Meat Processing Facility Design

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  • Meat Processing Facility Design

    1. 1. Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Meat and Poultry Processing Facilities. Gregory D Williams, Ph.D., P.E., S.E. Kevin Keener, Ph.D., P.E.
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>122 Billion Dollar industry, 500,000 employees </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 4000 facilities in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Larger more complex facilities with higher outputs </li></ul><ul><li>506 Construction Projects over 1 million dollars in 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Design Information is limited and not documented </li></ul>
    3. 3. Meat Industry <ul><li>Poultry Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Pork Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Beef Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><li>Many Common Elements </li></ul>
    4. 4. Elements of Meat Processing Facility <ul><li>Live Hold & Receiving </li></ul><ul><li>Kill & Evisceration </li></ul><ul><li>Raw Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Further Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Storage & Shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities & Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Admin & Welfare </li></ul>
    5. 5. Poultry Processing
    6. 6. Beef Processing
    7. 7. Pork Processing
    8. 8. Facility Planning <ul><li>Regulatory Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title 9 of Code of Federal Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities & Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste/BOD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Range Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Objectives </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Facility Planning <ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Supply </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population trends </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Labor Force </li></ul><ul><li>Location/Site/Zoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation & Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Bearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Expansion/New Construction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrading or expanding existing facility </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Facility Planning <ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly Changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be flexible and Adaptable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facility Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key to Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Team Critical </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Detailed Facility Layout <ul><li>Start with block flow diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings determined by like unit operations </li></ul><ul><li>Layout buildings around like unit operations </li></ul><ul><li>Work integrally with process design for final layout that is compliant with building codes, USDA, & OSHA </li></ul>
    12. 12. Poultry Processing Areas
    13. 13. Life Safety Design Considerations <ul><li>Model Building Code (2003 IBC) </li></ul><ul><li>USDA </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA </li></ul>
    14. 14. Model Building Codes <ul><li>International Building Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height and floor area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location on site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Details </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Occupancy <ul><li>Group B – Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group F1 - Factory and Industrial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Food Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group S – Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold Storage </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Fire Rated Construction Types <ul><li>Types I to V </li></ul><ul><li>Types I & II are least combustible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete and steel construction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types III,IV, & V are more combustible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes wood structures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Meat Processing Plants are Type I & II construction </li></ul><ul><li>Details – Chapter 7 of the International Building Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floors, partitions, exterior walls, barriers, etc </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Height and Floor Areas <ul><li>Function of occupancy type and construction type </li></ul><ul><li>Frontage area and sprinkler systems can increase allowable area </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited Area buildings can be built if certain height, sprinkler, and frontage requirements are met </li></ul>
    18. 18. Equipment Access Platforms <ul><li>Special case of mezzanine </li></ul><ul><li>No more than 2/3 the area of floors </li></ul><ul><li>Access or egress to or from shall not serve as egress for building system </li></ul>
    19. 19. Building Envelope <ul><li>No particular national energy conservation requirements for industrial buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good business practice dictates energy efficient building design for economical reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE ASHRAE Design Requirements for loads and design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Envelope used as separation between areas </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. OSHA <ul><li>Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations - OSHA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed Ladders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guardrails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment Access </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. USDA <ul><li>Title 9 of the Code of Federal Regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintained in a manner such that it is not a source of contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floors walls and ceilings easily cleaned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and Drains for cleaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lighting and Ventilation </li></ul>
    22. 22. NFPA <ul><li>NFPA 85 Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 13 Fire Sprinklers </li></ul>
    23. 23. Building Envelope <ul><ul><li>Must be designed in a manner to prevent condensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air Infiltration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condensation is a Serious Sanitation Issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air infiltration is most common contributor </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Sanitary Construction <ul><li>Coving or Curbing </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitary Structural Shapes </li></ul><ul><li>No Ledges </li></ul><ul><li>No Voids </li></ul><ul><li>Durable Cleanable Coatings for Floors and Walls </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Storage for Final Product </li></ul><ul><li>Openings should be cleanable </li></ul>
    25. 25. Room Finishes <ul><li>Floors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly roughened plain concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epoxy or Urethane floor finish after wear occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Walls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Durable, water & vapor tights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMP with SS or White Kynar finish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precast with hard smooth finish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ceilings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hung IMP ceilings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides separate utility access area </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Loadings <ul><li>ASCE 7-02 </li></ul><ul><li>Process Piping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooftop ammonia lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condenser Stands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Deflection and Load criteria </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Main Building Construction <ul><li>Steel Construction (Type II) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar Joists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMP Walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceiling or No Ceiling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precast Construction (Type I) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulated Precast Walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post and Beam Style Construction. </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Secondary Area Construction <ul><li>Offices, Maintenance and Welfare areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxed or no sanitation requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No IMP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CMU or Precast construction is common </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Docks <ul><li>Adjacent to Freezer & Cooler Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Source of Air Infiltration & Contamination </li></ul><ul><li>CMU or Precast Construction preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Should be strong enough to stand up to abuse from Trucks </li></ul>
    30. 30. Coolers and Freezers <ul><li>Insulation R Values per ASHRAE </li></ul><ul><li>IMP or Insulated Precast Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Freezers require under floor insulation and heat </li></ul><ul><li>Coolers don’t require under floor insulation but consideration should be given if conversion to freezer is possible. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Platforms, Misc Equipment and Piping Supports <ul><li>Platforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior Stainless Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior Galvanized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pipe Supports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Span based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condenser </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Load Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Galvanized Platforms </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Summary <ul><li>Brief overview of planning and life safety considerations for Meat Processing Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to paper for specific details and code sections </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent opportunities for Agricultural Engineers </li></ul>

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