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  2. 2. What is Population? <ul><li> Human population can be defined by any characteristics such as mortality, migration, family (marriage or divorce), public health, work and the labor force, and family planning. </li></ul>
  3. 3. OTHER RELATED DEFINITIONS: <ul><li>Population Control is the practice of curtailing population increase, usually by reducing the birth rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Population Growth is the change in population overtime, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals is a population using “per unit time.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Population Growth Rate (PGR) is the fractional rate at which the number of individuals in a population increases. It ordinarily refers to the change in population over a period of time period, often expressed as a percentage of the number of individuals in the population at the beginning of that period. </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Population Growth (ZPG) , is a condition of demographic balance where the number of people in a specified population neither grows nor declines, considered as the social aim. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>OVERPOPULATION </li></ul><ul><li> also called overinhabitation refers to the condition where an organism’s numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Decline in Death Rate – the fall in death rates that is decline in mortality rate is one fundamental causes of overpopulation. The new inventions in medicine have brought treatments for most of the dreadful diseases thus resulted in the increase in the life expectancy of individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in the Birth Rate – medicines of today can boost the reproductive rate in human beings. There are medicines and treatments which can help in conception. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Migration – if the inhabitants of the various countries migrate to a particular part of the world and settle over that area, that place is bound to suffer from the ill effects of overpopulation. Crowding of immigrants in certain parts of the world, results in an imbalance in the density of population. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Education – illiteracy is another important cause of overpopulation. Those lacking education fail to understand the need to prevent excessive growth of population. Lack of family planning is commonly seen in the illiterate lot of the world. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>The accelerated growth of the human populations has propitiated the destruction of natural habitats of many species. People are invading the habitats of those species, replacing them to inhospitable places and condemning the native species to the extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Too dense human communities produce tons of solid wastes (organic and inorganic) daily, consume large quantities of energy and emit more pollutants to the environment. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Water necessities will increase to 20% by 2005. Approximately, one half of wetlands around the world have been lost since 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>The ozone layer has been gradually ruined by the effects of the CFC’s. The concentration of CFCs has been increased as the human population has grown, and the thickness of the Ozone layer has been lesser to the extent that a hole in the layer has been formed. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Quezon City, the former capital of the Philippines is bounded on the north, east and south by the Province of Rizal, on the northwest by the City of Caloocan, and on the West by the city of Manila. </li></ul><ul><li>The City has the land area of 171.17 square kilometers and has four congressional districts with 142 barangays. </li></ul><ul><li>On October 12, 1939, the Philippine National Assembly enacted Commonwealth Act No. 502 which created the City of Quezon with 7, 355 hectares, one-third of which belonged to the government </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>On July 17, 1647, Republic Act No. 333 made Quezon City as the official capital of the Philippines until June 24, 1975 when Presidential Decree 940 establishing the City of Manila as the new capital of the Philippines and the permanent seat of the National Government. </li></ul><ul><li>The cause of freedom spread throughout the islands to break the chains of colonialism and monasticism that the first Cry of the Great Plebian, Andres Bonifacio and his Katipuneros was held on August 23, 1896 in Balintawak where a monument in his honor stands. </li></ul>
  16. 17. QUEZON CITY’S POPULATION <ul><li>Quezon City has the largest population among the cities/municipalities in the country. This city contributed 21.9 percent to the 9.9 million population of the National Capital Region. </li></ul><ul><li>They also shared 2.8 percent to the total population (12 percent) at the national level. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2000 Census of Population and Housing (CENSUS 2000) results that Quezon City registered a total population of 2, 173, 831 persons, higher by 184, 412 persons over the 1995 Census of Population (POPCEN) results. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Quezon City is composed of four districts. The Second District has the total of 54 percent of populated residence. The First and Fourth District both constituted 17 percent each while the Third District was the least populous which has 12 percent. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Shows the difference of the population between men and women at Quezon City
  21. 22. There are so many ways on how to prevent overpopulation and the most common way is the family planning or birth control and the use of contraceptives.
  22. 23. <ul><li>Family Planning </li></ul><ul><li>- sometimes used as a synonym for the use of birth control is frequently used to mean people plan when to have children using birth control and other techniques to implement that plan. </li></ul><ul><li>- Family Planning Services are defined as &quot;educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved. </li></ul>
  23. 24. CONTRACEPTION or BIRTH CONTROL <ul><li>- is a regimen of one or more actions, devices, or medications followed in order to deliberately prevent or reduce the likelihood of pregnancy or childbirth. It may also refer specifically mechanisms that are intended to reduce the likelihood of a sperm cell fertilizing the egg. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>KINDS OF </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD </li></ul>
  25. 26. CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS <ul><li>This method is often called the morning-after pill . </li></ul><ul><li>Are prescription medications commonly used by women as a form of contraception. </li></ul><ul><li>One pill is taken at the same time every day for 21 days, 28 or 91 days and when it used correctly, it have an effectiveness rate of more than 99%. </li></ul><ul><li>Also use to treat a variety of menstrual disorders including Amenorrhea, Dysmenorrhea, Hypermenorrhea. </li></ul><ul><li>Women who have bloodclots, cancers, a history of heart attack, stroke or liver problems and those who are or maybe pregnant. </li></ul>
  26. 27. INTRAUTERINE METHOD or INTRAUTERINE DEVICES (IUD) <ul><li>These are contraceptive devices which are placed inside the uterus. They are usually shaped like a &quot;T&quot; — the arms of the T hold the device in place. </li></ul><ul><li>In the US, all devices which are placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy are referred to as intra-uterine devices (IUDs) or intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs). </li></ul><ul><li>In the UK, only copper-containing devices are called IUDs (or IUCDs), and hormonal intrauterine contraceptives are referred to with the term Intra-Uterine System (IUS). This may be because there are ten types of copper IUDs available in the UK, compared to only one in the US. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two main types of intrauterine contraceptives: those that contain copper (which has a spermicidal effect), and those that release a progestogen (in the US the term progestin is used). </li></ul>IUD with copper
  27. 28. COITUS INTERRUPTUS <ul><li>literally &quot;interrupted sex&quot;, also known as the withdrawal method, is the practice of ending sexual intercourse (&quot;pulling out&quot;) before ejaculation. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is that there are often sperm present in the little dribble of pre-come that escapes from most men when they're excited prior to ejaculation. So even if men get good at withdrawing just before they ejaculate, it doesn't necessarily mean that sperm have not started to swim up the vagina. </li></ul>
  28. 29. CONDOM <ul><li>The most popular barrier method is the male condom, a latex or polyurethane sheath placed over the penis. The condom is also available in a female version, which is made of polyurethane. </li></ul><ul><li>The female condom has a flexible ring at each end — one secures behind the pubic bone to hold the condom in place, while the other ring stays outside the vagina. </li></ul>
  29. 30. CERVICAL BARRIERS <ul><li>The CERVICAL CAP is the smallest cervical barrier. Depending on the type of cap, it stays in place by suction to the cervix or to the vaginal walls. </li></ul><ul><li>The CONTRACEPTIVE SPONGE has a depression to hold it in place over the cervix. </li></ul><ul><li>SPERMICIDE may be placed in the vagina before intercourse and creates a chemical barrier. Spermicide may be used alone, or in combination with a physical barrier. </li></ul>
  30. 31. DIAPHRAGM <ul><li>The DIAPHRAGM fits into place behind the woman's pubic bone and has a firm but flexible ring, which helps it press against the vaginal walls. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a soft latex or silicone dome with a spring molded into a rim. The spring creates a seal against the walls of the vagina. </li></ul>1: bladder, 2: pubic bone, 3: urethra, 4: vagina, 5: uterus, 6: fornix, 7: cervix, 8: diaphragm , 9: rectum
  31. 32. HORMONAL METHOD <ul><li>These include the combined oral CONTRACEPTIVE PILL (&quot;The Pill&quot;), the PATCH, and the CONTRACEPTIVE VAGINAL RING (&quot;NuvaRing&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>Other methods contain only a PROGESTIN (a synthetic progestogen). These include the PROGESTERONE ONLY PILL (the POP or 'minipill'), the INJECTABLES DEPO PROVERA (a depot formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate given as an intramuscular injection every three months) and NORISTERAT (Norethindrone acetate given as an intramuscular injection every 8 weeks), and CONTRACEPTIVE IMPLANTS. </li></ul><ul><li>Ormeloxifene (Centchroman) is a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, or SERM. It causes ovulation to occur asynchronously with the formation of the uterine lining, preventing implantation of a zygote. It has been widely available as a birth control method in India since the early 1990s, marketed under the trade name Saheli. Centchroman is legally available only in India. </li></ul>ORTHO TRI-CYCLEN
  32. 33. INDUCED ABORTION <ul><li>ABORTION can be done with surgical methods, usually suction-aspiration abortion (in the first trimester) or dilation and evacuation (in the second trimester). Medical abortion uses drugs to end a pregnancy and is approved for pregnancies where the length of gestation has not exceeded 8 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Some herbs are believed to cause abortion (abortifacients). The efficacy of these plants as such has never been studied in humans. However the use of herbs to induce abortion is not recommended due to the risk of serious side effects. </li></ul><ul><li>However, abortion is subject to ethical debate. </li></ul>
  33. 34. VASECTOMY <ul><li>is a surgical procedure in which the vasa deferentia of a man are cut for the purpose of sterilization. </li></ul><ul><li>There are some variations on the procedure such as no-scalpel (keyhole) vasectomies, in which a sharp hemostat, rather than a scalpel, is used to puncture the scrotum . </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;normal&quot; vasectomy typically seals both ends of the vas deferens with stitches, heat, metal clamps or a combination, after cutting. </li></ul><ul><li>The open-ended vasectomy obstructs only the top end of the vas deferens. With this method sperm leaks out from the lower severed end of the vas deferens and into the scrotum, thus hopefully avoiding a build-up of pressure in the epididymis. </li></ul>
  34. 35. TUBAL LIGATION <ul><li>A process of tying and cutting the tubes </li></ul><ul><li>It closes or blocks a woman’s fallopian tubes. </li></ul>
  35. 36. - THE END - <ul><li>Group 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Shirdane Fernandez </li></ul><ul><li>Elaine Isabelle Cruz </li></ul><ul><li>Joan Villamer </li></ul><ul><li>Rowie Castillo </li></ul>