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cannabis, its properties, affect on human brain and tests of identification in sample

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  2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>World drug report Data </li></ul><ul><li>Forms and modes of usage </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of action </li></ul><ul><li>Long term effects </li></ul><ul><li>Short term effects </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. CANNABIS <ul><li>It is a generic term used to denote several psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis Sativa </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabis Sativa is a fast growing annular plant of the family Cannabaceae </li></ul><ul><li>The active chemical in cannabis is THC </li></ul><ul><li>Varieties – C Indica, C Mexicana, </li></ul><ul><li>C Americana </li></ul>
  4. 4. HISTORY
  5. 5. UN Office On Drugs and Crime WORLD DRUG REPORT 2006 Approximately 4 per cent of the world's adults-some 162 million people-use cannabis every year, making it the world's most widely used illicit drug. “ the annual prevalence of abuse among the age group of 15-64 in India is 3.2 per cent for cannabis, 0.4 per cent for opiates and 0.01 per cent for Ecstasy” i.e. about 2.3 million people are dependent on cannabis in India alone
  6. 6. Consumers and Producers -
  7. 7. USE OF CANNABIS 2003-2004 (or latest year available) Source: World Drug Report 2006 -
  8. 8. Forms and modes of usage <ul><li>Herbal Cannabis </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana -combination of the flowering tops and leaves.   </li></ul><ul><li>Bhang – dried mature leaves, twigs and fruiting shoots of male and female plant, least potent </li></ul><ul><li> - sabji, satti, sidhi </li></ul><ul><li>Ganja – flowering or fruiting tops, coated with exude of female plant </li></ul><ul><li> - rusty green colour </li></ul><ul><li>- joint sticks,Thaisticks, buddha sticks </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana and ganja are smoked in hand rolled cigarettes, pipe or chillum or can be brewed as tea </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  9. 11. Contd…. <ul><li>Charas </li></ul><ul><li>Crude resin from leaves and flowering tops of female plant </li></ul><ul><li>Green to brown to black </li></ul><ul><li>Hashish, Black Moroccan, sulpha, nasha, kif, khit, red seal, red Lebanese </li></ul><ul><li>Smoked in pipe or by placing a bit on tip of cigarette , baked or eaten as hash cookies </li></ul><ul><li>THC content – 4% - 12% </li></ul>
  10. 14. Contd…. <ul><li>Hashish oil </li></ul><ul><li>Thick, oily liquid , extracted from hashish by solvent extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Golden brown to black </li></ul><ul><li>Hash oil, red oil, honey oil </li></ul><ul><li>Smoked in a bong or hookah or by putting a few drops on cigarette or joint </li></ul><ul><li>THC content – 20% to 60% </li></ul>
  11. 16. Chemistry <ul><li>Over 60 structurally similar compounds, “ Cannabinoids” </li></ul><ul><li>The major active principle in all cannabis products is Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC or simply THC ) </li></ul><ul><li>Others include cannabidiol ( CBD ) and cannabinol ( CBN ) </li></ul>
  12. 17. Mechanism of action <ul><li>Two specific cannabinoid receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CB1 - brain and peripheral tissues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CB2 - immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ANANDAMIDE (Sanskrit word for “bliss”), the natural neurotransmitter that fits into the receptor sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors for anandamide found in several regions of the brain, The highest densities being in the frontal cerebral cortex (higher functioning), hippocampus (memory, cognition), basal ganglion and cerebellum (movement), and striatum (brain reward ). </li></ul><ul><li>THC activates neurons because its chemical structure mimics the natural neurotransmitters </li></ul>
  13. 18. Receptor sites in brain (movement) ) (Learning,memory) (temp regulation ) (Fear)
  14. 19. Long Term Effects <ul><li>Brain &CNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dulls sensory & cognitive skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairs short term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alters motor coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immune system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impair the ability to fight off microbial and viral infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased blood flow to the limbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased blood pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced oxygen carrying capacity of blood </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. Contd…. <ul><li>Respiratory system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damages the lungs(50% more tar than tobacco) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased risk of lung cancer and chronic bronchitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obstructed airways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproductive system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MALE SPECIFIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreased sperm production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced testosterone levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FEMALE SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alters the normal ovulatory cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause fetal abnormalities </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. Short term effects <ul><li>blood shot eyes </li></ul><ul><li>relaxation and loss of inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>increased appetite </li></ul><ul><li>affected perception of color, sound and other sensations </li></ul><ul><li>impaired coordination </li></ul><ul><li>affected thinking and memory </li></ul><ul><li>confusion </li></ul><ul><li>restlessness </li></ul><ul><li>feelings of excitement </li></ul><ul><li>hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety or panic, or detachment from reality </li></ul><ul><li>decreased reaction time </li></ul><ul><li>paranoia. </li></ul><ul><li>dryness of mouth </li></ul>
  17. 22. Analysis <ul><li>Microscopic examination: cystolith hair </li></ul><ul><li>Color/spot tests: </li></ul><ul><li>Duquenois-Levine Test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution A: 2%vanillin and 1% acetaldehyde in ethyl alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution B: conc. HCL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution C: chloroform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: Purple color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fast blue B Test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution A: fast blue B salt and anhydrous sodium sulphate(1:40) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution B: chloroform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution C: .1N aq. NaOH soln </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: purple red color </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>TLC </li></ul><ul><li>INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HPLC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FTIR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GCMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H-NMR </li></ul></ul>Contd…
  19. 24. references <ul><li>Encyclopedia of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic substances; Giri Raj Shah </li></ul><ul><li>Handbook of CNS agents and local anesthetics; Matthew Verderane </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens- A Forensic Drug Handbook; edited by Richard R Laing, Jay A Siegel </li></ul><ul><li>Clarke’s isolation and identification of drugs in pharmaceutical body fluids and postmortem material- A. C Moffat </li></ul><ul><li>Essentials of Medical Pharmacology; 5 th edition, KD Tripathi </li></ul><ul><li>Modi’s Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology; edited by BV Subrahmanyam </li></ul><ul><li>Toxicology-A case oriented approach; by John Joseph Fenton </li></ul><ul><li>Casarett and Doulls Toxicology- The Basic Science of Poisons; edited by John Doull, Curtiss D Klassen, Mary O Amdur </li></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology;2 nd edition, Krishnan Vij </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> drug report.html </li></ul>Contd…