Enhanced homestead food production for improved food security
ENHANCED HOMESTEADFOOD PRODUCTION FORIMPROVED FOOD SECURITYAND NUTRITION IN BURKINAFASOHelen Keller International (HKI) andthe International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
E-HFP Program Goal: To improve the nutritional status of infants and young children through a set of production and nutrition interventions targeted to women with children 3-12 months of age 1. Increased availability of micronutrient-rich foods through household production in the secondary agriculture season. 2. Income generation through the sale of surplus household production 3. Increased knowledge and adoption of optimal nutritional practices including consumption of micronutrient-rich foods Behavior change promoted through two different social network channels – “grandmothers” and health committees Target population: 30 villages – 120 female village farm leaders (VFL) plus 1200 female household gardeners
Primary Assets Physical capital through project inputs and products Financial capital through increased revenue from household gardens Social capital through village model farms and behavior change communication strategy Human capital through agriculture and nutrition training and improved knowledge and adoption of best practices in agriculture and nutrition and subsequent improved nutritional status
Study Design Longitudinal impact evaluation Social network census Operations research
Impact Evaluation Randomized design 30 intervention villages (~1200 households) 15 “grandmothers” villages 15 health committee villages 15 control villages (~800 households) Longitudinal Baseline Feb-Apr 2010 (target children 3-12 months of age) Endline Feb-Apr 2012 (target children 27-36 months of age) Household interview Male household head and female key respondent including gender disaggregated modules on asset ownership, agricultural production, income, household expenditures, knowledge on nutrition, household food security, dietary diversity, etc. Anthropometric measures and hemoglobin status of target children
Operations Research Sampling Random selection of beneficiaries (n=140) and non-beneficiaries (n=70) Purposive sample of key informants (village level agriculture (n=60) and nutrition trainers (n=60) and master trainers in agriculture and nutrition (n=18) Cross-sectional Feedback to program implementers on what is working well and what could use some improvements Inform the final design of the endline quantitative survey and additional qualitative research Semi-structured interviews with beneficiaries, non-beneficiaries and key informants Included questions related to implementation and uptake of key program activities including distribution, ownership and use of program inputs and related products, attendance, understanding and knowledge related to agriculture and nutrition training sessions, and preliminary outcome measures including dietary diversity and household food security
Project Timeline and Progress Progress to date (program): Village model farms established, production on-going Household gardens established, production on-going Household visits for BCC activities, on-going Pilot of goat distribution (35 goats to 5 VMFs) Progress to date (research): Baseline data collection, analysis and report complete Social network data collection complete, analysis on-going Operations research data collection complete, analysis on-going Endline survey to be conducted between February and April 2012
Household welfare Assets Men hold fewer numbers of assets but the value of these assets is much higher than assets held by women. Livestock Men hold the majority of livestock both in number of animals, but also in the value of these animals. Expenditure Both total and adult equivalent total expenditures are slightly larger in control villages than in the treatment villages. control group villages also had higher expenditures in the meat and fish category and somewhat higher expenditures in the cereals and fruits categories.
Nutrition knowledge and status Sub-optimal health and nutrition-related knowledge and practices Introduction of liquids at 3 months of age Introduction of semi-solid foods at 7 months of age High levels of malnutrition Stunted (HAZ <-2): 25% Underweight (WAZ <-2): 33% Wasted (WHZ < -2): 26% Extremely high prevalence of anemia and severe anemia Anemic (Hb <11.0 g/L): 88% Severely Anemic (Hb <7.0 g/L):11%
Physical capital 85% of beneficiaries (compared to 4% of non- beneficiaries) had a home garden and for 91% of these women this was new since joining the program. The vast majority of the women credit the program with increasing the increasing production of vegetables and 74% also thought the program had increased production of chickens.
Ownership of family garden100%90%80%70%60%50% Beneficiary40% Husband Joint30%20%10% 0% Owns garden Owns land for Allowed to use Makes decisions Manages garden garden on produce revenue generated
Use and decision-making related to seeds and poultry90%80%70%60%50% Beneficiary40% Husband30%20%10%0% Use: seeds Use: chickens Sell: seeds Sell: chickens Keep income: Keep income: seeds chickens
Ownership of goats80%70%60%50%40% Beneficiary Husband30% Joint20%10%0% Who owns Who takes care of Who makes sale Who makes decisions consumption decision
Financial capital Less than half of the beneficiaries (n=56 respondents) reported selling any vegetables (n=22), chickens (n=24) or eggs (n=2) - but of those who did the majority reported that their income related to these activities has increased due to the HFP program.
Social capital Village Model Farms Some indication from the village farm leaders that they are building social capital through their leadership roles. The majority of the beneficiaries work on village model farms – most reported positive interactions however there were some reports of conflicts. Husbands supported their wives’ work both at the village model farm as well as in their home gardens Behavior Change Communication Conducted a social network census to examine the diffusion of knowledge through two types of behavior change communication strategies.
Human Capital Beneficiaries had more agriculture-related knowledge than non-beneficiaries Beneficiaries had more nutrition-related knowledge as compared to non-beneficiaries Dietary diversity was higher among beneficiary households, mothers and children < 2 years of age as compared to non-beneficiaries
Next steps Program Implementation of suggested changes form the operations research and monitoring activities Consider compensation for village level nutrition trainers Address the water shortage prom Repair boreholes Establish small wells Distribute more drip irrigation kits Research Finish analysis and report for the operations research Finish analysis of social network census Endline survey (Feb-Apr. 2012) Design additional qualitative research around some key issues Men’s knowledge and support of optimal health and nutrition practices Land access and use issues Time-related issues Maintenance of control of resources by program beneficiaries Ability to make decisions related to products such as vegetables, chickens and goats.
Implementation questions What are some strategies that could be employed to ensure that women are able to retain management rights over assets given to them by the project? What are some strategies to secure women’s access to land for home gardens? HKI has been successful in securing land rights for the land donated for the community gardens – however, some were considered too small, or not fertile. What are some other strategies to deal with water shortages?