.Diff bet public & private sector
In recent years, many private banks in India have opened in India, promising better service levels to
customers. In terms of nature of job, it is quite similar in private sector as well as public sector banks.
You have to deal with customers and make sure you make a contribution to the growth of the bank.
However, there are slight differences in public sector and private sector bank jobs.
1.difference of recruitment
Public sector banks recruit mainly through bank exams and public notices. Private banks, on the other
hand, prefer campus placements and referrals. For entry level jobs too, private banks usually go through
campus placements. You would seldom find a public notice issued by a private bank for recruitments.
2.difference of vacancies
Public sector banks go by the vacancy rules laid by the government. There is a certain portion of
vacancies reserved for OBCs and SC/STs. There are no reservations in private sector banks. The
reservations make it harder to find a job in a public sector bank.
3.difference in growth
One of the banes of public sector banks is slow growth. If you get recruited at the entry level in a public
sector bank, you would take forever to reach the higher levels. There are certain rules for promotion
and salary is fixed according the level you are working at. Promotions in public sector banks are usually
not done on merit, but other criteria laid down by the government.
On the other hand, growth can be fast and robust in a private sector bank job. In the private sector, you
get promotions on merit, and if you are good, sky is the limit for you.
4.difference in working environment
Largely, the working environment of private and public sector banks is the same. However, private
sector banks are largely more competitive than the public sector banks, although that situation is
changing fast. In a private sector bank, you usually have to meet tough targets, and adhere to the
deadlines. You could be working longer hours very often in private sector banks in order to meet your
targets and deadlines.
The environment is more relaxed in a public sector bank, but that by no means implies you do not have
work in the public sector.
5.difference in pay scale
Largely, the pay scale in private and public sector banks is the same. However, according to recent
studies done on the field, it has been seen that public sector banks pay more compared to private sector
banks, when the working hours are taken into consideration.
However, since the growth in public sector banks can be slow, the advantage of higher pay scale is
As for the question, whether to work in a private sector or a public sector bank, the difference between
both the sectors is fast diminishing. If you have a choice, go for a bank that offers opportunities for
growth, which could be a public sector bank or a private sector bank too.
Hear What People are Really Saying
Listening is one of the most important skills you can have. How well you listen has a major impact on your job
effectiveness, and on the quality of your relationships with others.
• We listen to obtain information.
• We listen to understand.
• We listen for enjoyment.
• We listen to learn.
Good communication skills require a high level of self-awareness. By understanding your personal style of communicating, you
will go a long way towards creating good and lasting impressions with others.
Becoming an Active Listener
There are five key elements of active listening. They all help you ensure that you hear the other person, and that the
other person knows you are hearing what they say.
1. Pay Attention
Give the speaker your undivided attention, and acknowledge the message. Recognize that non-verbal
communication also "speaks" loudly.
• Look at the speaker directly.
• Put aside distracting thoughts.
• Don't mentally prepare a rebuttal!
• Avoid being distracted by environmental factors. For example, side conversations.
• "Listen" to the speaker's body language.
Step 1: Find the Problem)
Some problems are very obvious, however others are not so easily identified. As part of an effective problem-solving
process, you need to look actively for problems – even when things seem to be running fine. Proactive problem
solving helps you avoid emergencies and allows you to be calm and in control when issues arise.
These techniques can help you do this:
• PEST Analysis helps you pick up changes to your environment that you should be paying attention to. Make sure too
that you're watching changes in customer needs and market dynamics, and that you're monitoring trends that are
relevant to your industry.
• Risk Analysis helps you identify significant business risks.
• Failure Modes and Effects Analysis helps you identify possible points of failure in your business process, so that you
can fix these before problems arise.
• After Action Reviews help you scan recent performance to identify things that can be done better in the future.
• Where you have several problems to solve, our articles on Prioritization andPareto Analysis help you think about
which ones you should focus on first.
Step 2: Find the Facts
After identifying a potential problem, you need information. What factors contribute to the problem? Who is involved
with it? What solutions have been tried before? What do others think about the problem?
If you move forward to find a solution too quickly, you risk relying on imperfect information that's based on
assumptions and limited perspectives, so make sure that you research the problem thoroughly.
Step 3: Define the Problem
Now that you understand the problem, define it clearly and completely. Writing a clear problem definition forces you
to establish specific boundaries for the problem. This keeps the scope from growing too large, and it helps you stay
focused on the main issues.
A great tool to use at this stage is CATWOE. With this process, you analyze potential problems by looking at them
from six perspectives, those of its Customers; Actors (people within the organization); the Transformation, or
business process; the World-view, or top-down view of what's going on; the Owner; and the wider organizational
Environment. By looking at a situation from these perspectives, you can open your mind and come to a much sharper
and more comprehensive definition of the problem.
Cause and Effect Analysis is another good tool to use here, as it helps you think about the many different factors that
can contribute to a problem. This helps you separate the symptoms of a problem from its fundamental causes.
Step 4: Find Ideas
With a clear problem definition, start generating ideas for a solution. The key here is to be flexible in the way you
approach a problem. You want to be able to see it from as many perspectives as possible. Looking for patterns or
common elements in different parts of the problem can sometimes help. You can also use metaphorsand analogies to
help analyze the problem, discover similarities to other issues, and think of solutions based on those similarities.
Traditional brainstorming and reverse brainstorming are very useful here. By taking the time to generate a range of
creative solutions to the problem, you'll significantly increase the likelihood that you'll find the best possible solution,
not just a semi-adequate one. Where appropriate, involve people with different viewpoints to expand the volume of
Step 5: Select and Evaluate
After finding ideas, you'll have many options that must be evaluated. It's tempting at this stage to charge in and start
discarding ideas immediately. However, if you do this without first determining the criteria for a good solution, you risk
rejecting an alternative that has real potential.
Decide what elements are needed for a realistic and practical solution, and think about the criteria you'll use to
choose between potential solutions.
Paired Comparison Analysis, Grid Analysis and Risk Analysis are useful techniques here, as are many of the
specialist resources available within the Mind Tools Decision-Making section. Enjoy exploring these!
Step 6: Plan
You might think that choosing a solution is the end of a problem-solving process. In fact, it's simply the start of the
next phase in problem solving: implementation. This involves lots of planning and preparation. If you haven't already
developed a full Risk Analysis in the evaluation phase, do so now. It's important to know what to be prepared for as
you begin to roll out your proposed solution.
The type of planning that you need to do depends on the size of the implementation project that you need to set up.
For small projects, all you'll often need are Action Plans that outline who will do what, when, and how. Larger projects
need more sophisticated approaches - you'll find out more about these in the Mind ToolsProject Management and
Planning Techniques section. And for projects that affect many other people, you'll need to think about Change
Management as well.
Here, it can be useful to conduct an Impact Analysis to help you identify potential resistance as well as alert you to
problems you may not have anticipated. Force Field Analysis will also help you uncover the various pressures for and
against your proposed solution. Once you've done the detailed planning, it can also be useful at this stage to make a
final Go/No-Go Decision, making sure that it's actually worth going ahead with the selected option.
Step 7: Sell the Idea
As part of the planning process, you must convince other stakeholders that your solution is the best one. You'll likely
meet with resistance, so before you try to “sell” your idea, make sure you've considered all the consequences.
As you begin communicating your plan, listen to what people say, and make changes as necessary. The better the
overall solution meets everyone's needs, the greater its positive impact will be! For more tips on selling your idea,
read our article on Creating a Value Proposition and use our Sell Your Idea Bite-Sized Training session.
Step 8: Act
Finally, once you've convinced your key stakeholders that your proposed solution is worth running with, you can
move on to the implementation stage. This is the exciting and rewarding part of problem solving, which makes the
whole process seem worthwhile.
This action stage is an end, but it's also a beginning: once you've completed your implementation, it's time to move
into the next cycle of problem solving by returning to the scanning stage. By doing this, you'll continue improving your
organization as you move into the future.
Problem solving is an exceptionally important workplace skill.
Being a competent and confident problem solver will create many opportunities for you. By using a well-developed model like
Simplex for solving problems, you can approach the process systematically, and be comfortable that the decisions you make are
Given the unpredictable nature of problems, it's very reassuring to know that, by following a structured plan, you've done
everything you can to resolve the problem to the best of your abilit
How to Make Better Decisions
Decision making is an essential leadership skill. If you can learn how to make timely, well-considered decisions, then
you can lead your team to well-deserved success. If, however, you make poor decisions, your time as a leader will be
The 40+ techniques explained in this section help you to make the best decisions possible with the information
available. These tools help you map out the likely consequences of decisions, balance different factors, and choose
the best courses of action to take.
Start by taking our How Good is Your Decision Making? self-test, and then explore different decision making tools in
detail. In particular, take a look at our sections onChoosing Between Options, and Deciding Whether to Go Ahead.
The Browse by Category box will help you target specific skills, while you can look through the list below to find
What is your body language communicating?
Top 10 Nonverbal Communication Tips
Improve Your Nonverbal Communication Skills With These Tips
Good communication skills can help you in both your personal and professional life. The
following top ten tips for nonverbal communication can help you learn to read the nonverbal
signals of other people and enhance your own ability to communicate effectively. This non-
verbal language will affect how we act and react to others, and how they react to us.
1. Pay Attention to Nonverbal Signals
People can communicate information in numerous ways; so pay attention to things like eye
contact, 5gestures, 7posture, body movements, and tone of voice. All of these signals can convey
important information that isn't put into words. By paying closer attention to other people's
unspoken behaviors, you will improve your own ability to communicate nonverbally.
2. Look for Incongruent Behaviors
If someone's words do not match their nonverbal behaviors, you should pay careful attention. .
Research has shown that when words fail to match up with nonverbal signals, people tend to
ignore what has been said and focus instead on unspoken expressions of moods, thoughts, and
3. Concentrate on Your Tone of Voice When Speaking
Your tone of voice can convey a wealth of information, ranging from enthusiasm to disinterest to
anger. Start noticing how your tone of voice affects how others respond to you and try using tone
of voice to emphasize ideas that you want to communicate. For example, if you want to show
genuine interest in something, express your enthusiasm by using an animated tone of voice.
4. Use Good Eye Contact
When people fail to look others in the eye, it can seem as if they are evading or trying to hide
something. On the other hand, too much 3eye contact can seem confrontational or intimidating.
While eye contact is an important part of communication, it's important to remember that good
eye contact does not mean staring fixedly into someone's eyes.
5. Ask Questions About Nonverbal Signals
If you are confused about another person's nonverbal signals, don't be afraid to ask questions. A
good idea is to repeat back your interpretation of what has been said and ask for clarification.
6. Use Signals to Make Communication More Effective and Meaningful
Remember that verbal and nonverbal communication work together to convey a message. You
can improve your spoken communication by using body language that reinforces and supports
what you are saying. This can be especially useful when making presentations or when speaking
to a large group of people.
7. Look at Signals as a Group
A single gesture can mean any number of things, or maybe even nothing at all. The key to
accurately reading nonverbal behavior is to look for groups of signals that reinforce a common
point. If you place too much emphasis on just one signal out of many, you might come to an
inaccurate conclusion about what a person is trying to communicate.
8. Consider Context
When you are communicating with others, always consider the situation and the context in which
the communication occurs. Some situations require more formal behaviors that might be
interpreted very differently in any other setting. If you are trying to improve your own nonverbal
communication, concentrate on ways to make your signals match the level of formality
necessitated by the situation.
9. Be Aware That Signals Can be Misread
According to some, a firm handshake indicates a strong personality while a weak handshake is
taken as a lack of fortitude. This example illustrates an important point about the possibility of
misreading nonverbal signals. A limp handshake might actually indicate something else entirely,
such as arthritis. Always remember to look for groups of behavior. A person's overall demeanor
is far more telling than a single gesture viewed in isolation.
10. Practice, Practice, Practice
Some people just seem to have a knack for using nonverbal communication effectively and
correctly interpreting signals from others. These people are often described as being able to "read
people." In reality, you can build this skill by paying careful attention to nonverbal behavior and
practicing different types of nonverbal communication with others. By noticing nonverbal
behavior and practicing your own skills, you can dramatically improve your communication
Types of Nonverbal Communication
8 Major Nonverbal Beahviors
1. Facial Expression
Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal
communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or
a frown. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically
between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are
similar throughout the world.
Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning
without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to
indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.
Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual
language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection and
pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a
sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval
and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey
disapproval and a lack of interest.
People often refer to their need for "personal space," which is also an important
type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount
of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors
including social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics and level of
familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a
casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four
feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of
people is around 10 to 12 feet.
6. Eye Gaze
Looking, staring and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When
people encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and
pupils dilate. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions,
including hostility, interest and attraction.
Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. There has
been a substantial amount of research on the importance of touch in infancy and
early childhood. Touch can be used to communicate affection, familiarity,
sympathy and other emotions.
Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles and other factors affecting appearance are
also considered a means of nonverbal communication. different colors can evoke
different moods. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, judgments and
interpretations. Just think of all the subtle judgements you quickly make about
someone based on his or her appearance. These first impressions are important,
which is why experts suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews
with potential employers.
Nonverbal Communication in the Workplace
Basic Definition of Workplace and Interpersonal Nonverbal
• Body language: The way a person sits; stands; moves arms, hands, and feet;
other subtle movements.
• Eye contact: Eye contact is also used to convey interest and emotions, and to
promote rapport with the receiver of the message. It is also used to feign interest,
mislead, and fake interest.
• Tone of voice and other aspects of paralinguistics:Paralinguistics is vocal
communication separate from the actual words used and includes such factors as
inflection, pitch, pacing, pauses, and loudness. It is a form of nonverbal
communication which is useful for telephone and in-person interaction.
• Touch: Touch is a powerful method of nonverbal communication. A pat on the
back, a hug, a person reaching out to touch your hand in sympathy
communicates with or without accompanying words.
Quotations About Nonverbal Communication
”The human body is the best picture of the human soul.” --Ludwig Wittgenstein
”The limits of my language means the limits of my world.” --Ludwig Wittgenstein
Using body language effectively means not only communicating with others, but also
learning more about yourself.
There can be many challenges that an HR manager has to face:
# Managing Change: As the organiations are going Global this is one problem faced by many
organisations of manging the change in the organisation and how to make people acquanted with the
# Work Culture: Due to acquisition and mergers taking place it becomes important for the HR Manager to
develop the work culture.
# Ethics and Values: In the times when we are getting more professional and narcissist, it is very
important to have Ethics and values to be in place which also in the long run decides the sustainability of
# Managing low attrition rate: More competition also adds to high attrition. Now here is the opportunity for
the HR manager to play safe and introduce good retention strategies.
# Balancing work and personal life: Huge responsibility is on the shoulder of an HR Manager to create a
balance between the work life and personal life by flexi work hours, paternity leaves( Yes it is what most
companies are starting) and vacations are some of the options in hand.
# Stress and Conflict: Long working hours, target pressures, high competition etc adds stress and
conflicts in the Organisation. It is the duty of an HR Manager to have proper responses to the stress and
conflict before it causes damage to someones' personality.
# Consultative approach: Developing continuous dialogue, open communication, participative decision
making is very important for implementing consultative approach. It is an HR Manager who can facilitate
such approach to procure participative and democratic culture.
# Restructuring Organisation: As the trend is changing so the organisation structure. The organisation are
getting more flatter and simpler.
# Globalisation: Companies are going global due to which the workforce diversity is increasing. Managing
these people with different religious, cultural, moral background is a challenging task for the HR
Managers in 21st Century.
The HR Managers of today may find it difficult because of the rapidly changing business
environment and therefore they should update their knowledge and skills by looking at the
organization's need and objectives. The HRM challenges are
1. Managing the Vision:
Vision of the organization provides the direction to business strategy and helps managers to
evaluate management practices and make decisions. So vision management becomes the
integral part of Man management in future.
2. Internal environment:
Creating an environment which is responsive to external changes, providing satisfaction to
the employees and sustaining through culture and systems is a challenging task.
3. Changing Industrial Relations:
Both the workers and managers has to be managed by the same HRM Philosophy and this is
a daunting task for the managers.
4. Building Organizational capability:
Even in the adverse circumstances the employees have to be made to live in psychological
state of readiness to continually change.
5. Job Design & Organizational structure:
Instead of depending on foreign concepts we need to focus on understanding the job,
technology and the people involved in carrying out the tasks.
6. Managing the large work force:
Management of large workforce poses the biggest problem as the workers are conscious of
7. Psycho-Social environment:
Nowadays employees participation required not only in performing job but also in
democratizing and humanizing the institution.
8. Employee Satisfaction:
Managers should be aware of techniques to motivate their employees so that their higher
level needs can be satisfied.
9. Modern technology:
There will be an unemployment due to modern technology and this could be corrected by
assessing manpower needs and finding alternate employment.
10. Computerized Information System:
This is revolutionary in managerial decision making and is having impact on coordination in
11. Legal environment:
To meet the changes in legal environment, adjustments have to be made to the maximum
utilization of human resources.
12. Managing Human Relations:
As the workforce comprises of both educated and uneducated, managing the relations will
be of great challenge.
In spite of all the problems HR Managers are able to overcome all these problems with the
support of management and employees. In the current business world managing employees
are becoming complex task and this can be handled effectively only by our great HR
Some of the major challenges which HR faces in India today are discussed hereunder.
Managing globalization: It is important for an HR Manager to study people management
practices before implementing new practices which are global in nature. It has become a
challenge for the HR to educate its workforce on how globalization can be leveraged and how
an individual employee benefits or is affected by it. Instead of thrusting new practices upon
them, it is ideal to study the existing practices which are in place.
Developing leadership skills: It is not just about knowledge, experience and expertise it is
also about developing the right soft skills to give shape to the future leaders. Since the global
economic and industrial scenario is very volatile and dynamic, what is required now is a skill
set in the workforce which distinguishes them as team leaders.
Managing change: Change management is the call of the day with big organizations
integrating Six Sigma methodologies in their businesses. Change management defines the
response of the business to the changing external and internal environment. The industrial
growth scenario in India demands that there should be change brought about within all
factions of the industry. But there are internal and external forces which resist the change. It
is a huge challenge to influence the resisting forces with the organization, manage internal
conflicts, motivate them to embrace change and implement the changes.
Developing work ethics: With back to back slumps in the global economy, India has not
remained unscathed. Employee morals and loyalty are being tested in a business’s day to the
day functioning. It has become very important to re-instill cultural values, loyalty, respect for
the weak and elderly, and infuse qualities like empathy, charity, austerity, team spirits, ethics
and bonding in the workforce.
Retaining Talent: Yes, this is one of the major challenges which HRM faces today. Poaching
and cut-throat competition has given an impetus to high remuneration to the deserving.
People have gained exposure and their yearning to rise is sees them changing loyalty and
organizations very frequently. This is especially observed in the IT and ITES sector. To
manage low attrition rates and retain talent has become a mammoth hurdle which all
organizations want to cross in order to reach their goals.
Managing fast changing technological trends: Most large and medium scale organizations
today prefer to be technologically oriented. The technological trends in today’s global scenario
are fast changing. Educating the human resource about these changes, upgrading their
knowledge and motivating them to learn, absorb and come out of their comfort zones is a
great challenge faced by many organizations.
Developing Accountability: With the advent of Six Sigma methodologies, organizations
have lowered their tolerance levels for mistakes, errors and delays. It is a challenge which
HRM in India is facing like its global counterparts. It is not easy to train people to shoulder
Managing workforce stress and employment relations: HR is the face of an organization.
It hires and fires employees and if the HR of an organization is not emphatic towards its
workforce it does not help in employment relations. This factor is fast becoming a challenge
for HRM especially in sectors like hospitality, IT and allied support services, media and
Managing inter-functional conflict: Earlier it was the friction between different levels of an
organization and now the new emerging challenge for the HR is to manage inter-functional
conflict within an organization. With organizational restructuring becoming common in the past
few years, disputes and friction between different functions has been on the rise.
Managing workplace diversity: With globalization and India’s economy changing gears to
accelerate growth, organizations hire as well depend on a people from different countries,
cultures and ethnicity. To manage the diverse workforce who have fairly diverse physiological
and the psychological influences, is also a huge challenge for the HR in the emerging Indian
This is not an exhaustive list of some of the challenges of HR in India which includes many other
factors like retrenchment and downsizing specifically in the BPO and finance sectors, managing
knowledge workers, occupational shifts, trade unionism in the public sector and manufacturing sector,
limited exposure and research in the field of human resource management and limited training
resources to handle.