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INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Qualitative Methods for
Monitoring, Evaluation
and Impact Assessment
Jemimah ...
 Open-ended questions to identify types of
indicators or impacts
• May feed into survey questions
 Provides interpretive...
Advantages of qualitative methods
 Qualitative methods are effective at capturing
these issues because
• Elaboration, and...
Qualitative as complementary to
quantitative tools
 Identifies issues and questions for surveys
and hypotheses for testin...
Quantitative as a complementary to
qualitative
 Identifies stratification strategy
 Provides community and household
cha...
Some misconceptions about qualitative
approaches
 It is easy to do and cheap, and anyone can do it.
“If you can talk to f...
Different types of tools
Mapping
tools
PRA tools Interviews Ethnographic
tools
Participatory
impact
diagrams
Diffusion Map...
 Useful for identifying
important traits / criteria for
organising issues, items by
preference
 Used mainly for technolo...
Ranking Priority Assets for Men and
Women
Scoring /ranking /Rating methods
Advantages
 Can be used with symbols
and counters especially with
groups with low litera...
Mapping Tools-Participatory Impact
Diagrams
Mapping Tools: Before and After Maps
Before After
friend
DENGORE
Sister’s
husband
Mhaber
Brother
WOLENCHETI
TOWN
MAP LEGEND
Methods of Seed Dissemination
Gift (3kg or less)...
Mapping tools
Advantages
 Can be used with groups
that have low literacy
levels
 Very engaging
 Easy visual presentatio...
Focus Group Discussions: Description
 A group discussion of approximately 6 - 12 persons guided
by a facilitator, during ...
FGDs; Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages
 Cost- and time-
efficient—cover more
people
 Can be a safe space for
disc...
FGDs Analysis: Analysis
 Text Analysis
• QDA Miner
• Relational themes
• Identifying Key themes in FGDs.docx
 Conducted with a fairly open framework which allow
for focused, conversational, two-way communication
 Starts with more...
Semi-structured interviews: Advantages
and disadvantages
Advantages
 Depth and detail
 Rapport
 Analytic power: Ability...
Most Significant Change
 It is a story-based, qualitative and participatory
approach to monitoring and evaluation
 Invol...
Most Significant Change
Advantages
 Participatory, involves
multiple stakeholders
 Does not use pre-set
indicators and
t...
Network Analysis
 Set of integrated techniques
to depict relations among
actors and to analyze the
social structures that...
Network Analysis: Advantages and
Disadvantages
Advantages
 Can be done
individually or in
groups
 Data /information can
...
Analysis
 Three stages of analysis
• During and post interview analysis (“follow
your nose!”
• Field analysis
• Formal an...
Field implementation issues
 Sample selection
• For groups, sample
stratification based on key
variables such as gender,
...
Examples of use of Qualitative tools in
evaluation
 Physical set up
• For group discussions, sitting
arrangements, venues...
INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
Thank You
INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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Jemimah qualitative data collection

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Jemimah qualitative data collection

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Qualitative Methods for Monitoring, Evaluation and Impact Assessment Jemimah Njuki INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  2. 2.  Open-ended questions to identify types of indicators or impacts • May feed into survey questions  Provides interpretive power • What as well as why  Exploring topics less amenable to survey questions  Express local voice and perceptions Uses of qualitative approaches
  3. 3. Advantages of qualitative methods  Qualitative methods are effective at capturing these issues because • Elaboration, and sometimes several tries and lengthy follow-up and probing, are needed to convey the questions adequately and understand answers • People do not always tell the truth the first time: Getting candid information often requires time, trust, rapport, triangulation, observation  Discover unanticipated issues  Solicit local solutions to problems
  4. 4. Qualitative as complementary to quantitative tools  Identifies issues and questions for surveys and hypotheses for testing  Identifies response options for survey questions  Clarifies terms/language for use in surveys  Confirms validity of constructs and proxies  Triangulation, confirmation, contradiction  Explanation/interpretation of survey findings • Depth, texture, context
  5. 5. Quantitative as a complementary to qualitative  Identifies stratification strategy  Provides community and household characteristics for sampling  Identifies issues for investigation  Triangulation, confirmation, contradiction  Determines prevalence of qualitative findings in wider population  Reveals representation of qualitative sample
  6. 6. Some misconceptions about qualitative approaches  It is easy to do and cheap, and anyone can do it. “If you can talk to farmers, you can use qualitative approaches and tools”  With qualitative tools, all you need is to document the results. No analysis is needed— ”just write up the report, its basic stuff”  “You don‟t need a research design! Just talk to a few farmers and do a few focus group discussions”  A lack of understanding of the tools and approaches “We are using a PRA tool”
  7. 7. Different types of tools Mapping tools PRA tools Interviews Ethnographic tools Participatory impact diagrams Diffusion Maps Before and After resource /asset maps Social network analysis Transect Walks Trend lines Venn diagrams Seasonal calendars Focus Group Discussions Community meetings Ranking /Rating/Scoring Community surveys Semi-structured interviews Unstructured d interviews Key informant interviews Organizational assessment Case studies Innovation Histories Life Histories Personal diaries
  8. 8.  Useful for identifying important traits / criteria for organising issues, items by preference  Used mainly for technology evaluation, ranking of priority options e.g priority household income options, asset preferences  Can be used to compare preferences across groups e.g men and women, Scoring /Ranking /Rating methods
  9. 9. Ranking Priority Assets for Men and Women
  10. 10. Scoring /ranking /Rating methods Advantages  Can be used with symbols and counters especially with groups with low literacy levels  Can be done individually or in groups  Allows for group contribution of list to be ranked /rated and the criteria to use  Can be easily quantified Disadvantages  Takes time especially when community groups identify their own lists and criteria for evaluation
  11. 11. Mapping Tools-Participatory Impact Diagrams
  12. 12. Mapping Tools: Before and After Maps Before After
  13. 13. friend DENGORE Sister’s husband Mhaber Brother WOLENCHETI TOWN MAP LEGEND Methods of Seed Dissemination Gift (3kg or less) Gift (3kg or more) Exchange Sale Neighboring Village brother mother brother friend friend Wife’s father DONI 10 km 6 km MERKO 4 km Mekanajo Neighbor- struggling widow MOME Mekanajo/ Mhaber 7 km Mekanajo 75 km Iddir neighbor Appendix 3b. Technology Diffusion / Social Network Mapping: Simplified Sample from Worka Village Iddir Iddir Mekanajo /Mhaber Mapping Tools: Diffusion
  14. 14. Mapping tools Advantages  Can be used with groups that have low literacy levels  Very engaging  Easy visual presentation  Can provide massive amounts of information that combine qualitative as well as simple numbers  Can be done on paper or on the ground Disadvantages  Requires close facilitation  Time consuming  Can be dominated by those that can write (who holds the pen /chalk, stick?)
  15. 15. Focus Group Discussions: Description  A group discussion of approximately 6 - 12 persons guided by a facilitator, during which group members talk freely and spontaneously about a certain topic.  Its purpose is to obtain in-depth information on concepts, perceptions and ideas of a group  Can be useful to: • Focus research and develop relevant research hypotheses by exploring in greater depth the problem to be investigated and its possible causes • Formulate appropriate questions for more structured, larger scale surveys • Help understand and solve unexpected problems in interventions • Explore controversial topics
  16. 16. FGDs; Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages  Cost- and time- efficient—cover more people  Can be a safe space for discussion of sensitive issues  Early identification of important issues  Discussions trigger ideas, recollections, opinions Disadvantages  Less time to explore and probe  Inability to triangulate data on individuals/households  Louder and quieter voices, peer pressure  No very appropriate for sensitive topics Page 16
  17. 17. FGDs Analysis: Analysis  Text Analysis • QDA Miner • Relational themes • Identifying Key themes in FGDs.docx
  18. 18.  Conducted with a fairly open framework which allow for focused, conversational, two-way communication  Starts with more general questions or topics. Followed by more specific probing questions  Not all questions are designed and phrased ahead of time  Uses an interview guide rather than a set of questions  Used to: • Obtain specific quantitative and qualitative information from a sample of the population • Obtain general information relevant to specific issues, (ie: to probe for what is not known) • Gain a range of insights on specific issues Semi-structured interviews; Description
  19. 19. Semi-structured interviews: Advantages and disadvantages Advantages  Depth and detail  Rapport  Analytic power: Ability to relate data to other data at individual, household, and community levels  No peer pressure Disadvantages  More time consuming and costly, so smaller sample sizes  No trigger and interaction effects of group Pag e 19
  20. 20. Most Significant Change  It is a story-based, qualitative and participatory approach to monitoring and evaluation  Involves the collection of significant change (SC) stories emanating from the field level, and the systematic selection of the most significant of these..  Can be used for different domains of change and provides case studies „Looking back over the last 1 year, what do you think was the most significant change in [particular domain of change]?‟  Can used for: • program evaluation • organizational review and evaluation. • building community ownership through participatory evaluation
  21. 21. Most Significant Change Advantages  Participatory, involves multiple stakeholders  Does not use pre-set indicators and therefore can capture unexpected /unanticipated changes Disadvantages  Time consuming especially in selecting most significant change stories
  22. 22. Network Analysis  Set of integrated techniques to depict relations among actors and to analyze the social structures that emerge from the recurrence of these relations  Conducted by collecting relational data organized in matrix form.  Actors are depicted as nodes, and their relations as lines among pairs of nodes
  23. 23. Network Analysis: Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages  Can be done individually or in groups  Data /information can be quantified (UCINET)  Can be done through visual tools (Venn diagrams) or short questionnaire survey Disadvantages  Limited to evaluation of interactions  Requires multiple software (UCINET for analysis, Netdraw for network maps)
  24. 24. Analysis  Three stages of analysis • During and post interview analysis (“follow your nose!” • Field analysis • Formal analysis  Communication • Language • Technical expertise
  25. 25. Field implementation issues  Sample selection • For groups, sample stratification based on key variables such as gender, socio-economic status  Representation • For semi-structured and case study interviews, representation of key interest groups  Triangulation • Most qualitative tools not enough for evaluation by themselves, use of other tools for triangulation
  26. 26. Examples of use of Qualitative tools in evaluation  Physical set up • For group discussions, sitting arrangements, venues can influence discussion outcomes  Discussion guides /interview guides • Semi-structured or unstructured guides with key issues /questions  Skills • Good facilitation skills required for qualitative data collection • Analytic skills  Recording /documentation
  27. 27. INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Thank You INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE

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