurity. Should include a focus on people in countries currently experiencing or emerging from violent conflict. However, mere absence of violence (negative peace) often masks latent instability. Countries must reduce the risks of violent conflict by addressing issues such as governance, justice and equal access to economic opportunities, in order to build a positive peace that is sustainable. Violent insecurity (e.g. crime) is also detrimental to both individuals and societies. A holistic approach to building sustainable peace should aim to address all types of conflict, violence and insecurity.
  3. 3. WHY SHOULD PEACE BE INCLUDED? CURRENT LEVELS OF VIOLENCE MUST BE REDUCED For the first time since World War II, more than 50 million people – more than half of them children – are currently forcibly displaced Responding to violence cost US$ 9.46 Trillion in 2012 ERADICATING POVERTY IS IMPOSSIBLE WITHOUT PEACE By 2030, 75% of people in extreme poverty will be living in countries at risk from high levels of violence PEACE IS A PRIORITY FOR PEOPLE AND GOVERNMENTS AROUND THE WORLD As of November 2014, over 5 million people voted in the my world survey placing ‘protection against crime and violence’ 5th out of 16 priorities “… Peace and security are essential for the achievement of the Continent’s development aspirations” the Common African Positon VIOLENT CONFLICT AND INSECURITY HAVE PREVENTED ACHIEVEMENT OF THE MDGs A country that experienced major violence between 1981 and 2005 has a poverty rate 21% higher than a country which saw no violence 7 countries unlikely to meet a single MDG by 2015 have all been affected by high levels of violence NO COUNTRY IS INVULNERABLE TO VIOLENCE Over half a million people die violently every year London riots in August 2011 cost an estimated £300 million
  4. 4. HOW COULD PEACE BE INCLUDED? 1. Peace is about more than the absence of violence – focus on the drivers of conflict that lead to violence 2. Peace should focus on preventative approaches to conflict and violence 3. Peace should not lead to coercive approaches to security 4. Peace should be promoted across the development framework 5. Peace must be broadly owned at country and local level 6. Peace must be universal 7. Focus on outcomes and don’t be prescriptive on mode of implementation to reach outcome
  5. 5. RESPONDING TO CONCERNS ABOUT PEACE Concern 1: The inclusion of peace will lead to ‘securitisation’ of the development agenda Response 1: There is plenty of scope to frame peace related goals and targets to mitigate any such risk Concern 2: A goal on peace could lead to the violation of countries’ sovereignty Response 2: Implementation of the post-2015 framework will occur at country and local level, so will not legitimise external intervention Concern 3: Peace-related targets could translate into new aid conditionalities Response 3: Aid conditionalities are a consequence of the relationship between individual donors and aid recipients
  6. 6. RESPONDING TO CONCERNS ABOUT PEACE Concern 4: Peace is not included in the Rio+20 agenda, which sets the parameters for post-2015 Response 4: Promoting peaceful societies will strengthen and build on the Rio+20 agenda for sustainable development Concern 5: Peace issues are already dealt with by the existing peace and security architecture Response 5: Including peace within post-2015 will help reduce violence and insecurity through a preventative approach that addresses root causes of conflict Concern 6: Development leads to peace, not vice-versa Response 6: Peace is essential for sustainable development, and vice-versa
  7. 7. RESPONDING TO CONCERNS ABOUT PEACE Concern 7: A goal on peace will only be relevant and applicable to a minority of countries Response 7: All Member States have progress to make on peace Concern 8: Peace targets cannot be measured Response 8: Peace can be measured – though investment will be required to strengthen data collecting capacities Concern 9: The inclusion of peace-related targets will stigmatise certain countries Response 9: Post-2015 targets are about highlighting the challenges that countries face and how they can be addressed – counties should have ownership about their pace of progress
  8. 8. Way Forward Goal 16…  We need to Protect the goal, Improve target language, Consolidate the number of targets  Peace is Measurable – need to support initiatives that demonstrate this  It is welcome that the targets address the drivers of conflict - central to promoting positive and sustainable peace which enables development  It is also welcome that the systemic and global-level factors that drive conflict – including flows of arms and illicit finance – are addressed  We also welcome the focus on gender-based violence in Goal 5  The language of some of the targets can be improved to be more outcome focused, more measurable and effective  Reduce the number of targets from 12 to about 8 - more manageable  Split Goal 16 into two: one goal on peace, one on governance (it is currently on both issues). However, we realise this is politically difficult.)  Include missing issues without adding to number of targets e.g. social cohesion, trade in conflict commodities, transnational issues and people’s safety and access to security
  9. 9. Resource Link development-goals-to-the-post-2015-development-agenda-building- a-consensus-for-peace
  10. 10. Thank you!