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Anatomical landmarks


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Anatomical landmarks

  1. 1. Anatomical landmarksAnatomical landmarks
  2. 2. IntroductionIntroduction M.M Devan Dictum “Aim of a prosthodontist isM.M Devan Dictum “Aim of a prosthodontist isnot only the meticulous replacement of what isnot only the meticulous replacement of what ismissing, but also perpetual preservation ofmissing, but also perpetual preservation ofwhat is present”what is present” Complete denture must function in harmonyComplete denture must function in harmonywith the remaining natural tissues so for thewith the remaining natural tissues so for thesuccess, a through knowledge of the anatomysuccess, a through knowledge of the anatomyis a a must.
  3. 3. Maxillary landmarksMaxillary landmarks1.1. Labial frenumLabial frenum2.2. Labial vestibuleLabial vestibule3.3. Buccal frenumBuccal frenum4.4. Buccal vestibuleBuccal vestibule5.5. Distobuccal sulcusDistobuccal sulcus6.6. Alveolar ridgeAlveolar ridge7.7. TuberosityTuberosity8.8. Hamular notchHamular notch9.9. Hard palate (flat portions)Hard palate (flat portions)10.10. Fovea palataniFovea palatani11.11. Mid palatine sutureMid palatine suture12.12. Incissive papillaeIncissive papillae13.13. RugaeRugae
  4. 4. Labial frenumLabial frenum Single band of fibrousSingle band of fibrousconnective tissueconnective tissue Properly relievedProperly relieved
  5. 5. Labial vestibuleLabial vestibule Extends from labial frenumExtends from labial frenumto buccal buccal frenum. Proper lip support should beProper lip support should beprovided.provided.
  6. 6. Buccal frenumBuccal frenum Consist of one or moreConsist of one or morebands.bands. RelievedRelieved Influenced by 3 musclesInfluenced by 3 musclesOrbicularis oris (forward)Orbicularis oris (forward)Buccinator (backward)Buccinator (backward)Caninus (position)Caninus (position)
  7. 7. Buccal vestibuleBuccal vestibule Buccal frenum to hamularBuccal frenum to hamularnotchnotch Influenced byInfluenced byBuccinatorBuccinatorModiolusModiolusCoronid process of mandibleCoronid process of mandible
  8. 8. Alveolar ridgeAlveolar ridge Ridge left after the extractionRidge left after the extractionof teeth.of teeth. Mucosa is firmly attached toMucosa is firmly attached tothe periosteum of the bone.the periosteum of the bone. Consist of dense collagenous fibers.Consist of dense collagenous fibers.
  9. 9. Maxillary tuberosityMaxillary tuberosity Posterior convexityPosterior convexity Combination syndromeCombination syndrome
  10. 10. Hamular notchHamular notch Pterygomaxillary notchPterygomaxillary notch Distal extension of dentureDistal extension of denture Identifying the PPS area.Identifying the PPS area. Situated between the tuberosity andSituated between the tuberosity andhamulus of the medial pterygoid plate.hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate.
  11. 11. Hard palateHard palate Flat areas as secondaryFlat areas as secondaryretentive areas.retentive areas. U shaped palateU shaped palate Flat palate (not good support)Flat palate (not good support) V shaped palate (least favorable)V shaped palate (least favorable)
  12. 12. Fovea palatineFovea palatine Formed by coalescence ofFormed by coalescence ofseveral mucous gland ducts.several mucous gland ducts. Landmark for location ofLandmark for location ofvibrating line.vibrating line.
  13. 13. Mid palatine sutureMid palatine suture Junction of palatine processJunction of palatine processof maxilla.of maxilla. Covered by a thin mucosaCovered by a thin mucosa Slightly elevated or raisedSlightly elevated or raised Proper relief required.Proper relief required.
  14. 14. Incisive papillaeIncisive papillae Pad of fiberous connectivePad of fiberous connectivetissue over incisive foramentissue over incisive foramen Proper relief should be given.Proper relief should be given. Aid in arrangement of anterior teeth andAid in arrangement of anterior teeth andjaw relation.jaw relation.
  15. 15. RugaeRugae Resist the horizontal forcesResist the horizontal forcesagainst the denture.against the denture. Should not be overShould not be overcompressed.compressed.
  16. 16. Mandibular land marksMandibular land marks1.1. Labial frenumLabial frenum2.2. Labial vestibuleLabial vestibule3.3. Buccal frenumBuccal frenum4.4. Buccal vestibuleBuccal vestibule5.5. Buccal shelf areaBuccal shelf area6.6. Retromolar padRetromolar pad7.7. Pear shaped padPear shaped pad8.8. Lingual frenumLingual frenum9.9. Lingual vestibuleLingual vestibule
  17. 17. Labial frenumLabial frenum Single narrow bandSingle narrow band Usually shorter andUsually shorter andwider than maxillary.wider than maxillary.
  18. 18. Labial vestibuleLabial vestibule Between labial andBetween labial andbuccal frenumbuccal frenum Support to the lower lip.Support to the lower lip.
  19. 19. Buccal frenumBuccal frenum Single or more bands.Single or more bands. More clearance requiredMore clearance required
  20. 20. Buccal vestibuleBuccal vestibule Extend up to externalExtend up to externaloblique ridge.oblique ridge. Denture borders mayDenture borders mayoverextend in this regionoverextend in this region
  21. 21. Buccal shelf areaBuccal shelf area It is the primary stressIt is the primary stressbearing area.bearing area. Consist of thick corticalConsist of thick corticalbone & dense connectivebone & dense connectivetissuetissue
  22. 22. Retromolar pad areaRetromolar pad area Forms the distal end ofForms the distal end ofthe denture.the denture. Consist of looseConsist of looseconnective tissueconnective tissue
  23. 23. Pear shaped padPear shaped pad Aggregation of mucousAggregation of mucousglands and loose,glands and loose,connective tissue.connective tissue. Formed after residualFormed after residualscar of third molar.scar of third molar. Muscle attachmentsMuscle attachmentsPosteriorly – temporalis tendonsPosteriorly – temporalis tendonsLaterally – buccinatorLaterally – buccinatorMedially – pterygomandibular raphe and superiorMedially – pterygomandibular raphe and superiorconstrictor of pharynx.constrictor of pharynx.
  24. 24. Lingual frenumLingual frenum Fibrous band of tissueFibrous band of tissuethat overlies genioglossusthat overlies genioglossus Proper clearance requiredProper clearance required
  25. 25. Lingual vestibuleLingual vestibule Divided into threeDivided into threeAnterior vestibuleAnterior vestibuleMiddle vestibuleMiddle vestibuleDistolingual vestibuleDistolingual vestibule
  26. 26. AnteriorAnterior Also called sublingual crescent areaAlso called sublingual crescent area Structures presentStructures presentGenioglossus musclesGenioglossus musclesLingual frenumLingual frenumAnterior portion of sublingual glandAnterior portion of sublingual gland
  27. 27. MiddleMiddle Also called mylohyoid vestibuleAlso called mylohyoid vestibule Is the largest portion of lingual vestibuleIs the largest portion of lingual vestibule Structures seenStructures seenMylohyoid muscleMylohyoid muscleSublingual glandSublingual gland
  28. 28. PosteriorPosterior Also called lateral throat form orAlso called lateral throat form orretromylohyoid fossaretromylohyoid fossa BoundariesBoundariesAnteriorly – mylohyoid muscleAnteriorly – mylohyoid muscleLaterally – pear shaped padLaterally – pear shaped padPosteriorly – retromylohyoid curtainPosteriorly – retromylohyoid curtainMedially - tongueMedially - tongue