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Chapter 27 Evaluating Information


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Chapter 27 Evaluating Information

  1. 1. Chapter 27 Evaluating Information
  2. 3. Separating Facts from Opinions <ul><li>Identifying facts </li></ul><ul><li>A fact is a statement you can prove. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of facts are observations and definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Some ways you can test a statement are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a personal observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to your experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask a recognized expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consult an authoritative written source </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Separating Facts from Opinions <ul><li>Identifying opinions </li></ul><ul><li>An opinion is a statement that tells what a person thinks, believes or feels about a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t prove opinions. </li></ul><ul><li>Some ways to identify opinions are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for adjectives and adverbs that express judgment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for words that indicate what a person feels or believes such as ought, should, think or believe. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Separating Facts from Opinions <ul><li>Opinions can be unsupported or informed </li></ul><ul><li>Unsupported opinions are not backed up with facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Informed opinions are supported with facts. </li></ul><ul><li>BEWARE: Even though an opinion can make perfect sense and is backed up with facts, it’s still an opinion. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Examples: Fact or Opinion? <ul><li>An adult male African elephant weighs 12.000 pounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting elephants for their ivory tusks should be banned. </li></ul><ul><li>An elephant can run at speeds of up to 25 miles/ hour. </li></ul><ul><li>Elephants make odd sounds </li></ul>
  6. 7. Logical Relationships <ul><li>A logical relationship is a clear and reasonable connection (events, objects, people and places) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of logical relationships are cause and effect, comparison and contrast and analogy. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Logical Relationships <ul><li>A cause is an event or action that leads directly to another event or action. </li></ul><ul><li>An effect is the direct or logical outcome of an event or action. </li></ul><ul><li>Words that signal cause and effect relationships include because, therefore, so, as a result, and since. </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T assume A is a cause of B or that something has ONLY one cause when it has many. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Logical Relationships <ul><li>A comparison shows how two or more things are alike. </li></ul><ul><li>Some words that indicate similarities are also, both, likewise, and in the same way. </li></ul><ul><li>A contrast shows how two or more things are different. </li></ul><ul><li>Words that indicate differences include but, however, on the other hand, and unlike. </li></ul><ul><li>You can use Venn diagrams to compare two or more items. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Logical Relationships <ul><li>An analogy is a type of comparison, often used to explain something unfamiliar by likening it to something familiar. </li></ul><ul><li>A good analogy effectively expresses an essential likeness between two things. </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the late 1800s, The Old Farmer´s Almanac was to farmers what TV weather forecasts are to us today” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The blue sky was the same color as a sky blue crayon” </li></ul>
  10. 11. Interpreting Information <ul><li>An INFERENCE is a logical guess based on facts and common sense. </li></ul><ul><li>To draw a CONCLUSION you review a number of facts and details and use your prior knowledge to make a logical statement about a topic. They are statements based on evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>A GENERALIZATION is a general statement based on many specific examples. </li></ul>
  11. 12. “ Glaciers are huge moving bodies of ice and are powerful causes of erosion” INFERENCE: Glaciers must exist in cold weather <ul><li>“ The severe wind and rain of a hurricane can cause windows to shatter” </li></ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge: boards on the outside of a window may help. People buy many boards. </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION: Lumberyards sell a lot of boards just before hurricanes. </li></ul><ul><li>High temperatures feel hotter when humidity is high. </li></ul><ul><li>Low temperatures feel colder when humidity is high. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Recognizing Logical Fallacies <ul><li>Sometimes an idea is stated in a way that at first appears to make sense. However if you examine the statement you might find that it actually contains a FALLACY or an error in logic. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many types of logical fallacies. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Recognizing Logical Fallacies <ul><li>FALSE ANALOGY </li></ul><ul><li>A FALSE ANALOGY involves a comparison between two things that have nothing in common. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s an illogical comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>When examining an analogy ask yourself the following questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What are the similarities between the things being compared? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the differences between the things being compared? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Is there any one difference that makes the analogy illogical? </li></ul>
  14. 15. Recognizing Logical Fallacies <ul><li>CIRCULAR REASONING </li></ul><ul><li>When a person tries to prove a statement by repeating it in other words, the person is using CIRCULAR REASONING . </li></ul><ul><li>It’s also known as begging the question. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Recognizing Logical Fallacies <ul><li>An error in logic </li></ul><ul><li>False analogy: a comparison between things that do not have features in common. </li></ul><ul><li>Circular reasoning: repeating a statement in </li></ul><ul><li>different words. </li></ul><ul><li>Overgeneralization: a generalization that is too broad to be valid and can easily be disproved. </li></ul><ul><li>They are often signaled by words as no one, everyone, always, never, best, and worst. </li></ul><ul><li>Either/or Thinking : a claim of only 2 choices when there are more. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Identifying logical fallacies: <ul><li>The orchestra was well-rehearsed because it had practiced a lot. </li></ul><ul><li>No one understands opera. </li></ul><ul><li>Either you have artistic talent or you don’t. </li></ul><ul><li>Tuning an instrument is like finding the right outfit to wear. </li></ul><ul><li>Musical talent takes time to develop because it takes years. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Misusing Emotional Appeals <ul><li>An emotional appeal stirs up feelings by means of carefully chosen words and images. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch out for some advertisers and politicians! </li></ul>
  18. 19. Misusing Emotional Appeals <ul><li>BANDWAGON APPEAL </li></ul><ul><li>The BANDWAGON APPEAL capitalizes on the fun of being part of a crowd and the desire to be socially accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>It invites you to do or join something because “everyone” is doing it. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Don´t be the last to have … game” </li></ul>
  19. 20. Misusing Emotional Appeals <ul><li>APPEALS TO PITY </li></ul><ul><li>EMOTIONAL APPEALS not only touch people’s minds, but more importantly their hearts. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach is especially effective for charity causes. </li></ul><ul><li>“ 200 kids go to bed hungry, but you can help. For just one dollar…..” </li></ul>
  20. 21. Misusing Emotional Appeals <ul><li>NAME CALLING </li></ul><ul><li>NAME CALLING is attacking a person or group in order to discredit an idea with which the person or group is associated. </li></ul><ul><li>It serves to distract the audience from the real issue. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The narrow-minded senator opposes recycling” </li></ul>
  21. 22. Misusing Emotional Appeals <ul><li>TESTIMONIALS </li></ul><ul><li>TESTIMONIALS are statements by well-known people or satisfied customers that are used to endorse and promote products, services, people, or ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>This persuasive technique uses people’s admiration for celebrities and their need to identity with others like themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be misleading or valid. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Misusing Emotional Appeals <ul><li>LOADED LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>LOADED LANGUAGE consists of words with strongly positive or negative connotations, intended to influence the audience’s attitude. </li></ul>POSITIVE NEGATIVE plan scheme prosperous loaded leisurely lazy enthusiast zealot honest blunt assertive aggressive
  23. 24. Misusing Emotional Appeals <ul><li>In advertising words are classified as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>PURR WORDS are words with a positive connotation. </li></ul><ul><li>SNARL WORDS are words with a negative connotation. </li></ul><ul><li>WEASEL WORDS are qualifiers -such as almost, nearly, virtually, and close to- that are unclear and purposely used to mislead. </li></ul>