Encouraging Critical Reading


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Lecture on Critical Reading from the article of Rosane Correia of Brazil

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  • Encouraging Critical Reading

    1. 1. Encouraging Critical Reading in the EFL Classroom By: Rosane Correia Brazil
    2. 2. What is critical reading? <ul><li>► to read critically involves becoming actively engaged in what we read by first developing a clear understanding of the author’s ideas, then questioning and evaluating the arguments and evidence provided to support those arguments, and finally by forming our own opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>► One must actively recognize and analyze evidence upon the page. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Critical reader vs. Non-critical reader <ul><li>Critical reader </li></ul><ul><li>Any single text provides but one portrayal of the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize not only what a text says but also how that text portrays the subject matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-critical reader </li></ul><ul><li>Text provide facts </li></ul><ul><li>Readers gain knowledge by memorizing the statements within a text. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Most Frequent types of Reading comprehension exercises: <ul><li>Multiple Choice </li></ul><ul><li>True-false statements </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary work </li></ul>
    5. 5. Merits on these tasks: <ul><li>Easy for teachers to check whether understand the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to mark. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Reasons not to use this reading activity <ul><li>Encourage passive reading behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>(Davies,1995) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Do not encourage students to read between the lines or question the veracity and source of the information. </li></ul><ul><li>(Tomitch,2000) </li></ul><ul><li>3. These tasks generally refer to parts of the text, not to the text as a whole . </li></ul>
    7. 7. 4. Tasks neither challenging nor fun, especially young learners. <ul><li>Aim of this article: </li></ul><ul><li>To present an alternative possibilities for reading activities through sample reading lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Help students to become a more active and more critical readers. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Two Kinds of Reading Activities (Davies,1995) <ul><li>Passive Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Active Reading </li></ul>
    9. 9. Passive Reading Tasks: <ul><li>Offer limited potential for learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves Silent Reading to respond to: </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple choice </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial comprehension questions </li></ul><ul><li>Gap filling exercises </li></ul><ul><li>True-false statements </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary work </li></ul>
    10. 10. What is active reading task? <ul><li>It requires students to go beyond a superficial reading of the text to read between the lines </li></ul><ul><li>to work in pairs Involve students or groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks considered active may include creating diagrams and filling in tables. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Grabe (1997,6) stated <ul><li>“ Making use of diagrams and tables when reading texts, students better understand the coherence and logic of the information being presented, and as a consequence, will be able to locate the main ideas and distinguish them from less important information.” </li></ul>
    12. 12. Other Kinds of Active reading (Davies,1995) <ul><li>* Book reviews </li></ul><ul><li>* Summary writing </li></ul><ul><li>* Notetaking </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Active reading enables students to interact with the text and each other </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher plays the role of facilitator rather than inquisitor. </li></ul><ul><li>Active reading tasks encourage readers to voice their own opinions about the text and discuss those opinions. </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Students contextualize reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the readers to see the text as part of a broader social context that includes the writer and the readers .(Tomitch,2000) </li></ul>
    15. 15. IMROVING CRITICAL READING: A CASE STUDY <ul><li>HUCKIN ( 1997 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Student </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson </li></ul>age interest relevant profitable
    16. 16. AUTHENTIC MATERIALS: *newspapers and magazines <ul><li>BROWN ( 1994)- THREE PHASES TO THE TEACHING OF READING </li></ul><ul><li>pre-reading discussion - introducing the topic </li></ul><ul><li>while-reading tasks - set of instructions ( purpose and guide) </li></ul><ul><li>post-reading exercises - activities </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>PROCEDURE: </li></ul><ul><li>pre-reading activity - students were asked to prepare in groups two questions they thought would be answered in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>TOMITCH ( 2000) “ ReQuest” or “Reciprocal Questioning” </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>while-reading activity - required the students to read the article for the purpose of answering the questions they had raised. </li></ul><ul><li>Post - reading activity- wrote on the board three questions which had to do with the author’s choice of verb tenses and words used in the text. </li></ul>
    19. 19. CONCLUSION: <ul><li>The major benefit of the lesson on critical reading described here was the high level of enthusiastic student participation. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Questions to help Develop Critical Reading Skills <ul><li>General questions for the analysis of the text </li></ul><ul><li>1. Where and when was the text written? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Why was it written? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What is the text about? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What genre in the text? </li></ul><ul><li>5. who is the text addressed to? Who are its probable readers? </li></ul><ul><li>6. Does the author establish an interactive, friendly relationship with the readers or is she/he distant, formal and impersonal? </li></ul><ul><li>7. are there elements of promotional discourse, such as positive evaluative words? </li></ul>
    21. 21. Lexical Choice <ul><li>1. What kind of vocabulary predominates in the text? (Are there formal, technical words or informal and colloquial expressions?) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Does the vocabulary appeal to emotions, or is it logical and argumentative? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Are there words that are ideologically significant? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What metaphors are used? What purposes do they serve in the text? </li></ul>
    22. 22. Grammar <ul><li>1. What verb tenses are used and why? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Which subjects are described using the passive or active voice and why? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Are the agents of the actions explicit or implicit? </li></ul>
    23. 23. Visual Elements <ul><li>1. What visual resources are used beside the text ( colors, symbols, fgures)? </li></ul><ul><li>2. In what ways do the illustrations relate to the text? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What sociocultural aspects can be identified in the visual signs? </li></ul>
    24. 24. Gender Issues <ul><li>1. Does the text contain signs of asymmetry in male-female relationships? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Are there traces of sexism? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Are there signs of stereotyped attitudes? </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>That would be all and Thank you for listening with us! </li></ul><ul><li>Gemma and Edz </li></ul>