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PowerPoint Four

  1. 1. Manipulative Participation • Participation is simply a pretense •Participation occurs through representation on an advisory board, but these representatives but have no power • Women may be included in token ways, in order to ‘fill a quota’
  2. 2. Passive Participation • People participate by being told what has been decided or has already happened • The power rests with ‘experts.’ It is generally assumed that experts know what women need or want
  3. 3. Consultation • People are consulted or asked questions; experts define problems and control information gathering • Professionals are not obliged to act on people’s views; they may consult with ‘women’s representatives’
  4. 4. Participation for Material Assets • People participate by contributing resources (such as knowledge or labor) in return for cash or other material benefits • People have no stake when the project ends so that sustainability is poor
  5. 5. Functional Participation • Participation is seen as a means to achieve project goals • People may form groups to meet predetermined objectives • Project dynamics may be interactive and there may be shared decision-making, but major decisions tend to be made by the external agency
  6. 6. Interactive Participation • People participate in joint analysis, development of an action plan, and formation/strengthening of local institutions • Participation is a right and not just a means • Participation may be conducive to the formation of groups and networks that continue to operate after your project is over • More …
  7. 7. • Multiple perspectives are sought and learning incorporated into process • Groups exercise control over local decisions and access to resources so that they have a stake in maintaining practices • While sustainability will be higher, conflicts may emerge
  8. 8. Self-mobilization • People participate by taking initiatives independent of external agents • They form networks through external resources but retain control over how resources are used • This mobilization may or may not challenge existing distributions of power • The ideal outcome is empowerment of marginalized groups such as women
  9. 9. Women’s participation will be promoted when women have been included in: • defining the problem being addressed; • preparing the project proposal; • the membership of the project team; • all levels of decision-making.
  10. 10. Can women participate? Barriers: • Women’s lack of authority in households, organizations and communities • The social value of women’s lost labor • Women’s lack of mobility • Women’s level of literacy and education • Women’s lack of confidence or self-esteem
  11. 11. Will women participate? Barriers • Perception of benefits from participation • Attitudes of project workers towards women • Role models of participation • Scheduling of activities • Language and communication barriers