Advantages disadvantagesonlinecourses

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Advantages disadvantagesonlinecourses

  1. 1. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Courses Based on Experiences in Teaching Net Delivered INDV 102: Money, Consumers, and Family; Summer I 2005 Submitted by Richard Serlin August 2005I taught an online course for the first time this Summer, and I must say it was oneof the most gratifying experiences of my life. In large part this was due to theextremely important subject matter, and the tremendous feedback of the students,but an important part of what made this course so uniquely successful was theonline format.In some sense, a traditional course can do everything an online course can, andmore; in addition it has live, face to face, meetings. After all, a traditional coursecan always obtain a D2L site, maintain an online discussion board, give extensivetake home exams, etc. Anything that can be assigned in an online course can beassigned in a traditional course. Any activity that can be utilized in an onlinecourse can also be utilized in a traditional course.But, in reality, some learning activities can be done better, or more extensively, inan online course. Part of this is that students feel a significant amount ofanonymity, which makes them less inhibited about participating in discussion, andin other activities. A traditional class can have online discussion, but people, andthe instructor, will still know what the student looks like. They still see him inclass and possibly around campus, where they may remember an embarrassingmistake, a bold statement, or a minority or controversial view. Moreover, if thestudent is sensitive about his ability to speak publicly, his appearance, ethnicity,accent, anything of this nature, this is not an inhibition, or is typicallysignificantly less of an inhibition, when the student will never be seen, as in aninternet course.A student also may be shy about interrupting, or interjecting, in an active in-classdiscussion. It just may be hard for him to find a pause big enough to make himfeel comfortable about jumping in, but this is really not an issue with an on-linediscussion board where the exchange is static for minutes or hours at a time, andwhere, anyway, a student can always start his own separate thread.Another part of why some learning activities can be done better, or moreextensively, in an online course is that by the students not having to attend classmeetings, a substantial amount of their time is freed up which can be spent on
  2. 2. things like three day exams of great depth, detail, and introspection, extensiveonline written discussion, and in depth career research and planning.It is counter to learning to ignore the reality that student time is limited. Studentswill only spend so much time on a three credit course. If the instructor assigns anexcessive amount of work, especially for a general education course, students willtypically either drop the course, not do some of the work, or do everything, butspend very little time, or thought, on anything. This can result in learningeverything in a very poor and shallow way, where the disjointed, poor, and/orsuperficial knowledge and understanding that is gained is quickly forgotten.Thus, I believe it is important not to waste student time and attention on lessimportant material because it will likely be at the expense of more importantmaterial, and even with the more important material, one can only assign so muchbefore the typical student starts to devote too little time and thought to each unit,starts not covering some units, or drops the course.An instructor may be determined to be tough and assign far more work than isgiven in an average three credit class, but what is he to do when students startdropping the course in large numbers, or when they start turning in poor qualitywork — give the bulk of the students poor or failing grades? I believe this isneither tenable nor fair at a public university, and even in an honors course atHarvard there is a limit. There are only 24 hours in a day. So more time spent onone learning activity will at some point have to take away from time spent onanother.The point here regarding an on-line course is that it saves a very substantialamount of student time which can then be very reasonably requested to be put intoinnovative and valuable non-traditional learning activities. Not having classmeetings saves three hours per week, plus travel time to and from. This adds upto 50 to 60, or more, hours over the course of a semester. As a result I was ableto reasonably require (and typically receive) long, thoughtful, and thoroughreplies to the on-line discussion questions. I was able to give long in-depth examsover a number of days, that required an unusual amount of knowledge, andresearch, and I was able to assign more reading than I would otherwise havethought prudent.Thus, a traditional course cannot realistically do everything that an online coursecan and vice-versa. I will now discuss further specific advantages anddisadvantages of each.Class DiscussionI had some concern that the learning value of on-line discussion would be lessthan that of traditional in-class discussion. I was pleasantly surprised to find that, 1
  3. 3. at least for my class, and I think a great many classes, the exact opposite was true.In-class discussion, although it has important advantages which I will discusslater, has the disadvantage that students, and the instructor, have little time tothink about their replies, and can only use the facts and data at their fingertips.In an online discussion, on the other hand, students, and the instructor, can spendhours or days, thinking about, researching, and crafting their responses. They caninclude important exact statistics that are not precisely memorized. They caninclude graphs, tables, pictures, links to articles, videos, and/or a wide range ofother resources. The depth, quality, and thoughtfulness of the discussion can befar greater, and I think if one looks at my discussions one will see this.1One of the great things about class discussion is that it can bring out studentmisconceptions – and there are a lot of them in personal finance. Once they arestated, this gives a great opportunity to clearly and effectively show why they aremistaken. Regarding this, online discussion has at least three big advantages.First, as noted earlier, in a traditional, in-class, discussion many students are shyabout participating. This is much less true in an online discussion in an onlinecourse. There is a much greater feeling of anonymity. The others in the class willsee a student’s name posted with her comments, but they will not know what thestudent looks like. They will never see her and recognize her. If she isuncomfortable with her public speaking or anything else of this nature, this willnot be an issue, or inhibition. Plus, as also noted earlier, she will have plenty oftime to hone her replies until she is happy with them.As a result, most of the students had substantial participation. Part of the reasonwas because this contributed to their grade, but even here there is an advantageover traditional discussion; D2l keeps a running table with the number of postingseach student has made, so it’s easy to see who’s participating and who isn’t, and Ilet the students know this, so that they won’t have less of an incentive toparticipate because they think there’s a good chance it won’t be noticed.. In atraditional class, if the instructor wants to grade on discussion participation, hemust memorize all of the student’s names and somehow remember how well allof them have participated over the course of the term. A student could easilythink an instructor is likely to just not remember poor participation, or not be thatstrict on this given the difficulty of doing so well. With an online discussion, notonly is there a table of statistics for each student, but everything the student hasever said is recorded and can be looked back on come grading time to assess itsquality.The second big advantage in responding to student misconceptions is, again, asnoted earlier, the much greater time and resources available to do so, and the thirdis that the response is in writing. A spoken response in class may not be1 To see the discussion forums, or any other materials on my D2L site, please use the guest ID:bogus10.student, and password: serlin. For help on how to log onto, and use, D2L, please go tohttp://help.d2l.arizona.edu/forstudents.htm. 2
  4. 4. remembered for long, or important parts of it may not be. Students may not bepaying attention, or it may largely go in one ear and out the other. With a writtenresponse students can refer back to it, and, in fact, to make sure students payproper attention to important responses, I asked questions referring to them onexams. It would be much harder to do this, or do this as well, with in-classdiscussion.I end up covering many important points, tying together a wide range of material,citing many key statistics, and including links to web pages on index funds andIRAs. I asked several exam questions on these important postings to make surethat they were read thoroughly.So, as we can see, there are important advantages to online discussion in an onlinecourse, but there are obviously advantages to in-class discussion too. With anonline discussion board students have much more time to formulate and post theirresponses; as I’ve discussed, this gives important advantages, but it hasdisadvantages too. The flow of the discussion is slower, and sometimes a lot ofquick back and forth, question and answer, can be valuable, as it can get a lot outat once, and gives a logical flow that’s all seen in a short time, where all the partsare fresh in the memory.Chat can sometimes get a fast flow going, but it’s harder to keep well ordered,and it does not allow for voice intonation and hand gestures, which can sometimesbe very helpful for clearly teaching material.So, my basic conclusion is that for some material, an online course has betterdiscussion, and for other material in-class discussion is better. For my particularcourse, I think for the vast majority of the material, the online format provided farmore valuable discussion. There is a lot of depth, detail, statistics, mathematics,tables, charts, and thought to personal finance. It’s extremely helpful for studentsand the instructor to have time to think about their responses, gather data, andcheck facts, and after the learning is gained, it’s very valuable to have a writtenrecord, with all of the depth and detail that has likely come out.Furthermore, with personal finance it is especially important that a studentparticipate and not just rely on learning from the participation of others. The“personal” part of personal finance is important. It is important for each studentto think about her own personal situation and future, and give associated feedbackand analysis, and ask associated questions.Flexibility and Convenience This is very important. This is where an on-line course can create a great deal of value. 3
  5. 5. While traditional undergraduates are generally able to direct most of their energy toward their studies, older students, parents (especially single parents), and students who work full time have family and work responsibilities competing with school for their time, energy, and financial resources. Difficulties in obtaining child care and class schedules that do not mesh with work schedules are just two of the barriers that nontraditional students may encounter. In addition, some of the older students who did not pursue a postsecondary education when they were younger may have made this decision because they were not prepared academically. Consequently, they may struggle when they enroll later. Nontraditional students who enter postsecondary education seeking a degree are, in fact, less likely than traditional students to attain a degree or remain enrolled after 5 years (Horn 1996). To design effective programs and services to help nontraditional students reach their degree goals, policymakers and postsecondary administrators need information on how many students are affected, the details of their enrollment patterns, and the nature of their persistence problems. (pages 1-2)Many of these students may work, or live, far from school, and making eveningclasses may require driving in rush hour traffic. Internet courses can besubstantial time savers, and make life much easier, thus increasing the likelihoodthat nontraditional students won’t drop out because there is just more than theycan handle.It should additionally be noted that an internet class can also be very valuable totraditional students. A Campus Health study conducted during the 2000-2001school year2 found that 81 percent of incoming freshmen said they planned towork while attending the UA and sixty-one percent of UA students work 11 hoursor more per week. With tuition constantly increasing, and at a rate much higherthan inflation, students are having to work more and more. Additionally, withstudent debt reaching dangerous levels, many are opting to work more in order toborrow less.Again, internet classes can make things easier, and increase the likelihood that astudent will make it through to graduation. They can make it easier to jugglestudent’s increasingly voluminous responsibilities.Finally, during summer and winter breaks, with many students leaving campusand working more, via the internet may be the only way many students can takeclasses.Cost2 From “Students juggle work, classes “, Arizona Daily Wildcat , February 4, 2003, available at:http://wildcat.arizona.edu/papers/96/88/01_3.html 4
  6. 6. An internet course requires no classroom, thus saving on building, parking, andmaintenance costs. An increase in internet courses could decrease the need tobuild new facilities and infrastructure in a time of budget cutting.Global ReachInternet courses allow the University to help people all over the world developtheir potential. They are part of what acclaimed international affairs analystThomas Freidman calls the flattening of the world. A key part of what he meansby that is the flattening of the international playing field, where people in thedeveloping world are much less disadvantaged in their access to knowledge,education, and opportunity.3Thus, internet courses can provide great opportunity to people in need indeveloping countries, but in developed countries too they can increase studentopportunities and horizons. Students from The University of Maryland or theUniversity of Madrid can take unique courses from the University of Arizona andvice-versa.Video and Other MultimediaOf course, if a Wildcat were taking a course in Cervantes from the University ofMadrid it would be great to see the instructor on video. My own course did nothave any videos, but this was the first time I had taught it, or any other internetcourse. The next time I plan to have a series of videos available on my D2L siteranging from several minutes to a half hour or more. Sometimes they are a moreefficient way to learn, for example my course utilizes Excel. I believe studentswill learn how to use this program much faster and better if I explain it with myvoice in the background while they see what I’m doing with the program on theirscreen, than if I just explain it in writing.In the not too far future internet courses may also use teleconferencing andadvanced electronic blackboards.Academic DishonestyThis is a serious drawback of typical internet courses. They rely on the honorsystem and the difficulty of finding or paying someone qualified to do thestudents work for him. There is also the risk of getting caught. This may besmall, but no one likes taking even a small risk of being expelled from college for3 For those interested in learning more, I recommend Friedman’s fascinating and important book,“The World is Flat”, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. 5
  7. 7. cheating, and I emphasize this risk in my syllabus. In an academic dishonestysection I state, “Academic dishonesty is extremely serious. Any evidence of suchwill be turned into the deans office and may result in expulsion and a permanentmark on your records.”Nonetheless, it is difficult to catch internet cheating, and for some classesextremely difficult. It would clearly be better to have most exams proctored, as ina traditional class. Traditional classes obviously aren’t immune to cheating either;they still typically have take home exams, take home papers, and/or gradedhomework, but at least a large portion of the grade is proctored where cheating isvery unlikely. If a student learns little, even if he cheats on everything else, hewill still receive a poor or failing grade because of his performance on theproctored exams, and doing excellent on the other material, but not having a clueon the proctored exams, will certainly raise suspicion.So, again, this is a serious problem with today’s typical internet course. I believethis problem could, however, be solved at a relatively low cost. My suggestion isto set up a national, and later global, testing network. This sounds like a huge anddifficult project, but I think a substantial network could be set up by justestablishing a few contracts.Development of Initiative and Internet SkillsA strong shift toward group work also occurred throughout education, insecondary and pre-secondary, as well as in higher education. While group workmay have been lacking in the past, it can be argued that it is now sufficient, oreven excessive.The literature on Millennials, those born between 1982 and 19954, describes agroup immersed in group projects starting in elementary school. According toNeil Howe, author of Millennials Rising (2000), in an excerpt from a CBS news60 Minutes interview (2005), “If you go into a public school today, teamwork isstressed everywhere. Team teaching, team grading, collaborative sports,community service, service learning, student juries. I mean, the list goes on andon.”Because of the unprecedented amount of structure and group activity permeatingtheir lives, Howe expresses the criticism, “Sometimes, they dont know what to doif theyre just left outside and you say, Well, just do something by yourself for awhile," says Howe. "Theyll look around stunned. You know, What are wesupposed to do now?” (CBS News (2005)). The CBS News article goes on tostate that Dr. Mel Levine, a professor of pediatrics at the University of North4 This general group has also been called Generation Y and Echo Boomers, as their parents aretypically Baby Boomers. Their birth years have also been defined as between 1980 and 1994(Weiler (2004)), and 1977 to 1997 (Business Week (2005)). Good surveys of Millennial andrelated literature are DeBard (2004) and Weiler (2004). 6
  8. 8. Carolina Medical School, and renowned learning expert, “is now researching abook on young people entering their 20s. He is concerned that groupthink isstifling initiative.”.Thus, it may, in fact, be beneficial for students to have some experience withcourses, like most internet courses, where they work primarily independently,where they have to take the initiative and think on their own. This is an importantpart of most careers too, as well as working well in groups.Group ActivityThe last section notwithstanding, group activity is still very valuable. Howvaluable, however, depends on the material. Some material is much betterlearned in a group than individually, some is moderately better, and some materialis learned better through individual thought, concentration, and/or creativity.I personally do not think for the material in my personal finance class studentswere at much of a disadvantage by not being able to engage in traditional, face toface, group activity. They still did engage in nontraditional group activity viatheir internet discussion, and with future advances in technology, or just creativeutilization of current technology, one could envision many valuable groupactivities.For example, with today’s unprecedented level of globalization and outsourcing,many students may have careers involving work with people over the internet,engineers in Singapore, customer service managers in India, factory managers inMexico, or Chile, with the recent passage of CAFTA, computer programmers inIsrael, managers in Europe involved in a global product launch, etc.Thus, it may be valuable to have internet courses where students are assignedgroup projects where they must collaborate over the internet and via the phone.This may be especially valuable once video conferencing becomes widelyavailable and more sophisticated.ConclusionFrom my experience and research, I find that there are both advantages anddisadvantages to an internet course. These include:Advantages • Greater Anonymity – Greater anonymity can increase both the honesty and quantity of discussion participation 7
  9. 9. • Discussion Grading – Discussion participation can be graded much more accurately and easily as D2L keeps track of the number of postings and a written record exists of all participation.• Time Savings – The time savings from students not having to travel to and from and attend class, typically 50-60+ hours per semester, can allow for much greater time to be spent on other learning activities, such as on- line discussion, which has important advantages over traditional in-class discussion, including students, as well as the instructor, can put more time, thought, and research into their input and enter the discussion more easily.• Flexibility, Convenience – The flexibility, convenience, savings of travel time, and absence of conflict with work hours are very valuable to all types of today’s students, but especially nontraditional ones who’s numbers have increased greatly. 58% of the students at public 4-year institutions are in some way nontraditional, with many being single parents These students are especially at risk of never attaining their degree, as studies have shown. Internet courses can make life much easier, thus increasing the likelihood that nontraditional students won’t drop out because there is just more than they can handle. Traditional students also benefit significantly. A Campus Health study conducted during the 2000-2001 school year found that 81 percent of incoming freshmen said they planned to work while attending the UA and sixty-one percent of UA students work 11 hours or more per week.• Cost Savings – An internet course requires no classroom, thus saving on building, parking, and maintenance costs. An increase in internet courses could decrease the need to build new facilities and infrastructure in a time of budget cutting.• Initiative and Internet Skills – In the last 20 years a strong shift toward group work has occurred throughout education, in secondary and pre- secondary, as well as in higher education. While group work may have been lacking in the past, it can be argued that it is now sufficient, or even excessive, for example top learning expert and University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Medical Professor Mel Levine has expressed concern that groupthink is stifling initiative. In an internet course, to a large extent, students learn to be self starters and work independently, skills which are also valued in careers as well as working well with others. Students as well improve their internet skills and may learn how to collaborate with others over the net and phone, as is necessary more and more in today’s global and highly outsourced world.• Global Reach – Internet classes allow someone living hundreds of miles away from the nearest university, where roads and other means of access are poor, to learn from world class universities, through just a satellite dish or telegraphed Wi-Fi system and public computers at a library or community center, or at kiosks like those going up all over rural India. Thus, internet courses can provide great opportunity to people in need in developing countries, but in developed countries too they can increase student opportunities and horizons. Students from The University of 8
  10. 10. Maryland or the University of Madrid can take unique courses from the University of Arizona and vice-versa.Disadvantages • No face to face meetings – Clearly this entails a wide range of disadvantages. Hand gestures, voice intonation, and facial expression, can all be very important in efficiently making things clear and conveying valuable nuance. But how important will depend on the material. For students who aren’t self-starters, or whose self-discipline or motivation are not sufficient, a lecture can force them to pay attention to and learn the material, because if they do not, and/or do not take good notes the material will be lost come exam time. This illustrates a disadvantage of Power Point. Students are not forced to pay attention and take notes (which can do much to internalize and force concentration) because they may think that they can always just look at the slides later. Thus, the material may just glaze right by.5 • No Traditional Group Projects – In an internet course students cannot work on group projects in the traditional face to face way. They can however work together over the internet and by phone, or through teleconferencing, which we can expect to become increasingly accessible and sophisticated. This kind of electronic group work may provide valuable experience, with the world’s increasing globalization and outsourcing. • Academic Dishonesty – Typical internet courses do not have proctored exams and are thus substantially more susceptible to cheating. I think it likely, however that this problem can be largely solved with the formation of a proctoring network, which would charge $25-$50 per exam. The network could start simply with contracts with Stanley Kaplan, which has 3,000 centers nationally and internationally, and The Princeton Review, and could gradually expand with reciprocal agreements with other colleges and community colleges. Such a network would provide a convenient close by method for students to take a proctored final or other exams. • Speed and Mediation of Discussion – With an online discussion board students have much more time to formulate and post their responses; this gives important advantages, but it also has disadvantages. The flow of the discussion is slower, and sometimes a lot of quick back and forth, question and answer, can be valuable, as it can get a lot out at once, and gives a logical flow that’s all seen in a short time, where all the parts are fresh in the memory. Chat can sometimes get a fast flow going, but is harder to keep well ordered.5 An interesting critique of PowerPoint is from Yale political science professor, Edward R. Tuft,“The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint”, Graphics Press, (2003). 9
  11. 11. BibliographyChoy, Susan. "Nontraditional Undergraduates: Findings from the Condition of Education 2002." edited by U.S. Department of Education: Office of Education research and Improvement, 2002.DeBard, Robert. "Millennials Comming to College." New Directions for Student Services, no. 106 (2004): 33-45.Gogoi, Pallavi. "Welcome to the Gen Y Workplace." Business Week Online, May 4th 2005.Horn, L. "Nontraditional Undergraduates, Trends in Enrollment from 1986 to 1992 and Persistence and Attainment among 1989-90 Beginning Postsecondary Students." edited by U.S. Department of Education, 1996.Howe, N., and W. Strauss. Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation. New York: Vintage Books, 2000.Hu, S., and E. Saint John. "Student Persistence in a Public Higher Education System: Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences." Journal of Higher Education 72, no. 3 (2001): 265-86.Jones, Steve. "The Internet Goes to College: How Students Are Living in the Future with Todays Technology." Pew Internet and American Life Project (2002).Kroft, Steve. "The Echo Boomers." CBS News, Sept. 4,2005 September 4, 2005.Purvis, Bob. "Students Juggle Work, Classes." Arizona Daily Wildcat, Febuary 4 Febuary 4, 2003.Sax, L. "Our Incomming Students: What Are They Like?" About Campus 8, no. 3 (2002): 15-20.Trosset, Carol. "Obstacles to Open Discussion and Critical Thinking: The Grinnel College Study." Change 5, no. 30 (1998): 44-50.Tufte, Edward R. The Cognitive Style of Powerpoint: Graphics Press, 2003.Weiler, Angela. "Information-Seeking Behavior in Generation Y Students: Motivation, Critical Thinking, and Learning Theory." The Journal of Academic Librarianship 31, no. 1 (2004): 46-53. 10
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