Natural Treasures of Europe Water- from Gerês to our homes
Natural Treasures of EuropeEuropean ComissionOne Earth to protectJanez Potočnik is the Member of theEC in charge of EnvironmentI´m water
Natural Treasures of Europe Water categoriesDrinking water(superficial fresh waters, fresh groundwater,table water and supply waters …)
Natural Treasures of Europe Chemical parameters: pH Hardness Alkalinity (free) carbon dioxide Chloride ions Organic matter Mineralization ….
Natural Treasures of Europe Hardness of waterCharacteristic related with the presence of calcium and magnesium cations.Temporary hardness – due to the presence of calcium and magnesiumhydrogen carbonates . (can be eliminated by boiling the water) Ca(HCO3)2 (aq) CO 2 (g) + CaCO3 (s) + H2O (g) Permanent hardness – due to the presence of sulfates, chloride ions orother salts ( calcium and magnesium ) which don’t decompose by heating.Total hardness – it considers the effect of all magnesium and calcium salts.
Natural Treasures of EuropeWater hardness in Portugal (continent) .. Água Serra do Gerês Soft water Soft water Àgua do Rio Cávado Hard water .. Água do Luso- cruzeiro Medium hard water Água da serra de Monchique Hard water
Natural Treasures of EuropeWater hardness can be expressed in several units unit Symbol equivalency American degree USº 1 USº = 1 ppm CaCO3= 1mg/ L CaCO3 German degree ºG 1 ºG = 10 mg/ L CaO French degree ºF 1 ºF = 10 mg / L CaCO3 Paiva et al. (2004).11Q-Química A, Texto Editora
Natural Treasures of Europe Classification of water hardness : Levels of water hardness Total hardness ( mg / L de CaCO3 soft Below 75 Moderately hard From 75 to 150 Hard From 150 to 300 Very hard Over 300 Paiva et al. (2004).11Q-Química A, Texto Editora
Natural Treasures of EuropeSome signs of Hard Water in our homesIncreased difficulty in laundering tasksDecreased efficiency of water heatersSoap scum on bathtubs…Accumulation of deposits in tubes, pans … http://www.glendalewaterandpower.com/residents/water_hardness.aspx
Natural Treasures of Europe water cycle water cycle
Natural Treasures of EuropeIn Gerês, Fastio is the most famous spring water, knownsince the beginning of the 20th century for its diuretic anddigestive properties, which are due to hypo salinity (lowcontent of mineral salts), high content of silica and aslightly sweet and acid flavour.The unique characteristics of the Fastio Waters are aresult of the fact that it circulates in deep profundity,through the so called Terras de Bouro Granite, before itsprings out naturally. This type of granite is exclusive ofthis rainy and mountainous part of Portugal. Thissingularity was recognized because it only exists in thePeneda - Gerês National ParkReport on mineral natural waters and spring waters
Natural Treasures of Europe Hydrographic Net in Gerês http://www.dct.uminho.pt/pnpg/geol/hidrografia/redehidro.html