Natural Treasures of Europe       Water- from Gerês to our homes
Natural Treasures of EuropeEuropean ComissionOne Earth to protectJanez Potočnik is the Member of theEC in charge of Enviro...
Natural Treasures of Europe  Water categoriesDrinking water(superficial fresh waters, fresh groundwater,table water and su...
Natural Treasures of Europe                              Chemical parameters:                              pH             ...
Natural Treasures of Europe Hardness of waterCharacteristic related with the presence of calcium and magnesium cations.Tem...
Natural Treasures of EuropeWater hardness in Portugal (continent)                                        ..               ...
Natural Treasures of EuropeWater hardness can be expressed in several units unit                         Symbol   equivale...
Natural Treasures of Europe   Classification of water hardness :           Levels of water hardness        Total hardness ...
Natural Treasures of EuropeSome signs of Hard Water in our homesIncreased difficulty in laundering tasksDecreased efficien...
Natural Treasures of Europe                              water cycle                              water cycle
Natural Treasures of EuropeIn Gerês, Fastio is the most famous spring water, knownsince the beginning of the 20th century ...
Natural Treasures of Europe           Hydrographic Net in Gerês                                http://www.dct.uminho.pt/pn...
Natural Treasures of Europe
Natural Treasures of EuropeHydrographic Net of Gerês: Dams and Rivers
Natural Treasures of Europe     Hydrographic Net of Gerês: Homem and Cávado Rivers
Natural Treasures of Europe Treatment of water for domestic use in Braga: Agere (water treatment plant), Braga
Natural Treasures of Europe     Agere (water treatment plant), Braga
Natural Treasures of Europehttp://www.nairobiwater.co.ke/water_quality/?ContentID=5
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Water from PNPG to our homes

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Water from PNPG to our homes

  1. 1. Natural Treasures of Europe Water- from Gerês to our homes
  2. 2. Natural Treasures of EuropeEuropean ComissionOne Earth to protectJanez Potočnik is the Member of theEC in charge of EnvironmentI´m water
  3. 3. Natural Treasures of Europe Water categoriesDrinking water(superficial fresh waters, fresh groundwater,table water and supply waters …)
  4. 4. Natural Treasures of Europe Chemical parameters: pH Hardness Alkalinity (free) carbon dioxide Chloride ions Organic matter Mineralization ….
  5. 5. Natural Treasures of Europe Hardness of waterCharacteristic related with the presence of calcium and magnesium cations.Temporary hardness – due to the presence of calcium and magnesiumhydrogen carbonates . (can be eliminated by boiling the water) Ca(HCO3)2 (aq) CO 2 (g) + CaCO3 (s) + H2O (g) Permanent hardness – due to the presence of sulfates, chloride ions orother salts ( calcium and magnesium ) which don’t decompose by heating.Total hardness – it considers the effect of all magnesium and calcium salts.
  6. 6. Natural Treasures of EuropeWater hardness in Portugal (continent) .. Água Serra do Gerês Soft water Soft water Àgua do Rio Cávado Hard water .. Água do Luso- cruzeiro Medium hard water Água da serra de Monchique Hard water
  7. 7. Natural Treasures of EuropeWater hardness can be expressed in several units unit Symbol equivalency American degree USº 1 USº = 1 ppm CaCO3= 1mg/ L CaCO3 German degree ºG 1 ºG = 10 mg/ L CaO French degree ºF 1 ºF = 10 mg / L CaCO3 Paiva et al. (2004).11Q-Química A, Texto Editora
  8. 8. Natural Treasures of Europe Classification of water hardness : Levels of water hardness Total hardness ( mg / L de CaCO3 soft Below 75 Moderately hard From 75 to 150 Hard From 150 to 300 Very hard Over 300 Paiva et al. (2004).11Q-Química A, Texto Editora
  9. 9. Natural Treasures of EuropeSome signs of Hard Water in our homesIncreased difficulty in laundering tasksDecreased efficiency of water heatersSoap scum on bathtubs…Accumulation of deposits in tubes, pans … http://www.glendalewaterandpower.com/residents/water_hardness.aspx
  10. 10. Natural Treasures of Europe water cycle water cycle
  11. 11. Natural Treasures of EuropeIn Gerês, Fastio is the most famous spring water, knownsince the beginning of the 20th century for its diuretic anddigestive properties, which are due to hypo salinity (lowcontent of mineral salts), high content of silica and aslightly sweet and acid flavour.The unique characteristics of the Fastio Waters are aresult of the fact that it circulates in deep profundity,through the so called Terras de Bouro Granite, before itsprings out naturally. This type of granite is exclusive ofthis rainy and mountainous part of Portugal. Thissingularity was recognized because it only exists in thePeneda - Gerês National ParkReport on mineral natural waters and spring waters
  12. 12. Natural Treasures of Europe Hydrographic Net in Gerês http://www.dct.uminho.pt/pnpg/geol/hidrografia/redehidro.html
  13. 13. Natural Treasures of Europe
  14. 14. Natural Treasures of EuropeHydrographic Net of Gerês: Dams and Rivers
  15. 15. Natural Treasures of Europe Hydrographic Net of Gerês: Homem and Cávado Rivers
  16. 16. Natural Treasures of Europe Treatment of water for domestic use in Braga: Agere (water treatment plant), Braga
  17. 17. Natural Treasures of Europe Agere (water treatment plant), Braga
  18. 18. Natural Treasures of Europehttp://www.nairobiwater.co.ke/water_quality/?ContentID=5
  19. 19. Natural Treasures of Europe This is the last slide

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