• To join a string of images that you have
edited together whether they are still
or moving to form a collage and create
A lot of editors will use different shot lengths to
These make the pace of the film slower and more
dramatic, while where as short shots make the
pace of the film more dramatic and intense .
Long shot will manly be used for romantic scenes
and quick shots will be used to get a dramatic
effect and create action and make it more
exciting and fast.
• Studies have shown that current film
releases have morecamera pace to the
original golden age Hollywood films.
• The average shot length in the golden age
was around 5.15seconds however it is now
4.75 seconds showing that thepace of films
• The change of length can be seen when
you compare theoriginal Arthur to the
Problems with tempo
On average it takes an editor 3 seconds to
change a shot type. Brandt has argue
“…..if the audience takes 3 seconds to adjust to a new
what happens when the average shot length is so short
that the audience is never given a chance to catch up”
In modern movies the pace of films are
much faster this could be why younger
audience find older films less.
• Another way editor can adjust the
tempo is shot transitions.
• The most known and common
shot transitions are:
• A to B cut
• Fade in/fade out
• Fades create a pause in the film
and this changes pace.
• You will not see a lot of fades in
films. Yet they are used to
introduce fantasy or memory.
Timing of a shot
• Timing of shots is another editing
• This is used to cut away to emphasis the
emotion, reaction or response of a character.
• From cutting a two shot to a close up it
emphases' the reaction or by cutting from a
close up to a long shot is used for a
Editing and timing
• Narrative sequencing can either be
linear or medias res.
• Linear is where the story is told as it
• Medias res is the term used when
narrative is jumbled up
• Collages make up time.
• Expanding is overlapping
shots of single action
Arranging the order of events
Flashbacks are often used to recount events that
happened before the story’s primary sequence of
events or to fill in crucial backstory.
On some occasions there are flash forwards these
are very rare
These are events that take place in the present
time and are interrupted by images that have taken
place in the past.
Shot Reverse Shot
• Shot/reverse shot is a staple of editing in dialogue sequences.
• The primary elements of a shot/reverse shot sequence are
derived from the three camera set up. The shots you should
have for a basic shot/reverse shot are: a two shot of the two
characters usually in wide or medium shot, an over the
shoulder shot on character A, and an over the shoulder shot
on character B.
Eye Line Match
• Eye-line match is a method of continuity
editing whereby a cut between two shots
creates the illusion of the character (in the
first shot) looking at an object (in the second
• Continuity is a film term that suggests that a
series of shots should be physically
continuous, as if the camera simply changed
angles in the course of a single event. For
instance, if in one shot a beer glass is empty, it
should not be full in the next shot. Live coverage
of a sporting event would be an example of
footage that is very continuous. Since the live
operators are cutting from one live feed to
another, the physical action of the shots matches
The 180 Rule
• This rule states that the camera or cameras
should remain the same side of an imaginary
line. The line is drawn perpendicular to the
camera's viewpoint in the establishing shot of
the scene. The rule enforces continuity of the
Keep the camera on one side of the line
• That refers to a specific era of films, mostly
silent films from the 20s. In montage theory,
the idea of montage is best explained as a
juxtaposition of images (sometimes using a
graphic match) to a symbolic extent. Often,
the cuts are quick and they don't maintain