Impact of Money maker pumps in East AfricaEphraim Nkonya, IFPRILora Iannotti, Washington University, St LouisBeatrice Sakwa, KickStartAmber Peterman, IFPRIBenjamin Wielgos, IFPRI,Valentine Gandhi, KickStart,Edward Kato, IFPRI
Outline• Progress is to date;• Key findings from completedqualitative and quantitativeassessments;• mid course correctionscompleted or planned based onthe results of the assessments;• Key challenges andconstraints;• capacity needs.
Progress • Qualitative approaches: • 30 gender disaggregated Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) - women only, men only and mixed men and women were conducted - 15 in each country ;
Progress (2)• Major reason behind the delayed completion of midline survey is money – project ran out of money to employ a greater number of enumerators • Efforts to raise money to complete survey are underway. But completion will be late.
Qualitative Results: Decision making on crops grown using MMPBoth Kenya and Tanzania• Tomatoes, cabbages, green maize and leafy vegetables (kale, amaranth and Chinese cabbage) were the most commonly irrigated crops• Tomato was the most important crop for both men and women. Difference came in the 2nd and third most important where women preferred leafy vegetables and men crops that bring in more cash.• There was joint decision making on what to grow, how much to grow and where to sell but men made the final decisionKenya• Kales, tomatoes, spinach, cabbage, indigenous vegetables, onions and cucumbers were the most important crops irrigated• Choice of crop depended on market demand, availability of inputs, and ease of management, and maturity time, length of harvesting period, ability to fetch high income
Qualitative Results: Decision making on crops grown using MMPKenya contd:• Women preferred leafy vegetables (kale, spinach, local vegetables) because they are harvested over a long time, are for both food and sale and can easily be sold at farm gate• Men preferred high value crops such as tomatoes, onions, TC banana, cabbage and green maize, as they were harvested and marketed at once and fetched high incomes, and they require less monitoring during their production.• In a typical male-headed household men operated and maintained the pump and women laid out the pipes and watered crops• Both women and men planted and weeded all priority crops. Women harvested leafy vegetables and men harvested tomatoes.
Qual Results: Benefits of the MMPTanzania• Increased area under irrigation• Increased harvests, leading to improved food security, better quality food, improved health• Higher incomes and more investments• Improvement household well being and more love at home• Main investments for men were: Education, house construction, purchasing of motorcycles and/or bicycle and opening of shops for men.• Main investments for women were: Education, household utensils, expanding their business an clothingSome negative benefits: Some men used the money for alcohol and extra marital affairs
Qualitative Results: Benefits of the MMPKenya• Reduced labor for fetching water by women;• ability to grow a variety off-season crops that lead to higher incomes, household food security and improved nutrition;• reduced idleness and time wasting in social gathering and alcohol drinking for men,• Recognition by agricultural extension agents - their farms are used for field day demonstration,• Self esteem and family cohesion – more love• Investment in various assets – School fees land, houses, plots, and household assets (furniture, utensils, clothing)• Some negative benefits: Some men used the money for alcohol and extra marital affairs
Qualitative Results: Constraints of accessing, owning and using pumpsTanzania• Majority had no problem accessing the pump however, there are long distances to dealer shops• However they were cash constrained and took between 1 day and five years to buy the pump – female headed households more constrained• Technical problems: Rubber cups wearing out too quickly, Difficulties in changing the valves, unavailability of spare parts and difficult to get technical assistance to repair the pump.• The mandatory need of two people during irrigation – especially for female headed householdsKenya – similar to Tanzania except in Kenya time between hearing about the pump and buying ranged from immediately to one year• Limitation of the pump in terms of depth and distance
Key quantitative results – baseline surveyAbout 75% of pump buyers bought pumps a year or more after hearing them Lack of money was reason for delaying to pumps in both countries
Qual Results: Asset Ownership• In both Tanzania and Kenya men owned most of the valuable assets including the wife and the children.• However, probing revealed that men owned most high value assets such as land, dairy cattle, commercial plots and rental houses.• Women owned the family house, local poultry and household assets that they normally use to perform their reproductive tasks such as kitchen utensils.• Decisions on their use and disposal were however made jointly by husband and wife.
Are pump owners poorer than the general population?
Child morbidities (%) Kenya Tanzania All 2 week recall period Acute diarrhea (3+ loose stools) 6.06 18.13 12.48 Bloody diarrhea (among those with acute diarrhea) 16.67 21.54 20.48 Fever 31.21 26.32 28.59 Respiratory illness (cough with rapid breathing) 16.83 27.83 22.68 6 month recall period Malaria 36.12 46.90 41.85 Severe malaria (with seizures, degedege) 12.84 10.56 11.48 Eye infections 5.35 7.14 6.30 Guinea worm infection 5.35 7.14 6.30 Schistosomiasis 0.34 0.30 0.32• Infectious disease morbidities assessed including those with possible links to KS pump ownership (water & sanitation)• Diarrhea lower in Kenya than expected; 16% prevalence in DHS 2003• Prevalence of morbidities higher in Tanzania compared to Kenya, except for fever
Are KickStart pump buyers the poorest? 900 800 770Per capita annual income (US$) KickStart 700 Rural income 600 Total population 500 500 474 400 366 325 300 278 200 100 0 Kenya Tanzania
% of households owning at least one cellular phone100% 88% KickStart90% Total population80%70% 63% 61%60% 50%50%40%30%20%10% 0% Kenya Tanzania
Household head education of KickStart, Kenya% of adults with no formal education = 13%UNICEF 2010 5% 27% 38% 31%No formal education/adult literacy training Primary educationSecondary education Post-secondary education
Household head education, Tanzania% of adults with no formal education =27%UNICEF, 2010 6% 3% 7% 68%No formal education/adult literacy training Primary educationSecondary education Post-secondary education
Ownership of pumps & hosepipe, Kenya80% Female70%60% Joint50% Male40%30%20%10% 0% Hip pump MMP SMMP Motorized Hose pipe pump
Sex of pump & hosepipe owners, Tanzania100% 90% 80% Female 70% Joint 60% Male 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Hip pump MMP SMMP Motorized Hose pipe pump
Who controls pump? Kenya90%80% Female Joint70% Male60%50%40%30%20%10%0% Hip pump MMP SMMP Motorized Hose pipe pump
Who controls pump, horse pipe?, Tanzania 100% 90% Female Joint 80% Male 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Hip pump SMMP Motorized pump Hose pipe
Mid-courses adjustments• Layaway program – to allow women to acquire pumps – 31% of pump buyers thru layaway program are women vs 18% thru the traditional marketing• Family bank to subsidize loan for acquisition of pumps for both men & women
Mid-course correctionNew questions Why?1.How has pump acquisition Want to difference across sex of owner/controllerchanged lifestyle? of pump2. Time use across enterprises, Analyze differences across sex, agedomestic chores, & schoolactivities?3. Who controls crop harvest & Comparison across sex of pump owner, plotmoney? owner & drivers of such patterns4. What are the negative social Previous questions largely looked at positiveimpacts of pump ownership? impacts5. Group membership for each Previous instrument asked for entire household.adult New question will help compare social capital across sex & age
Key constraints• Large unexpected data collection cost & consequent budget constraint will lead to cutting sample, reducing ability to detect statistical difference between groups becoming the biggest challenge in the project.• Low capacity of M&E staff: • To do quality control of quantitative data • Collect and analyze qualitative data reliance on consultants • Consultants ask for large fees. But writing skills of many consultants is low spending long time rewriting their reports. So plan to hire consultants for only facilitation & report writing to be done by investigators
Project capacity needs and evaluation team• To improve data collection & analysis during the endline survey and FGD, we request training of: – KickStart M&E staff to collect qualitative data related to gender and other aspects will certainly – Selected consultants willing to work with the project during the endline FGD