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INTERNET AND ITS IMPACT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE

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INTERNET AND ITS IMPACT ON
STUDENT PERFORMANCE
by arshad ahmed saeed...

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INTERNET AND ITS IMPACT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e INTERNET AND ITS IMPACT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE by: Arshad Ahmed Saeed Submitted to: Mr. Shafiullah Qureshi Course: Research Method For Business (ECO-515) Class: MSc Economics (2nd Semester) (Morning) Department of Economics National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad **********
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e ACKNOWLEDGE First of all we thanks to ALMIGHTY ALLAH, who able us to avail this opportunity to conduct a survey and conclude a minor report which might help our country’s betterment in respect of society. We also appreciate the contribution of students, colleagues and general public as well to be a part of our research. Last but not the least and the most important as well, our parents who grew up to that level where we can stand and deliver the best.
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages Acknowledge…………………………………………………………………… 2 Table of Contents…................................................................................................3 List of Appendices..........................................................................................…....5 Abstract…………………………………………………………………………...6 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………7 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………….....9 CHAPTER THREE DEFINITION OF PROBLEM …………………………………………………...13 CHAPTER FOUR THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK………………………………………………...14 4.1 Schematic Diagram……………………………………………………………15 CHAPTER FIVE HYPOTHESES………………………………………………………………….....17 CHAPTER SIX RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………..18 6.1 Description of Data…………………………………………………………….18 6.2 Description of Variables……………………………………………………….18 6.3 Estimation Technique………………………………………………………….18
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e 6.3.1 Model……………………………………………………………………19 6.3.2 Explanation……………………………………………………………...19 CHAPTER SEVEN RESULT INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION……………………………..20 7.1 Interpretation…………………………………………………………………..20 7.1.1 Coefficients……………………………………………………………...21 7.1.2 ANOVA ………………………………………………………………....23 7.1.3 Model Summary ………………………………………………………...24 CHAPTER EIGHT CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………….....25 7.0 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………..26 8.0 APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………..…28
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A ………...............................................................................................................26 Appendix B …………………………………………………………………………………33 Appendix C …………………………………………………………………………………34 Appendix D ……….………………………………………………………………………...35
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e ABSTRACT we collected data on several variables of interest using questionnaire. The subjects are the comparative analysis of internet and its impact on student performance. A regression model is developed to measure the impact of independent variables (education, social status, cooperation of teachers and trainer, risk and uncertainty, validity and reliability) on dependent variable (internet usage). This model is estimated by using ordinary least squares (OLS) approach.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Internet has become need of every one. When we want to connect two computers we need internet. Internet is a mean of connecting two computers from all over the world through rooters and servers. When we connect two computers with internet it can send and receive all kind of data or information like text, videos, pictures, and other computer programs. Internet is hold by any organization but there are so many organizations which can collaborate with each other for the functioning and development of the internet. Through the fast speed fiber optic cable which is also known as backbone of internet data travels from the cable is owned by telephone companies of their respective countries. The internet was introduced from the advance research project agency wide area network (which is called ARPANET) which is established by the US department of defense in 1960. Later on other universities and US institution are connected with it. This result in ARPANET has grown and gets the name internet. There are so many advantages of internet. Whatever is the subject we can get all type of information through special web site. Medical gaudiness on different diseases is get from specialist and online Consultants are also available on internet. Information about job Opportunities are also taken from internet. Communication is also very important advantage of using internet. People living all over the world can easily communicate with 1
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e each other through internet. With the development in the modern technology we can also see each other through web camera. Through this facility people live all over the world will become closer to each other. On line training from several web sites of different colleges and schools are offered on internet in your Personal computer. This is a great benefit for the students and especially for those people who don’t have time to go outside and join an institution. Encyclopedia is also very important facility of internet for everyone. We take all kind of information on any topic. Online railway and airplanes schedules are also taking from the internet Advertisement and entertainment are very major advantage of Internet. We can watch our favorite programs any time on the internet. Internet is very helpful especially for the students in their studies. They can get knowledge about their different research products especially on those topics on which data is not available easily on books. Everything has its advantages and disadvantages. Internet also has so many disadvantages for example theft of information our personal information like credit card numbers, address, etc are misused by the people through unsecured connection or by different software for their personal benefit that lend you in big trouble. Social disconnect is also very big disadvantage of using internet. People will spend their most of time on internet, due to this people can waste their lots of time and they cannot spend their time on any good activity. Internet addiction is not good for health because of using late night internet people cannot take their proper sleep and that causes so many health problems.
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e CHAPTER LITERATURE REVIEW Internet is now a day’s becoming more accessible to all social economic people and across Populations. Internet is a source of information and entertainment but vast majority of people belongs to different regions are madly addicted to this technology, in which young generation, men and women are also involved. About 9-15million People are growing to use internet per day (cooper, Mclonghlin and compell, 2000). Access of Internet has becoming more wide spread; it is becoming more affordable, and also more comfortable. Internet is spreading all over the world, its user increasing day by day, and that mostly the user are using internet for positive purpose, that is a good sign for the technology usage. All the developed countries have made huge advancement in this industry with a motive of huge profit (madan, 1987). Because their all profit and advancement in technology, industry, Finance, social sectors, and all other are progressed because of their improvement in and High investment in this technology that is internet. They base their lives on internet; all activities must have some concern with internet, so for them it is no possible to live without internet that’s why they have more concern to the advancement of this technology, in order to improve their life cycle. Not only in advance country but internet is also in boom in developing countries. Gulzar(2001) observe, that internet is growing well in Pakistan but 2
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e there is great need to Provide this facility to all working people. Accordingly in Pakistan there are 300 million Internet subscribers that are growing day-by-day. The categories that are united with access to internet are research institutes, students, government bodies, researchers, offices and Universities. After the revolution in the world of telecom, government of Pakistan also defines some objectives for this sector: (i)For the betterment of social, cultural and environmental development in Pakistan, we should Improve our infrastructure of telecom. (ii) Encouragement of all initiatives committed to improve telecom. (iii) Protection of consumer interest. Students are unique population of internet users. The first group that use internet for communication, file share and recreation are also students. All students and their Teachers find internet a useful and convenient for educational activities (Jones, 2002) borrows, Lavined and kubey(2001) formed that about 68% of parents and 70% of teachers said that they have shelter higher grades of students because of internet usage. Internet is appeared to use in many fields like studies, educational purposes, business, appointments, browsing and also for entertainment. kaur(2006) and follows (2004)found that about 69% of the Users are using internet only for entertainment purpose. Because entertainment is also important for human, and now a days because of internet it become easy, and less expensive and access able to everyone. This is also one of the causes to extensive use of this technology. Basically internet makes our life easy, that create link between different culture and Communities, in a good way that connect people and to find educational resources (Gardner, D’Esposito 1999; Aydin2007). World become a global
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e village only because of internet, now we have know about all culture, trends, languages, even about small nation. Internet decrease the distance between countries, families, and religions. Resources are also being utilized by this technology; internet also is the factor that helps us to access other planets and to get information about them even without stepping in. Fallows (2004) observe that internet can also be use for scholarity purpose, contact information, purchase of travel tickets, communication and entertainment. This shows the contribution and the importance of internet in our lives, that our shopping, eating, leisure activities, working and social interaction all are becoming more and more dependent upon internet. This reflect an important issue that internet is day by increasing its influence on our lives. But ratio of usage of internet varies from country to country, in a sense we can say that the ways or the purposes varies in different reasons. Mostly Developed countries are dependent upon advance technology, they are using advance technology even for their daily activities, like reading newspaper, ordering meal, connecting people, and also getting information about their flight, bus or train timing. This is not possible that all information on internet is reliable or safe sturges(2002) and weitzner(2007) mention the unreliability of available information On internet. Pirated literature, fake, misrepresented cause problems for students and Researchers. Many users may have privacy concern. There are sites that many users find in affective as well as instructions for carrying out illegal acts and violent. Internet is worldwide network. the increasing number of people that are using internet for the purpose of exploring information that have multiple implication for research, Learning and teaching. Students and teachers are becoming more and more depended On internet for the purpose of education, but if the information gained by the student or teacher
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e is not reliable than it is cause a great problem for the receiver as well as for the one who get the information, as it create confusion, and also a source of misleading information that is extremely dangerous. This aspect is increasing as fake id’s fake profiles, fake site and all these are for the purpose of misleading, and diminishing the reliability of internet. According to Horrigan (2000), the survey is conducted especially for the purpose to observe the effectiveness of internet for the purpose of education. since mid-90’s internet had a tremendous impact on commerce and culture including the rise of instant communication, phone calls, e-mails, instant messaging and world wide web. It was estimated during 199o’s` that traffic in internet grew by 100% per year ,on the other hand annual growth of internet user was 2.095billion that mean 30.2% of world population.
  13. 13. 13 | P a g e CHAPTER Definition of problem Research Question: What are the internet usage problems and their impact on student performance? Problemstatement: “Internet Usage and Its Impact on Student Performance” 3
  14. 14. 14 | P a g e CHAPTER THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The dependant variable is internet usage, which is our primary interest. We attempt to explain this dependent variable by independent variables:  Education  Social Status (expenses)  Co operation of Teachers and Trainers  Risk and Uncertainty  Validity and Reliability These independent variables have some effect on our dependent variables whether positive or negative. Education is the variable that effect internet usage in positive way. People having higher level of education use internet for work purpose like searching information, research, enhancing their knowledge. They use this facility in their work places that might help them in application of knowledge and skill level. Students also become aware, how to use internet for Research purpose and also for personal communication. Students can access the Internet at their homes, schools and also in public libraries. Internet is also a valuable tool used by the teachers also. Through the use of internet, teachers can allow their students to access their point of view and new information. There are also several tools that provide particular use of planning and teaching techniques. 4
  15. 15. 15 | P a g e SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM Relationship of the independent and dependent variable Dependent Variables Independent Variables Internet Usage Education Social Status Co operation of Teachers Risk & Uncertainty Validity & Reliability
  16. 16. 16 | P a g e Expenses affect the usage of internet negatively, as countries like Pakistan who are not prosperous enough to enjoy the technology as other countries do. These countries lack the satisfaction and advantages by using such facilities like internet. Moreover countries where poor people are in large number, internet user are also less in number. Whenever the expenses of internet increase, there is a decline in the usage of internet. The internet has also become all pervasive in lives of people, from this people review, study that examines and investigates the positive and negative aspect of online behavior. The result Negative of online risk like addition, but there also provide benefits n developing physical and social relations as well as health inventions will be examined. Risk concerning internet is harmful both for social life as well as health issues. So, risk affects the use of internet negatively. Validity and reliability are the basic aspect that has a relationship with usage of internet. The unreliability of information causes the negative affect and adds a negative point beyond advantages of this technology. There are many websites available on internet but not all are valid, it might mislead us, and spoil our concept regarding any concerning issue. This factor is extremely dangerous for the internet user. On the other hand information that is valid and reliable can be a major factor that can increase the usage of internet.
  17. 17. 17 | P a g e CHAPTER HYPOTHESES H0: There is an association between education of the students and usage of internet. H1: There is no association between education of the students and usage of internet. H2: There is an association between social status and uses of internet. H3: There is no association between social status and uses of internet. H4: Risk and uncertainty is harmful for social life and health issues H5: Risk and uncertainty is not harmful for social life and health issues. H6: Validity and reliability can increase the uses of internet. H7: Validity and reliability can decrease the uses of internet. H8: When internet expenses increases the use of internet decreases. H9: When internet expenses decreases the use of internet increases. H10: There is an association between cooperation of teachers and usage of internet. 5
  18. 18. 18 | P a g e H11: Cooperation of teacher can reduce the usage of internet. H12: When education increases the use of internet also increases.
  19. 19. 19 | P a g e CHAPTER RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 6.1. Description of Data: Yi= f (X1i, X2i, X3i, X4i, X5i) Y= Dependent factor X1i= Variable factor X2i= Variable factor X3i= Variable factor X4i= Variable factor X5i= Variable factor Functional form: Yi=β0+ β1X1i+β2X2i+β3X3i+β4X4i+β5X5i β1>0 β2>0 β3>0 β4>0 β5>0 6.2. Descriptionof Variables: Yi is the dependent variable and also variable of main interest which depend upon all variable factors which are describe in the model. Yi is the usage of internet which dependent upon X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5. X1 is the education, X2 is the social status (expenses), X3 is the cooperation of 6
  20. 20. 20 | P a g e teachers and trainers, X4 is the risk and uncertainty and X5 is the validity and reliability. 6.3. Estimation Technique: OLS method is used to estimate the data. Regression is run which show the impact of independent variable on dependent variable.
  21. 21. 21 | P a g e MODEL: (+ve) (-ve) (+ve) (-ve) (-) (+ve) EXPLANATION: All variable factors have some positive or negative impact on the dependent factor. Education is having positive effect on the dependent factor. If X1 increase it will increase Y. If X2 increase it will have negative impact on Y if X2 increase other will decrease if it increases Y will decrease. X3 and X5 have also positive impact on Y. if X3 and X5 increases it will also increases Y. X4 have negative effect on Y. To control internet usage we have to do some effort to decrease X1, X3, X5, and increase X2, X4. Education X1 Social Status X2 Internet Usage Yi Cooperation of teachers X3 Risk and uncertainty X4 Validity and reliability X5
  22. 22. 22 | P a g e CHAPTER RESULT INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION The regression model is estimated via SPSS, statistical package for the social sciences. The estimated results are given below: So estimated regression line is: Yi=β0+ β1X1i+β2X2i+β3X3i+β4X4i+β5X5i INTERPRETATION: β0 This is called intercept and it can be interpreted as if all independent variables (education, social status, cooperation of teachers, risk and uncertainty, validity and reliability) are zero, the value of internet usage is 3.877 on average. The standard error of intercept is 1.092 and t-statistic is 3.550 with p-value almost zero, indicating that intercept is significant. β1 This is the coefficient of X1 (education). It shows that a unit increase in 7
  23. 23. 23 | P a g e education causes a 0.462 units decrease in internet usage while keeping the effect of all other four independent variables (social status, cooperation of teachers, risk and uncertainty, validity and reliability) fixed. The standard error of this is 0.158 and t-statistic is -2.930 with p-value less than 1%. So null hypothesis is rejected and we say that ‘education’ variable is significant. Also negative sign of coefficient shows that ‘education’ variable is negatively related with the internet usage. β2 This is the coefficient of X2 (social status). It shows that a unit increase in social status causes a 0.116 units increase in internet usage while keeping the effect of all other four independent variables (education, cooperation of teachers, risk and uncertainty, validity and reliability) fixed. The standard error of this is 0.162 and t-statistic is 0.716 with p-value closer to 1%. So null hypothesis is not rejected and we say that ‘social status’ variable is insignificant. Also positive sign of coefficient shows that ‘social status’ variable is positively related with the internet usage. β3 This is the coefficient of X3 (cooperation of teachers). It shows that a unit increase in cooperation of teacher causes a 0.190 units decrease in internet usage while keeping the effect of all other four independent variables (education, social status, risk and uncertainty, validity and reliability) fixed. The standard error of this is 0.211 and t-statistic is -0.898 with p-value closer to 1%. So null hypothesis is not rejected and we say that ‘cooperation of teacher’ variable is insignificant. Also negative sign of coefficient shows that ‘cooperation of teachers’ variable is negatively related with the internet usage. β4 This is the coefficient of X4 (risk and uncertainty). It shows that a unit increase in risk and uncertainty causes a 0.179 units increase in internet usage while
  24. 24. 24 | P a g e keeping the effect of all other four independent variables (education, social status, cooperation of teachers, validity and reliability) fixed. The standard error of this is 0.162 and t-statistic is 1.110 with p-value closer to 1%. So null hypothesis is not rejected and we say that ‘risk and uncertainty’ variable is insignificant. Also positive sign of coefficient shows that ‘risk and uncertainty’ variable is positively related with the internet usage. β5 This is the coefficient of X5 (validity and reliability). It shows that a unit increase in validity and reliability causes a 0.502 units decrease in internet usage while keeping the effect of all other four independent variables (education, social status, cooperation of teachers, risk and uncertainty) fixed. The standard error of this is 0.147 and t-statistic is -3.411 with p-value almost zero. So null hypothesis is rejected and we say that ‘validity and reliability’ variable is significant. Also negative sign of coefficient shows that ‘validity and reliability’ variable is negatively related with the internet usage.
  25. 25. 25 | P a g e F-statistic (four variables): This is used to test for overall significance of repressors’. The calculated value of F-statistic is 2.876 with a p-value almost zero indicating that all variables are jointly significant at F4, 25 and we concluded that all four independent variables are jointly important in explaining the usage of internet. F-statistic (fifth variable as moderating variable): This is used to test for overall significance of repressors’. The calculated value of F-statistic is 5.607 with a p-value almost zero indicating that all variables are jointly significant at F5, 24 and we concluded that all five independent variables are jointly important in explaining the usage of internet. ANOVA Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 14.959 4 3.740 2.876 .044a Residual 32.508 25 1.300 Total 47.467 29 2 Regression 25.573 5 5.115 5.607 .001b Residual 21.893 24 .912 Total 47.467 29 a. Predictors: (Constant), ATT2, SOC4, FAC1, ANX3 b. Predictors: (Constant), ATT2, SOC4, FAC1, ANX3, SOC2 c. Dependent Variable: PER4
  26. 26. 26 | P a g e Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .561a .315 .206 1.140 2 .734b .539 .443 .955 a. Predictors:(Constant), ATT2, SOC4, FAC1, ANX3 b. Predictors: (Constant), ATT2, SOC4, FAC1, ANX3, SOC2 R2 (Coefficient of Determination): R2 measures the proportion of total variation in dependent variable (internet usage) explained by independent variables (education, social status, cooperation of teachers, risk and uncertainty, validity and reliability). Here R2 is 0.539, so this shows that 54 percent of variation in internet usage is explained by all five independent variables. Adjusted R2 : The term adjusted means adjusted for the df associated with the sums of squares entering into RSS and TSS. ∑ûi 2 has (n-k) df in a model involving k parameters,
  27. 27. 27 | P a g e Which include the intercept term, and ∑yi 2 has (n-1) df. Adjusted R2 also measures the proportion of total variation in dependent variable (internet usage) explained by independent variables (education, social status, cooperation of teachers, risk and uncertainty, validity and reliability). Here Adjusted R2 is 0.443, so this shows that 44 percent of variation in internet usage is explained by all five independent variables.
  28. 28. 28 | P a g e CHAPTER Conclusion now we conclude after research that after research that internet usage is more in teenagers as well as youngster and elders. So this shows that the internet usage is more in teenagers and there is need to overcome it. As our independent variables are education, social status, cooperation of teachers, risk and uncertainty, validity and reliability. So from research we come to know that our most important variable is teacher cooperation as it helps to reduce internet usage and can improve student performance. 8
  29. 29. 29 | P a g e APPENDIX Appendix includes two subsections, first is appendix 1, which includes questionnaire while second subsection is appendix 2, which includes estimation results obtained by estimating regression model using OLS method. Appendix A: Questionnaire Department of Economics National University of Modern Languages Islamabad Dearrespondents: This research is being carried out in partial fulfillment of the requirements for M.SC Degree at Economics Department,NUML University, Islamabad. This questionnaire is designed to measure use of internet and its impact on student performance. There is no right or wrong answer; we are only interested in your views. You are not required to provide your personal information so please be frank and honest. PERSONAL PROFILE 1. What is your age? _______ years old 2. What is your gender? ____1.Male ____2. Female 3. What is your race/ethnicity?
  30. 30. 30 | P a g e ____1. Pakistani ____2. Chinese ____3. Indian ____4. Others _________________(please specify) 4. What is your nationality? ____1. Pakistani ____2. Others _________________ (please specify) 5. What is your year of study? ____1. First year ____2. Second year ____3. Third year ____4. Fourth year and above 6. What programmed are you registered for? ____1. Bachelor’s degree (undergraduate) ____2. Masters ____3. PhD 7. What is the status of your candidacy? ____1. Part time ____2. Full time
  31. 31. 31 | P a g e 8. Which school/faculty are you from? ___________________________ 9. Do you live in or outside campus? ____1. In campus ____2. Outside campus 10. What is your current CGPA level? ____________________________ INTERNET EXPERIENCE 11. How long (in years or months if less than 1 year) have you been using the internet? _____________________ 12. Do you have internet access at home? ____1. Yes ____2. No 13. Where do you primarily access internet from? ____1. Home ____2. Place of employment ____3. School/academic institution ____4. Cybercafé ____5. Others (please specify) _____________________ 14. Which web browser do you usually use? ____1. Internet Explorer ____2. Mozilla Firefox ____3. Others (please specify) _____________________ ____4. More than one browser 15. On an average day, how much time do you spend using the internet?
  32. 32. 32 | P a g e ____1. Almost never ____2. Less than 0.5 hours ____3. From 0.5 hours to 1 hour ____4. 1-2 hours ____5. 2-3 hours ____6. More than 3 hours 16. On average,how often do you use internet? ____1. Less than once a month ____2. Once a month ____3. A few times a month ____4. A few times a week ____5. About once a day ____6. Severaltimes a day
  33. 33. 33 | P a g e Use of internet and its impact on student performance Instructions: Please read each question carefully and respond to all questions to the best of your Item code Description of items 1-Strongly Disagree (SD) 2-Disagree (D) 3-Neutral (N) 4-Agree(A) 5-Strongly Agree(SA) PER1 I would find internet useful in my studies. 1 2 3 4 5 PER2 Using internet will enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly. 1 2 3 4 5 PER3 Using internet will increase my productivity. 1 2 3 4 5 PER4 Using internet will increase my chances of getting better grades (CGPA). 1 2 3 4 5 EFF1 I believe I could communicate to others the pros and cons of using internet. 1 2 3 4 5 EFF2 I want to have a great deal of opportunity to try out various Internet applications. 1 2 3 4 5 EFF3 I would find internet easy to use. 1 2 3 4 5 EFF4 Other people come to me for advice on new information. 1 2 3 4 5 SOC1 People who influence my behavior (e.g. course mates, friends) think that I should use internet. 1 2 3 4 5 SOC2 People who are important to me (e.g. family members) think that I should use internet. 1 2 3 4 5 SOC3 Lecturers in my school have been encouraging in the use of internet. 1 2 3 4 5
  34. 34. 34 | P a g e Item code Description of items 1-Strongly Disagree (SD) 2-Disagree (D) 3-Neutral (N) 4-Agree(A) 5-Strongly Agree(SA) SOC4 In general, the university has supported the use of internet. 1 2 3 4 5 FAC1 I find that I have fewer problems than my course mates/friends due to use of internet. 1 2 3 4 5 FAC2 I have the knowledge necessary to use internet. 1 2 3 4 5 FAC3 Using the internet would be pleasant experience. 1 2 3 4 5 FAC4 A specific person (or group) is available for assistance should I encounter difficulties with the internet. 1 2 3 4 5 I could complete my studies or task using internet... SEF1 … If there was no one around to tell me what to do as I go. 1 2 3 4 5 SEF2 … If I could call someone for help if I got stuck. 1 2 3 4 5 SEF3 … If I had a lot of time to complete the task for which the internet was provided. 1 2 3 4 5 SEF4 … If I had just the built-in help facility for assistance. 1 2 3 4 5 ANX1 I feelapprehensive about using internet. 1 2 3 4 5 ANX2 I enjoy the challenge of figuring out new information. 1 2 3 4 5 ANX3 I hesitate to use internet for fear of making mistakes I cannot correct. 1 2 3 4 5 ANX4 Internet is somewhat intimidating to me. 1 2 3 4 5 INV1 Other people come to me for advice on new information. 1 2 3 4 5 INV2 I am among the first in my circle of friends to acquire new technology when it appears in the market. 1 2 3 4 5 INV3 I can usually figure out new high-tech products and services without help from others. 1 2 3 4 5 INV4 I keep up with the latest technological developments in my area of interest. 1 2 3 4 5 INV5 I enjoy the challenge of figuring out high-tech gadgets on internet. 1 2 3 4 5
  35. 35. 35 | P a g e Item code Description of items 1-Strongly Disagree (SD) 2-Disagree (D) 3-Neutral (N) 4-Agree(A) 5-Strongly Agree(SA) INV6 I find that I have fewer problems than my course mates/friends do in making technology work for me. 1 2 3 4 5 ATT1 Using the internet would be a good idea. 1 2 3 4 5 ATT2 Using the internet would make studies more interesting. 1 2 3 4 5 ATT3 Using the internet is fun. 1 2 3 4 5 ATT4 I would like using the internet. 1 2 3 4 5 INT1 Assuming I have the internet, I intend to use it. 1 2 3 4 5 INT2 Whenever possible, I intend to use the internet. 1 2 3 4 5 INT3 To the extent possible, I would use the internet to do different things. 1 2 3 4 5 INT4 I intend to increase my use of the internet in the future. 1 2 3 4 5
  36. 36. 36 | P a g e Appendix B: Variables Entered/Removed Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 ATT2, SOC4, FAC1, ANX3a . Enter 2 SOC2a . Enter a. All requested variables entered.
  37. 37. 37 | P a g e Appendix C: Excluded Variables Model Beta In t Sig. Partial Correlation Collinearity Statistics Tolerance 1 SOC2 -.512a -3.411 .002 -.571 .852 a. Predictors in the Model: (Constant), ATT2, SOC4, FAC1, ANX3 b. Dependent Variable: PER4
  38. 38. 38 | P a g e Appendix D: Description of constructs used in the questionnaire Item no. Variable name Source No. of Items PER1, PER2, PER3, PER4 Performance Expectancy Venkatesh et al. (2003) 4 EFF1, EFF2, EFF3, EFF4 Effort Expectancy Venkatesh et al. (2003) 4 SOC1, SOC2, SOC3, SOC4 Social Influence Venkatesh et al. (2003) 4 FAC1, FAC2, FAC3, FAC4 Facilitating Conditions Venkatesh et al. (2003) 4 SEF1, SEF2, SEF3, SEF4 Self-Efficacy Venkatesh et al. (2003) 4 ANX1, ANX2, ANX3, ANX4 Anxiety Venkatesh et al. (2003) 4 INV1, INV2, INV3, INV4, INV5, INV6 Innovativeness Parasuraman (2000) 6 ATT1, ATT2, ATT3, ATT4 Attitude towards Using Internet Venkatesh et al. (2003) 4 INT1, INT2, INT3, INT4 Intention to Use Internet Park & Chen (2007) 4

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