Development In Early Childhood Final


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Development In Early Childhood Final

  1. 1. Development in Early Childhood Dr Deirdre White - Department of Paediatrics and Child Health
  2. 2. The newborn <ul><li>Has many skills </li></ul><ul><li>Sees, hears, fixes, </li></ul><ul><li>follows, smells, feels, seeks, vocalises, recognizes, settles, sucks, imitates, responds, reacts and elicits </li></ul>
  3. 3. Development – Things to Consider <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother, pregnancy, delivery and neonatal period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past medical history, operations, injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing and vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milestones expected and whether achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seizures, regression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour, sleep, appetite, growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture – theories of childhood </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Development – Things to Consider <ul><li>Examination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth – Ht, Wt, HC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurocutaneous stigmata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological examination – tone, power, reflexes etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental examination – including general observation and quality of skills </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Development in the typically developing child <ul><li>Occurs in a predictable way </li></ul><ul><li>Is continuous from conception to maturity </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence is the same, but the rate may be different </li></ul><ul><li>Development is closely tied to maturation of the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Development moves from the general to the discrete </li></ul><ul><li>From cephalic to caudal </li></ul><ul><li>From ulnar to radial </li></ul><ul><li>From brainstem to cortex </li></ul>
  6. 6. Developmental Domains <ul><li>Gross motor – locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Fine motor – use of hands </li></ul><ul><li>Social/Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Speech and language </li></ul><ul><li>Performance/Cognitive/Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Special senses – Hearing and Vision </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gross motor skills <ul><li>The most characteristic feature of movement and motor control in newborns is the presence of complex, stereotypical movement patterns known as “primitive reflexes” </li></ul><ul><li>Over the first year of life these are subsumed by more mature, more flexible patterns and protective reflexes emerge that enable ongoing development </li></ul>
  8. 8. Primitive Reflexes <ul><li>Palmar grasp </li></ul><ul><li>Plantar grasp </li></ul>
  9. 9. Primitive Reflexes <ul><li>Moro Reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric tonic neck reflex </li></ul>
  10. 10. Primitive Reflexes <ul><li>Postural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head and trunk righting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landau </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral prop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parachute </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Gross Motor: sitting 5 – 10 mths
  12. 12. Gross motor: crawling 6 – 12 mths pull to stand 7 – 15 months walking 10 – 18 mths
  13. 13. Gross Motor Skills <ul><li>Jump on floor – 2yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Run – 2 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Kick a ball – 2 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Jump off a step – 2.5 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Ride a trike – 3yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Hop 4 - 5 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Ride 2 wheeler – 5+yrs </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fine motor <ul><li>4 months - hand regard </li></ul><ul><li>5 months - reach </li></ul><ul><li>7 months - transfer a toy </li></ul><ul><li>8 months - feed self a biscuit </li></ul><ul><li>10months - index finger approach </li></ul><ul><li>10 months - pincer grasp </li></ul><ul><li>12 months -casting </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fine Motor Skills
  16. 16. Fine motor <ul><li>15 months - feeds self –tower of 2 cubes </li></ul><ul><li>15months - straight scribble </li></ul><ul><li>18 months - circular scribble, casting ceases </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fine Motor <ul><li>18 months - no more casting, turns pages, tower of 3 - 4 blocks </li></ul><ul><li>2 years - Vertical strokes </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 yrs -Imitates cross, </li></ul><ul><li>3yrs - draw a circle –and tower of 8+ cubes, scissors,thread </li></ul><ul><li>4 years - Draw a person </li></ul><ul><li>4.5 yrs - Draw a square </li></ul><ul><li>5 yrs - copies a triangle </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fine motor skills
  19. 19. Language - expressive <ul><li>Crying and settling </li></ul><ul><li>4 weeks – smiling </li></ul><ul><li>6 weeks – vocalising –vowels then consonants </li></ul><ul><li>3 – 4 months – gaga, ng, ah goo </li></ul><ul><li>4 months – laughs, squeals, “raspberries” </li></ul><ul><li>7 months – “mumum”, “dada” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Language - expressive <ul><li>8 months – vocalises or coughs to attract attention </li></ul><ul><li>10 months - imitates sounds, bye bye </li></ul><ul><li>12 months – imitate animal noises, 2 -3 words </li></ul><ul><li>15 – 18 months – jargon + words </li></ul><ul><li>2 years – words together </li></ul><ul><li>3 years – talking non stop </li></ul>
  21. 21. Language - understanding <ul><li>4 months – excited when food prepared </li></ul><ul><li>5 months – smiles at mirror image </li></ul><ul><li>6 months – stranger anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>7 months - responds to name </li></ul><ul><li>10 months – responds to “where’s mummy?” </li></ul><ul><li>11 months – shakes head for “no” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Language - understanding <ul><li>12 months – “where is your shoe?” </li></ul><ul><li>18 months – imitate domestic chores, point </li></ul><ul><li>2 years – pull person to show a toy </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 years – knows name and sex </li></ul><ul><li>3 years – knows some songs, count, big, small </li></ul><ul><li>4 years – questions ++ </li></ul>
  23. 23. Social Development - Play <ul><li>Reflects increasing cognitive and social abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary – repetitive and functional 0-2yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel – symbolic and socio dramatic 18mths – 7 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative 3 plus yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive 8yrs </li></ul>
  24. 24. Social Development - Play <ul><li>Functions of play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health – mastery and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accumulation of information, extend language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of attitudes and personality traits </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Each child’s development is unique